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prcscntcS to 

^be Xibrar^ 

of tbe 

'inniversit^ of Toronto 

Professor Keys 








■Clje Centurg Co. 


V, 1^ 


1889, 1890, 1891, 1894, 1895, 1890, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 

1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 190(), 1909, 1910, 

By The Century Co. 

A II Rights Reserved, 


The publication of the Atlas, which is incorporated in the present edition, completed the plan of The Century 
Dictionary and Cyclopedia. As the Cyclopedia of Names grew out of the Dictionary and supplemented 
it on its encyclopedic side, so the Atlas grew out of the Cyclopedia, and serves as an extension of its 
geographical material. Each of these works deals with a different part of the great field of words, — 
common words and names,— while the three, in their unity, constitute a work of reference which prac- 
tically covers the whole of that field. The two new volumes now issued make the material of the Dic- 
tionary and Cyclopedia complete. The total number of words and names defined or otherwise described 
in the completed work is over 500,000. 

The special features of each of these several parts of the book are described in the Prefaces which will 
be found in the first, ninth, tenth, and eleventh volumes. It need only be said that the definitions of the 
common words of the language are for the most part stated encyclopedically, with a vast amount of 
technical, historical, and practical information in addition to a wealth of purely philological material ; that 
the same encyclopedic method is applied to proper names— names of persons, places, characters in fiction, 
books — in short, of everything to which a name is given ; and that in the Atlas geographical names, and 
much besides, are exhibited with a completeness and serviceableness seldom equaled. Of the Century Dic- 
tionary and Cyclopedia as a whole, therefore, it may be said that it is in its own field the most com- 
plete presentation of human knowledge — scientific, historical, and practical— that exists. 

Moreover, the method of distributing this encyclopedic material under a large number of headings, 
which has been followed throughout, makes each item of this great store of information far more acces- 
sible than in works in which a different system is adopted. 

The first edition of The Century Dictionary was completed in 1891, that of the Century Cyclopedia of 
Names in 1894, that of the Atlas in 1897, and that of the two new volumes in 1909. Each of the works 
published at the earlier dates has been subjected to repeated careful revisions, and the results of this scrutiny 
are comprised in this edition. 












Copyright, 1909, 1910, by The Century Co. 
All Rights Reserved. 


a., adj adjective. 

abbr abbreviation 

abU ablative. 

ace accusative. 

accora accommodated, accom- 

act. active. 

adv adverb. 

AF Anglo-French. 

tigrt agriculture. 

AL. Anglo- Latin. 

alg. algebra. 

Amer American. 

aiiat. anatomy. 

anc. ancient. 

antiq antiquity. 

aor aorlBt. 

appar apparently. 

At Arabic. 

arch. architecture^ 

archseol archaeology. 

arith.. arithmetic. 

art article. 

AS Anglo-Saxon. 

astroL astrology. 

astron. aatronoroy. 

attrib attributive. 

aug augmentative, 

Bav Bavarian. 

Beng. Bengali 

bioL biology. 

Bobem. Bohemian. 

bot botany. 

Bras. Brazilian. 

Bret.- Breton. 

bryol bryology. 

Bulg Bulgarian. 

carp. carpentry. 

Cat Catalan. 

Cath. Catholic. 

cans. cauaative. 

ceram. ceramics. 

cf. I* eoT\fer, compare 

ch. chnrch- 

ChaL Chaldee. 

chem chemical, chemistry. 

Chin Chinese. 

chron chronolog>'. 

colloq colloquial, colloquially. 

com. commerce, commer- 

comp. composition, com- 

compar. comparative. 

conch- conchology. 

conj conjunction. 

contr. • . . contracted, contrao- 


Com Cornish. 

craniol cranlology. 

cranium craniometry. 

crystal crystallography. 

D Dutch. 

Dan Danish. 

dat dative. 

def. definite, definition. 

derlT. derivative, derivation. 

dial dialect, dialectal. 

diff different 

<Um diminutive. 

distrlb dlstrlbatire. 

dram dramatic. 

dynam dynamics. 

E. East 

£. ^ng\iah(umaUymean' 

tn^modem English). 

eccl., eccles ecclesiastical. 

econ economy. 

e. g ; — L. exempli gratia, for 


Egypt Egyptian. 

E. Ind East Indian. 

elect electricity. 

embryo! embryology. 

Eng. English. 

engin engineering. 

entom entomology. 

Epis. Episcopal. 

equiv equivalent 

esp especially. 

Kth Ethiopic, 

ethnc^ ethnography. 

ethnol ethnology. 

etym etymology. 

Eur. European. 

eyclam exclamation. 

f., fem feminine. 

F. French {ttsuaUy mean- 
ing modern French). 

Flem Flemish. 

fort fortification. 

freq frequentative. 

Fries. Friesic, 

lut future. 

O. Gerraan(ugnallym£an~ 

ing Xew High Ger- 

Gael. Gaelia 

galv galvanism. 

gen genitive. 

g«og geography. 

geoL geology. 

geom geometry. 

Goth. Gothic (McesogothicX 

Gr. Greek. 

gram grammar. 

gun gunnery. 

Heb Hebrew. 

her. heraldry. 

herpet herpetology. 

Bind Hindustani. 

hist history. 

horol horology. 

hort horticultura 

Hung. Hungarian. 

hydrwil hydraulics. 

hydroB, hydrostatics. 

Icel Icelandic {usually 

meaning Old Ice- 
Ian die, o/Aerwue coA- 
ed Old Norse). 

Ichth ichthyology. 

1. e. , . L. u2 f «t, that Is. 

impers. impersonal. 

impf. imperfect 

impv imperative. 

improp Improperly. 

Ind Indian. 

ind indicative. 

Indo-Eur Indo-European. 

indef Indefinite. 

inf infinitive. 

Instr InstrumentaL 

Inter] Interjection. 

Intr.,intran8. ..intransitive. 

It. Irish. 

irr^. Irregular, irregularly. 

It Italian. 

Jap. Japanese. 

L. Latin {usually mean- 

ing classical Latin). 

Lett Lettish. 

LO Low German. 

iIchenoL llchenology. 

Ut literal, literally. 

lit literature. 

Lith Lithuanian. 

lithog lithography. 

llthol lithology. 

LL Late Latin. 

m., masc masculine. 

M Middle. 

mach machinery. 

mammal mammalogy. 

manuf manufacturing. 

math mathematics. 

MD Middle Dutch. 

ME Middle English (o(A#r- 

icise eaUed Old Eng- 

mech. mechanics, mechani- 

med medicine. 

mensur. mensuration. 

metal metallurgy. 

metaph metaphysics. 

meteor. meteorology. 

Mex Mexican. 

MGr. Middle Greek, medie- 
val Greek. 

MEG Middle High German. 

milit military'. 

mineral mineralogy. 

ML Middle Latin, medie- 
val Latin. 

MLG Middle Low German. 

mod modern. 

mycol. mycology. 

myth mythology. 

n noun. 

n., neut neuter. 

N. New. 

N North. 

N. Amer. North America. 

nat natural. 

nant nauticaL 

nav navigation. 

NGr. New Greek, modem 


NHG New High German 

{UJntaUy simply G., 

NL. New Latin, modem 


nom nominative. 

Norm Norman. 

north northern. 

Norw Norwegian. 

numis. numismatics. 

O Old. 

obs obsolete. 

obstet obstetrics. 

OBulg. Old Bulgarian {other- 
wise called Church 
Slavonic, Old Slavic, 
Old Slavonic). 

OCat Old Catalan. 

OD. Old Dutch. 

ODan. Old Danish. 

odont(^. odontography. 

odontol odontology. 

OF. Old French. 

OFlem Old Flemish. 

OGael Old Gaelic. 

OHG Old High German. 

Olr. Old Irish. 

Olt Old Italian. 

OL. Old Latin. 

OLG Old Low German. 

ONorth Old Northumbrian. 

OPruss. Old Prussian. 

orig original, originally. 

omith ornithology. 

OS Old Saxon, 

OSp Old Spanish. 

osteol osteology. 

OSw Old Swedish. 

OTeut Old Teutonic. 

p. a. participial adjective. 

paleon paleontology. 

part participle. 

pass passive. 

pathol pathology. 

perf perfect. 

Pers. Persian. 

pers jwrson. 

persp perspective. 

Peruv Peruvian. 

petrog petrography. 

Pg Portuguese. 

phar pharmacy. 

Phen Phenician. 

phllol philology. 

philos philosophy. 

phonog phonography. 

photog photography, 

phren phrenology. 

phys. physical. 

physiol physiology. 

pl.,plur plural. 

poet poetical. 

polit political. 

Pol Polish. 

poss possessive. 

pp past participle. 

ppr present participle. 

Pr. Proven(;al {tisually 

meaning Old Pro- 

pref. prefix. 

prep preposition. 

pres present. 

pret preterit. 

priv privative. 

prob probably, probable. 

pron pronoun. 

pron pronounced, pronun- 

prop properly. 

pros. prosody. 

Prot Protestant. 

prov provincial. 

psychol psychology. 

q. V L. quod (or pi. qua) 

vide, which see. 

refl reflexive. 

reg regular, regularly. 

repr representing. 

rhet rhetoric. 

Rom Roman. 

Rom. Romanic, Romance 


Rnss Russian. 

S South. 

S. Amer. South American. 

Bc L. scilicet, understand, 


Sc Scotch. 

Scand Scandinavian. 

Scrip Scripture. 

sculp sculpture. 

Serv Servian. 

sing. singular. 

Skt Sanskrit 

Slav. Slavic, Slavonic. 

8p. Spanish. 

subj subjunctive. 

superl superlative. 

surg surgery. 

aurv surveying. 

8w. Swedish. 

syn synonymy. 

Syr Syriac. 

technol technology. 

teleg telegraphy. 

teratol teratology. 

term termination. 

Teut Teutonic. 

theat theatrical. 

theol theology. 

therap therapeutics, 

toxicol toxicology. 

tr., trans. transitive. 

trigon trigonometry. 

Turk Turkish. 

typog t>T>ography. 

ult ultimate, ultimately 

V verb. 

var variant. 

vet veterinary. 

V, L intransitive verb. 

V. t. transitive verb. 

W. Welsh. 

Wall Walloon, 

Wallach Wallachian. 

W. Ind. West Indian. 

zoOgeog. zoogeography. 

EOdl zodlogy. 

zoOt zootomy. 


a as in fat, man, pang. 

a as in fate, mane, dale, 

a as in far, father, guard. 

& as in fall, talk, naught, 

a as iu ask, fast, ant. 

a as in fare, hair, bear. 

e as in met, pen, b'ess. 

e as in mete, meet, meat. 

6 as in her, fern, heard. 

i as in pin, it, biscuit. 

i as in pine, fight, file. 

o as in not, on, frog. 

6 as in note, poke, floor, 

o as in move, spoon, room. 

6 as in nor, song, off. 

as in tub, son, blood, 
as in mute, acute, few (also new, 
tube, duty : see Preface, pp. is, x). 
as in pull, book, could. 
German U, French u. 

oi as in oil, joint, boy. 

ou as in pound, proud, now. 

A single dot under a vowel in an unaccented 
syllable indicates its abbreviation and lighten- 
ing, without absolute loss of its distinctive qual- 
»*y. See Preface, p. xi. Thus : 

S, as in prelate, courage, captain. 

e as in ablegate, episcopal. 

o as in abrogate, eulogy, democrat. 

u as in singular, education. 

A double dot under a vowel in an unaccented 
syllable indicates that, even in the mouths of 
the best speakers, its sound is variable to, and 
in ordinary utterance actually becomes, the 
short «-sound (of but, pun, etc.). See Preface, 
p. xi. Thus: 

a as in errant, republican. 

e as in prudent, difference. 

j as in charity, density. 

o as in valor, actor, idiot. 

& as in Persia, peninsula. 

e as in the book. 

u as in nature, feature. 

A mark (w) under the consonants t, d, s, z in- 
dicates that they in like manner are variable to 
c)i,j, sh, zh. Thus: 

t as in nature, adventure. 

d as in arduous, education. 

g as in pressure. 

z as in seizure. 

th as in thin. 

TH as in then. 

ch as in German aeh, Scotch loch. 

n French nasalizing n, as in ton, en. 

ly (in French words) French liquid (mouilW) 1. 

' denotes a primary, " a secondary accent. (A 

secondary accent is not marked if at its regular 

interval of two syllables from the primary, or 

from another secondary.) 


< read /rom; i. e., derived from. 

> read whence; i. e., from which is derived. 

+ read and ; i. e., compounded with, or with suffix. 

= read cognate with; i. e., etymologically parallel with. 

•/ read root. 

* read theoretical or alleged; i. e., theoretically assumed, 

or asserted but unverified, form, 
t read obsolete. 

* references so marked are to the supplementary volumes. 


A superior figure placed after a title-word in- 
dicates that the word so marked is distinct 
etymologically from other words, following or 
preceding it, spelled in the same manner and 
marked with different numbers. Thus : 

bacfcl (bak), n. The posterior part, etc. 
back^ (bak), a. Lying or being behind, etc. 
back^ (bak), V. To furnish with a back, etc. 
back^ (bak), adv. Behind, etc. 
backet (bak), n. The earlier form of bat^. 
back3 (bak), n. A large flat-bottomed boat, 

Various abbreviations have been used in the 
credits to the quotations, as " No." for number, 
"st." for stanza, "p." for page, "1." for line, 
^ ioT paragraph, " fol." iov folio. The method 
used in indicating the subdivisions of books 
will be understood by reference to the follow- 
ing plan : 

Section only } 5. 

Chapter only xiv. 

Canto only xiv. 

Book only iii. 

Book and chapter 

Part and chapter 

Book and line 

Book and page ) iii. 10. 

Act and scene 

Chapter and verse 

No. and page 

Volume and page II. 34. 

Volume and chapter IV. iv. 

Part, book, and chapter II. iv. 12. 

Part, canto, and stanza II. iv. 12. 

Chapter and section or 1[ vii. ^ or IT 3. 

Volume, part, and section or IT . I. i. 5 or H 6. 
Book, chapter, and section or IT . . I. i. $ or H 6. 

Different grammatical phases of the same 
word are grouped under one head, and distin- 
guished by the Roman numerals I., II., III., 
etc. This applies to transitive and intransi- 
tive uses of the same verb, to adjectives used 
also as nouns, to nouns used also as adjectives, 
to adverbs used also as prepositions or con- 
junctions, etc. 

The capitalizing and italicizing of certain or 
all of the words in a synonym-list indicates 
that the words so distinguished are discrimi- 

nated in the text immediately following, or 
under the title referred to. 

The figures by which the synonym-lists are 
sometimes divided indicate the senses or defi- 
nitions with which they are connected. 

The title-words begin with a small (lower- 
ease) letter, or with a capital, according to 
usage. When usage differs, in this matter, 
with the different senses of a word, the abbre- 
viations Icaj).'] for "capital" and [l. c] for 
"lower-case" are used to indicate this varia- 

The difference observed in regard to the 
capitalizing of the second element in zoologi- 
cal and botanical terms is in accordance with 
the existing usage in the two sciences. Thus, 
in zoology, in a scientific name consisting of 
two words the second of which is derived from 
a proper name, only the first would be capi- 
talized. But a name of similar derivation in 
botany would have the second element also 

The names of zoological and botanical classes, 
orders, families, genera, etc., have been uni- 
formly italicized, in accordance with the pres- 
ent usage of scientific writers. 

3. As a symbol : (e) M de- 
notes (1) magnetic moment: 
usually printed in old Eng- 
lish ; (2) a gaseous pres- 
sure of the millionth of an 
atmosphere. {(1) /i denotes 
(1) magnetic permeability 
or the specific conductivity 
of any substance for lines of 
magnetic force ; (2) the coefficient of friction, 
(e) m stands for the intensity or strength of 
a magnetic pole. (/) m^ stands for square 
meter.^, /«•* for cubic meters. — 4. As an abbre- 
viation : (n) In titles, M. stands also for Mar- 
quis, Matthew (a book of the New Testament), 
a.oi Monsieur, (g) In a ship's log-book, )«. is 
an abbreviation (2) of moderate, (h) In a 
chart, m. stands for mud; in meteor., for mist; 
in Ophthalmol., for myopia, (i) In;)/iar., M. or 
m. stands for macerare (macerate), manipulus 
(a handful), mensura (measure or by measure), 
minimum (minim), misce (mi.x), mistura (mi.\- 
ture). (j) In astronomical tables, M. or m. 
(abbreviation of L. meridies) indicates merid- 
ian or meridional : 12 M. stands for noon. 
See .1..V. and P.M. (/.•) In astron., M. stands 
for Messier, referring to his catalogue of 103 
nebulsB and star-clusters: thus, 51M. or M.51 
is the famous whirlpool nebula. (0 M. stands 
for Monday; M. or hi., for niile or miles, mill 
or mills, month or months, moon, muster; m., 
for married, masculine, middle, minutes, morn- 
ing, and the Latin vtille (a thousand). ■ 
maal (mal), n. [Norw. Dan. nj«ai = Sw. mdl = 
Icel. mdl, speech, language.] In Norway, lan- 
guage : a term occurring in several compounds 
of 8,>me historic note, as maalstraar, ' the lan- 
guage struggle,' namely, the struggle to substi- 
tute the landsmaal, or 'popular speech,' as 
partly normalized by Aasen in his grammar 
(1&48) and dictionary (1858 and 1873), in place 
of the rigsmnal, or ' national speech,' the liter- 
ary Norwegian, nearly identical with Danish. 

The close of 1893 and the beKinning of 1900 were occu- 
pied by a discussion, which drowned all other interests, 
and in which every Norwegian author t^xik part, as t« the 
adoption of the landtfrnnal. or composite dialect of the 
peasants, as the national lanj^ua^e in place of the ri'jg.maal 
or I )ano- Norwegian. Political prejudice preatly embit- 
tered the controversy, but the pnjpfjsition that the larulg- 
maal, which dates from the exertions of Ivar Aasen (7. r.) 
in IH.V), should oust the lan^uu^'e in which all the classics 
of Norway are wnitten, was opfMjsed by ahnost every phi- 
lolof;ist and writer iu tlie country, particularly by Bj6mw)n 
and .s»jphU8 Bu(;t;e (bom IbXJ). On the other side, Ame 
GarborK's was almost the only name which carried any 
literary weight Eneye. Brit, XXXL 275. 

ma'am, n. At the British Court it is used, in- 
stead of ' madam,' in addressing the queen or a 
royal princess. 

ma'amselle (miim-zer), n. An Englished form 
of mademoiselle. 

maar (miir), n. [G. dial., a form of meer, sea : 
see mecel.] Ingeol.: («i A local German name 
originally applied to certain small crater-lakes 
in the recently extinct volcanic region of the 
Eifel, near Bonn, on the Rhine. The craters 
were believed to have resulted from e-xplosive 
outbreaks, without emissions of lava, (i) 
Technically, any crater which has been pro- 
duced by an explosion unaceompanioil by lava. 
.■tniirils and Mag. Nat. Hist., Feb., 1904, p. 133. 

maara-shell (mii'rii-shel), n. A large orna- 
iiuiital top-shell, Turbo margaritaceus, found 
in the South Pacific. 

maatje (miit'ye), n. [D., a small measure, a 
deciliter, dim. of maat, measure : see metc^, m.] 
The name given in Holland to the deciliter. 

mabi (mii-be'). "• [Carib.; cf. mabby, mobby, 
motiei-.'\ 1. A name in Porto Rico for a West 
Indian tree of the buckthorn family, Volubriua 
reclinatti, yielding a heavy, hard, strong, dark- 
brown wood and a medicinal bark. See naked- 
tcood. — 2. A drink prepared from the bark of 
the mabi and also from that of Colubrina Colu- 

hrina. It is commonly sold in the markets and 
peddled in the streets of Porto Rico, where it 
is used as a beverage and as a remedy forindi- 

mabolo (ma-bo'lo), V. [Bisaya mabolo.'] In 
the Philippine Islands, the kamagon, Vio.^- 
pyros discolor, which bears an edible fruit 
covered with down. Also called talang. See 

mac (raak), n. Short for macadam. [Colloq.] 

Until of lat« years little attention was paid U} "Mac' for 

it was considered in no way distinct from other kinds of 

street-dirt Mayhcie, London Labour, II. 197. 

Mac, Mace. Abbreviations of Maccabees. 

macabi (ma-kii'bi), n. The ladyfish. 

macadam, «. 2. The material used for a 
macadam pavement — Tar-macadam, the material 
used in a fonn of macadam roadway or pavement in which 
the broken stone for the upper courses is treated with 
coal-tar for the purpose of increasing the strength and 
durability of bond, preventing the fonnation of diist, and 
renderinp: the surface of the roadway impervious to 

macadamito (mak-ad'am-it), n. An alloy con- 
taining about 72 per cent, of aluminium, 24 
per cent, of zinc, and 4 per cent, of copper. 
It is said to possess a tensile strength of more 
than 44,000 pounds to the square inch. Min- 
eral Resources of V. S., 1902, p. 233. 

macadoub (mak'a-dcib), 11, [Etym. uncertain; 
probably S. A. Indian.] A name given by 
natives of British Guiana to a luminous larvi- 
form insect, probably the larviform female of 
a coleopterous insect of the tribe I'hengodini. 
Probably same as *railicay-beetle (which see). 
Mr. C. W. Anderson exhibited a specimen of a light- 
ffiviu}; larva brought by him from near the boundary of 
British Guiana with Brazil, exhibiting when living a ruby 
liglit in its head, and a double row of phosphorescent 
siMjts along the body, two on each segment. These lights 
were not intermittent but glowed continuously. This 
presumed coleopterous larva was called "viacadimh " by 
the natives, and is not uncommon in the region named. 
Attienaum, Nov. 30, 1907, p. 694. 

macana (mil-kii'nil), n. [Arawak of the 
Greater Antilles macana, a war-club; also in 
various idioms of the isthmus of Panama.] 

1. A war-club made of heavy wood, or some- 
times of stone, formerly used by the Indians 
in parts of the West Indies. Through the Span- 
iards the word was circulated in many part* of .Spanish 
America and l>ecame incorporated as a designation for 
Indian war-club in general in many Indian t4;)ngue8, 
alongside of original native terms. It is used chiefly by 
.Spanish authors, although the Indians occasionally use 
it also. 

2. A common name of Eigenmannia hum- 
boldli, a fish of the family Gymnotidx, found 
in rivers near Panama. 

macaroni, «. 5. A vulgar name in Jamaica 
for a Mexican quarter-dollar, or, afterward, 
for an English shilling. [Spelled maccaroni; 
also called macaroiii-pieee.^ 

macaronicism (mak-a-ron'i-sizm), n. {maca- 
ronic + -ism.] The literary style known as 
macaronic. See macaronic, a., 3. 

macaronism (mak-a-ro'nizm). 1. Imacaron-i 
+ -ism.] The style and manners of a maca- 
roni ; dandyism. See macaroni, 3. 

macasla (mii-kiis'lil), n. [Bisaya macasla.] A 
shrub whoso root affords a counterpoison, and 
whose fruit is poisonous to fish. A mixture 
containingthe poison is thrown into the water. 
The fish are stni)efied, rise to the surface, and 
are easily caught. 

macauco (niii-kii-o'ko), n. [W. Ind.] In 
Guiana and the British West Indies, the larva 
of a cerarnljycid beetle of the genus Prionus. 
This larva is, or was, eaten by both whites 
and blacks, after cleaning and roasting. 

Macaulayese (ina-kit-la-es'), n. The literary 
stvie of the historian and essayist, T. B. 

maccaluba (mak-a-lo'ba),n. [Sicilian name.] 
An eruptive vent whence gases (usually hydro- 
carbons), brines, mud, and, less often, boul- 
ders are blown out, building small cones 

which resemble normal volcanoes. Such 
vents have no apparent connection with true 
volcanoes but are due to the generation of gas 
in the depths. 

On the otlier hand, solfataras and jpits of boiling mud 

(inaccaltibas) are very common in the volcanic regions 

where tuff is the predominating ntck. The solfataras at 

Krisuvik and M^vatn [in Iceland] are very well known. 

Geori. J,mr. (R. G. S.), XIII. 513. 

M. Acct. An abbreviation of Master of Ac- 

macC'^ (mas), »j. [Origin obscure.] Swindling; 

a swindler; a swindling loan-office On mace, 

on tick. 

mace* (mas), v. t. and i. ; pret. and pp. maced, 
ppr. macing. [See *mace *, «.] To swindle. 

Maced, An abbreviation of Macedonian. 

macMoine (ma-sa-dwon'), n. [F., a medley, 
a mess, lit. Macedonia ; in allusion perhaps to 
the chronic confusion in modern Macedonia.] 
1. A mold of jelly containing a mixture of 
fruits ; also, a mixture of vegetables served as 
a garnish to meat or, with a sauce, as a vegeta- 
ble dish or as a salad. — 2. Hence, figuratively, 
any mixture of unrelated things. 

That stiange viacedoiue of mental and moral qualities — 
the late Count Ourowski — once remarked to James Rus- 
sell Lowell, with that easy superiority of knowledge about 
this country which is the monopoly of foreigners, that we 
have no singing birds. 

Sprinfffield Republican, June 23, 1902. 

macene (ma-sen'), «. Imac(e)^ + -ene.] A 
colorless liquid terpene, CiQHie, contained in 
oil of mace. It has an odor of thyme. 

macer^ (ma's^r), n. [mace* + -efl.] A swin- 

Maceration process. See *proccss. 

mach., macnin. Abbreviations (a) of ma- 
chinery: (b) oi machinist. 

machxracanthus (ma - ke - ra - kan ' thus), n. 
[NL., < Gr. /;d;i a(pa, knife, -f- aKavda, thorn.] 
The fin-spines of a genus of Devonian selach- 
ians or sharks of large size : the only parts of 
these fishes yet known. 

machaerodontine (ma-ke-ro-don'tin), a. \_Ma- 
chserodus {-odont-) -f -ine^.} Related to or 
having the characters of Macheerodtts. 

machairomancy (ma-ki'ro-man-si), n. [Gr. 
unxaipn, knife, sword, + /lavTcia, divination.] 
Divination by means of a sword. 

machan (ma-chan'), n. [Also )«!«!7«jn/ <Hind. 
machdn, an elevated platfonu.] In tiger-shoot- 
ing, a high platform or some device to protect 
and conceal the hunter while he is watching 
for the tiger. The machan is usually built in 
a tree and is concealed by the branches. 

We stayed three days, trying every means which might 

enable us to shoot a specimen (buffalo), but without luck. 

Sve tried »rtacA«?M at night ; we tried walking round the 

outskirts in bright moonlight, and nearly with success. 

Geug. Jour. (R. G. S.), XVIIL 262. 

machete, n. 2. (h) Same as cutlas-fi.'ik. — 3. 
A small guitar with four strings, common in 
Portugal. Its usual tuning is an octave above 
that of the ordinary guitar. 

machetero (raa-cha-ta'ro), ». [Sp., < machete, 
machete.] A person who carries and uses a 
machete or cutlass. 

machicot (miish-i-ko'), n. [OF. maehicot, a 
minor singer in a choir.] In music, a singer 
who is skilful in machicotage. 

machicotage (mash-i-kd-tazh'), «. [F., < 
machicot; see ^machicot.] In medieval music, 
the practice or effect of adding passing-notes 
and other embellishments to a plain-song mel- 

machilla (ma-ohil'ii), n. [East African.] A 
hammock or chair slung on a pole and carried 
by porters. 

machine, " — Beatlng-out machine. Same as 

^levding-muehitw. — Belt-machine. Sec *tiaviipa2>fr. 
intj-machiiie — Bomhardt's machine, a jjortable frio 
tional electrical machine ninch used in France for liring 
explosives in blasting.— Compound machine, a dyna- 
mo-electric machine which lias two lield-windings. a 
Bhunt-winding which receives a small branch current at 
full voltage, and a series-winding having only a few turns 
of large size, which receives the full ai'mature current, or a 


large part tliereof. before it passes to the external circuit 
—Convertible cutting -machine, an apimmtusused by 
cniLkfi-bakei-s. It luii l>echan^'e»l from a cuttin>.'-niHchine 
into a iMinning-niaehine, or vice versa.— Expanding ma- 
chine, a machine for expanding the end ut n jiipeor tube 
to secure it in a Hange or tube-sheet,— Fiber-cleaning 
maclilne. p^ee U'a/-itnber i/mcAujc— Gamett machine, 
a macliine siniihu- to a wHx>l-carding machine, witli two 
large eylindei's and a number of small t4>iHn.»llt'rs, but 
with stronger ca''ding-teeth, nsed for opening wool wast«, 
especially yum waste : named after the original builders, 
P. and c'. Ganiett. of Oleckheaton. England. See cut at 
•f/arHc/f.— Magneto-electric machine. See electric 
machine, under '?<<^-(<*. Matrix-rolling machine. 
See mnfrij. -Moving-picture machine. Ste -^picture. 
— Nall-maklng machine, a machine for making cut 
nails, by cutting them from a strip and foi-ging the heads ; 
also, a machine in which wire nails are formed from wire 
of the same diameter as the btnly of the nail. — Paper-CUt- 
tlng machine, a machine with a Ion;; and heavy blade 
of steel tliat 4uickly cuts many sheets of pajjer to the re- 
quired Uii-th or width.— Rounding-and-backlng ma- 
chine, in h'tokhiniliifj, sjime as ri>iiii(lin;i-}naehiiie {I'). — 
Saud-disk machine. see *stnHlpnfH'rin;/-miii-hitU'.~ 

Sash-sticking and -plowing machine, see -kiitickeri, 
4.— Screw-measuring macnlne, a miuhine having a 
microscope and mieronietcr fur measurinu' tlie diametei"s 
and pitch and angle of thread on a screw.— Serles-ma- 
Chlne, in elect., a dynamo-electric machine in which the 
field exciting-coils are connected in series to the annature, 
so that the whole or a large piirt of the annatnre cuiTcnt 
traverses the fleld-coils, but only a small part of the vol- 
tage generated by the machine (or supplied to it, in a 
motor) is consumed by the tleld-coils, which then consist 
of relatively few turns of lai-ge wire or copper bars. — 
Shunt-machine^ in elect., a dynamo-electric machine 
in which the Held exciting-coils are connected in shunt to 
the armature, and B>i receive only a small part of the total 
machine cun-ent, at full or nearly full machine voltage. 
The heUl-coils then contain verj- many turns of rela- 
tively small wire,— Sigsbee machine. Same as Sigsbee 
-ksounding-innckine.— strip-covering machine. See 
-kgtrip-machine. — Synchronous macnlne, in elect., an 
altemating-cuiTent macliine revolving in step with the 
alternations of the current traversing the machine. 
— Tln-plckllng machine, a machine for hoisting and 
lowering the metal plates into the acid bath in the pro- 
cess of i)ickling and washing.— Trulng-up machine, a 
machine for turning rollera to a unifonn diameter, as those 
on a drawing-frame in cotton- man ufactming. — Uni- 
versal machine, a nameapplied to certain types of mil- 
ling and emery grinding-machines that perfomi various 
operations within the siiliere of milling, gear-cutting, and 
grinding.— Wimshurst machine, a simple, self-excit- 
ing, highly eltlcient induction electrical machine. It con- 
sists of two well-varnished glass disks which are rotated 
in opposite directions about a fixed horizontal spindle. 



Wimshurst Machine. 

These disks carry, on their outer surfaces, narrow sections 
of tin-foil placed radially at equal angulai" distances apai-t. 
Tile electrical charge developed is collected by combs and 
condensed in Leyden jars which support the discharging- 
rods. Two bent conducting-rods, at an angle of 45° to the 
combs, are provided with fine wire bruslles, and twice 
during each revolution two diametrically opposite sections 
of tin-foil are put in connection with each other. — Wire- 
fonnlng machine, in gheet-metal work, a general name 
for power-automatic machines formeasuring, straighten- 
ing, cutting, and fonning wire into handles, ears, bails, and 
rings of the sizes and forms used in sheet-metal ware. — 
Zig-ZSg machine. See •koverseaming-machi-ne. 

machine-cut (ma-shen'kut), a. Cut or fin- 

,islied by machinery; speeifleally, of files, cut 
in a filp-eutting machine, instead of by hand. 

macMne-fltted (ma-shen'fit"ed), a. Finished 
or brought to an exact size in a machine-tool, 
instead of by hand. 

macMnely (ma-shen'li), adv. By or as if by 
a macliine ; correctly. [Eare.] 
To the legion of the lost ones, to the cohort of the damned. 

To my brethren in their sorrow overseas. 
Sings a gentleman of England, cleanly bred, machinely 
And a trooper of the Empress, if you please. 

I{. Kipling, Gentlemen-Kankers, in IJarrack-room 
[Ballads, p. 63. 

machine-screw (ma-shen'skro), H. A bolt or 
screw having a moderately fine machine or 
standard bolt-thread, a blunt end, and a fillis- 
ter, flat, or button head to be set home by a 
screw-driver rather than a, wrench: vseii for 
holding together parts of machines or other 

machine-thread (ma-shen'thred), n. Cotton 
tliread made especially for use on the sewing- 
mafhiiie ; sewing-machine thread. 

machinism (ma - shen ' izm), n. [machine + 


-ism.'] The methods of the 'machine' in party 
polities, in the United States. Kansas City 
Daily Star, April 9, 1903. 

machinization (ma-she-ni-za'shon), n. [;««- 
chiiii:e + -atioii.'] The process or the result 
of maehiniziug. 

machromin (ma-kro'min), n. lma{chirin) + 
Or. XP"/""} color, -(--i«"''.] A yellow substance, 
soluble in water, formed, together with phloro- 
glucin, when maclurin is reduced with zinc 
and sulphuric acid. When oxidized it turns 

machuelo (ma-cho-a'16), n. [Sp., a small he 
mule.] Same as thread-herring, 2. 

machuto (ma-cho'to), n. [Sp.] The common 

macies (ma'si-ez), «. [L. : see meager, emaci- 
ate.} Marasmus; emaciation. 

macilence (mas'i-lens), n. Same as maeilency. 

macilent, a, 2, Of literary products, thin ; 
dry; jejune. 

mackerel^, n. in Austi-alla, a fish. Scomber an- 
tarrficus, Castln., similar to the chub mackerel. Scomber 
JajHtnicxtti, Houttuyn ; in Xew Zealand, Scomber austra- 
I<if!icus, (_'uv. and Val. E. E. Morris, Austml Englisli. — 
Monterey Spanish mackerel, a scombroid fish, 
Sctmiberoworus convolnr, found on the ('alifornia coast. 

mackerel-bird (mak'e-rel-berd"), «. A local 
English name for young kittiwake gulls, 
Larus tridactylus, wliieh begin to fly about the 
time that the mackerel come on the coast. 

mackerel-breeze (mak'e-rel-brez), «. A fresh 
breeze which has good sailing power. Com- 
pare mackerel gale (which see, under gale'^). 

mackerel-pocket (mak'e-rel-pok"et), V. A 
bag of netting immersed in the water to hold 
mackerel and keep them alive. 

mackerel-spiller (mak'e-rel-spil"6r), n. Same 
as *mi(ckcrel-pocJcct. 

mackintoshite (mak'in-tosh-it), n. [Named 
after J. B. Mackintosh, New York, who died 
in 1891.] A silicate of uranium and thorium, 
occurring in black nodular masses and also, 
rarely, in square prisms: found with gado- 
linite in Llano County, Texas. It exhibits 
radioactivity in a marked degree. 

mackite (mak'it), n. [From a surname (?) + 
-ite'^.] A trade-name for a material said to con- 
sist essentially of a mixture of asbestos and 
plaster of Paris, intended for use in house- 
construction as a fire-proof substitute for wood 
in floors, partition walls, pipe-coverings, etc. 

Maclaorln expansion. Same as MaHanrin'g theorem 
(which see, under theorem). — Maclaurin's configura- 
tion. See -kconjiguratian. 

macleyine (mak-lil'in), n. Same as *protopine. 

Maclurea (mak-lo're-a), n. See Maclurites. 

maclurin (mak-lo'rin), n. \_Madura + «h2.] 
A pale yellow crystalline compound, (OH)-^- 
CoH2.CO.CeH3(OH)2 4- HgO; protocatechu- 
phloroglucinol. It occurs in yellow-wood, 
Morustinctoria {or Madura aurantiaca). When 
boiled with concentrated caustic potash or 
when heated with dilute sulphuric acid to 120° 
C, it yields phloroglucinol and protocateehuic 
acid. It loses its water of crystallization at 
130° C. and melts at 200° 0. See *7no)-intannic 

Macquaria (ma-kwa'ri-a), n. [NL., from 
the river Macquarie.'] A genus of serranoid 
fishes found in rivers of southeastern Aus- 

macro-sesthesia (mak"ro-es-the'si-a), n. [NL., 
< Grv. fiaapoQ, long, large, + aloBr/aic, perception.] 
A form of parsesthesia in which objects give 
the sensation, when touched, of being larger 
than they really are. 

macro-axis (raak'ro-ak"sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
/iaKpoc, long, -H L. axis, axis.] In crystal., the 
macrodiagonal axis. 

Macrobdella (raak-rob-del'a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fiuKpoc, large, -t- 86e/.?.a, leech.] A genus of 
large leeches belonging to the family Jchthyoi- 
dellidsB. M. decora is sometimes nsed for 

macrobian)^ (ma-kro'bi-an), a. and n. [ Gr. 
/iaKpujhoc, long-lived, < fiaKpd^, long, -1- /3/of, 
life.] I, a. Long-lived. 

II. n. One who has a long life ; a macro- 

Macrobian^ (ma-kro'bi-an), a. [LL. Macro- 
bins, < Gr. MaKpdiiioc, a personal name, lit. 
' long-lived.'] Pertaining to Aurelius Theodo- 
sius Macrobius, a writer who lived probably in 
the first part of the fifth century after Christ. 
— Macroblan sketches, special map-illuatrations fur- 
nished by ;^iacrobius in connection with various passages 


in his commentary on C'icero's " Dream of .Scipio,*' which 
discuss especially the question of the terrestrial zones, 
to which most of the sketches refer. 

Macrobius shares with Sallust the peculiarity of special 
map-iilusti-ation, arising out of specific passages in tlie 
works of each; but whereas the Sallust maps stand com- 
paratively apart, these Macrobian sketches, as we have 
seen, are clearly members of A large and inleresting 
family. Geog. Jour. (R. G. S.), XV. 383. 

macrobiostigmatic (mak"ro-bi-o-stig-mat 'ik), 
a. [Gr. fiaKpo.iin^, long-lived, + ariyfia, point 
(stigma): see stigmatic] In 6o<., having the 
stigma long-lived: said of a proterogynous 
flower in which the stigma continues recep- 
tive to pollen until the anthers mature. 

macrobiostigmatous (mak -ro - bi - o - stlg ' ma- 
tus), a. Same as *macrobiostigmaiic. 

macrobrachia (mak-ro-bra'ki-a), n. [NL., < 
Gr. uanpof, long, -t- jipaxiuv (L. hrachium), 
arm.] A condition in which the arms are ab- 
normally long or large. 

macrobranchiate(mak-ro-brang'ki-at), a. [Gr. 
liaKpo^, large. + jipdyxia, gills, -I- -atel.] Hav- 
ing large gills; also, of or pertaining to the 
large gill: as, the macrolirauchiat^ segment, 
which contains the greater gill, in the body of 
Nautilus. Opposed to *microbranchiate. 

In the body of the animal [Xautilus] two metanieres 
are recognized — tlie niicrobranclliate segment, contain- 
ing tile smaller gill, the outer osphradium, pericardial 
gland, kidney, and kidney oi>ening, with the genera- 
tive opening on the right side and the opening of the 
pear-shaped body on tlie left ; and the macrobranchiate 
segment, containing the greater gill and the inner os- 
phradium, pericardial gland, kidney, and renal opening. 
Annals and Mag. Xat. Hist., Jan., 1903, p. 135. 

macrocentrosome (mak-ro-sen'tro-s6m), n. 
[Gr. panpd^, long, -1- E. ceiitrosome.~\ In cijtol., 
thecentrosomeof Boveri, that is, acentrosome 
containing a central granule : prob.ably the 
equivalent of the ^entosphcre (which see). 
Ziegler, 1898. 

macrocephalia (mak"ro-se-fa'li-»), n. [NL.] 
Same as *macrocephaly. 

macrocephalism (mak-ro-sef'a-lizm), n. [rnac- 
roeephal(ous) + -ism.] Same as *macroce- 

macrocephalus (mak-ro-sef 'a-lus), n.; pi. 
macrocephali (-li). [NL., < Gr. pahponiifa/o^, 
long-headed : see macrocephalous.] One who 
has an abnormally large head. 

macrocephaly (mak-ro-sef'a-li), n. [NL. 
macrocephaiia, < Gr. paKpoKi<j>a},o(, long-headed. 
See macrocephaJous.] The condition of having 
an abnormally, or unusually, large head ; 

The evolution of man from microcephaly to macro- 
cephaly has been associated with the passages from niac- 
rodontic to a microdontic condition. 

Science, Oct 30, 1903, p. .SM. 

macrochseta (mak-ro-ke'ta), «.; pi. macrn- 
clicCtie (-te). [NL., < Gr. paupdc, long. + x"''''i- 
mane (bristle).] One of certain large bristles 
on the body of dipterous insects, used in classi- 
fication. See *cheetotaxy. 

macrochemistiy (mak-ro-kem'is-tri), n. [Gr. 
puKpur, long, large, + E. chemistry.] The 
chemistry of substances as observed in quan- 
tities easily perceptible by the unassisted eye : 
opposed to microchemistry, which deals with 
the chemical behavior of substances as seen 
under the microscope. 

macrochilia (mak-ro-ki'li-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
paKp6(;, long, large, + ;i;fi/'.of, lip.] Abnormal 
thickness of the lips. 

macrochilia (mak-ro-ki'ri-a), ». [NL., < Gr. 
paicpoc. long, large, + x^'Pj liand.] Abnormal 
size of the hands. 

macrocnemia (mak-rok-ne'mi-a), «. [NL., < 
Gr. panpd^, long, large, -I- Ki'vprj, tibia.] The 
condition in which the legs, especially below 
the knee, are of abnormal length or size. 

macrocnemic (mak-rok-ne'mik), a. [niac- 
rocncm(iu) + -ic] Same as '^dolichoctieniic. 

macrocosmology (mak'ro-koz-mol'o-Ji), ji. 
^macrocosm + -ology.] A description or an 
account of the macrocosm. 

macrocranial (mak-ro-kra'ni-al), «. [Gr. 
paKpd^, long, -t- Kpaviov, skull, -f- -o/l.] In 
anthrop., characterized by or exhibiting a 
skull of more than middle length. 

Dolichocephaly and chamaecephaly in both races are 
associated with macrocranial characters. 

Biometriktt, Aug., 1902, p. 4«1 

macrocytase (mak-ro-si'tas), n. [Gr. paKp6<;. 
long, large, + E.] A cytase (comple- 
ment) in the sense of Metchnikofif, derived 
from the large lymphocj'tes of the lymph- 
nodes, etc. 

macrocyte 757 macroseismograph 

macrocyte (mak'ro-sit), h. [Gr. /'atpiic, long, macro-iUuminator (mak'r6-i-lu'mi-na-tor),w. macrophyte (mak'ro-fit), M. [Gt. /jOKpdf, Ions 
large, +(.i70f, a hollow (a cell).] A red blood- [Gr. /laKfioc, \oiig,\a,vge, + it. illuminator.'i In a + i/nird;-, plant.] A plant visible to the un- 
corpuscle of abnormally large size. mierosoope, a single achromatic combination assisted eye : contrasted with mjorqp/ij^te. See 

In Becoudary aii!enii.<)B . . . niicrocjtes . . . disappear of IJ-ineh clear aperture and 2-inch focus, quotation under *dyspUoUc. 

as convalescence sets in, and give place to macrocyteK. This lens is mounted to tit into the substage, close to the marronhvkin Cmnlt-ro fit'iki n Tmnm-mil,t,ic 

Buck, Med. Handbook, 1. 2M. object, so as to focus the image of the source of light on "Jf ''f "i»"J' "l; vmaK ro m IKJ, a imnc) opiiyte 

marrorvthemiarmak"r6-si-the'mi-ii> n TGr the objective. Objects up to fully i inch in diameter may + ""^-J Ha%'ing the character of a macrophyte ; 

macrocytnemiatmaK ro-siine mi-a;, »i. nxr. be thus Uluminated with absolute uniformity. ItisvaJu- pertaining to macrophytes. 

,urt-.,K)(;, long, large, -I- Kirof, a Hollow (a cell), able for photography with the holostigmat and planar macropia (mak-r6'pi-a),n. INL < Gr uaKpdc 

+ a,Mah\ood.] The occurrence of large red types of lenses. Jour.Roy. }licro8.Soc.,Fe\,. 1903, p. 91. long, large, + <JV,(<;iff-y, eye.] Sameas »te«aro»^ 

corpuscles m the blood. macrolecitlial (mak-ro-les'i-thal), a. [Gr. sia. " j ■• j r 

macrocytosis (mak'ro-si-to'sis), »i. [NL., < ^a/.p(if, long, large, -t- /imflof, yolk'of an egg.] macropine (mak' ro-pin), a. [Macropns + 

Gr. //avwf, long, large, + ^-;Toc, a hollow (a Containing a largo amount of food-yolk : said -)/,(i.] Pertaining to or having the characters 

cell), -I- -osis.] Same as * macrocythemia ; of certain eggs, like those of birds, reptiles, of the kangaroos Macropodidse. 

also, the process of formation of macrocytes : sharks, many insects, crustaceans, etc.: op- macroplasia (mak-ro-pla'si-a) n. [NL. < 

a tendency to over-size of the red blood-cor- posed to *microlrcithal or *aleeithal. Gr. fiaKpo^, long, large, -I- TrAaai^ a forming.] 

puscles. macrolepidopterous (mak"ro-lep-i-dop'te- Overgrowth of apart of the body, or of any 

macrodactylia (roak"ro-dak-tiri-a), H. [NL., rus), «. Of or pertaining to the Ifacroifep'i- special tissue. 

< Gr. imnpodiKTivo^, long-fingered: see macro- doptcrii. macropodal, «. 2. Iu6o^.,sameas)«ocroporfoKS. 

diictyl.'\ Abnormal length or thickness of the macrolophic(mak-ro-lof'ik), o. [Gr. //«(cp<5f, Macropodia, ". 2. [/. c] The condition of 

fingers or toes. long, large, + /d^oc, crest, -I- -«c.] In era- having abnormally large feet. 

macrodactylism (mak-ro-dak'ti-lizm), n. nioiii., having a high incisor crest in the macroprosopia (mak"ro-pro-s6'pi-a), ji. [NL., 

[maerodactyl + -ism.'] Same as *macrodac- anterior nasal aperture and a sharp alveolar < Gr. iianpuQ, long, large, -t- 7rpdtru7roi>, face.] 

tylia. line. Harrison Allen, in Jour. Acad. Nat. Sei. The condition of having a disproportionately 

Macrodon(mak'r6-don), «. [NL., <Gr./iaKp<5r, Fliila. , ti. S., X. il9. large face, 

long, -I- ui^oic (wWr-), tooth.] A genus of macromania (mak'r6-ma"ni-a), m. [NL.,<Gr. macroprosopous (mak" ro - pro - so ' pus), a. 

fishes belonging to the family Krytlirimdse, iiaKpo^. long, large, -(-//aiia, madness.] 1. Same Characterized by macroprosopia. 

found in fresh waters of South America. as megalomania.— 2. The persistent delusion macropsia (mak-rop'si-ii), «. [NL., < Gr. 

macrodontic (mak-ro-don'tik), a. {_macrodont that surrounding objects, including one's own """P^f' l*"'?' '^rge, + di/"f, view.] A state in 

+ -(>.] Same as * incgadont, 2. bodv, are larger than they really are. which a visual defect makes objects appear to 

macroergate (mak-ro-er'gat), n. [Gr. iiaKpdQ, macromastia (mak-ro-mas'ti-a), «. [NL.,< Gr. ^^ of too great size. Also called macropia and 
long, large, -I- f/j;(i7TC, worker.] A very large /'O'-P'if, long, large, -I- //nordf, breast.] Abnormal "'^''"''f*''' . 

ergatoid ant {See ■''ergatoid.) wheeler has size of the breasts or nipples. MacTOptsrygldaB (mak-rop-te-rij i-de), n. jj/. 

shown thatthe enormous size of"Bome of the macroergates niacromazia(mak-r6-ma'zi-a), M [NL < Gr i^i^-, < JUacroptfryx (-yg-) + -idle.'] A family 

of /'Addoie rem miitnfa is a swollen condition caused by .,„..„j^ ]„,,„ ia,.„o'4. ,,/,,-a: lirooot 1 Soma of birds containing the tree-swifts of south- 

the presence in the body of a parasitic worn, of the genus ''^IXl'JZnastia eastern Asia. They have the vomer narrow ; 

1™"' ... J ..u u V _ ^■ 't - -/,• ..s r»TT ,^ palatinesexteriorlyunnotched; posterior mar- 

se?^^\ZnrXr'sSciriKutZr coSd"h'rtht^ macromelia (mak-ro-me'h-a), ,, [NL., < Gr gi„ of sternum concave, with two perforations; 

?S"chaSLtery the Xft ants is not 5."e tS the eVoSs ''."'>''<'?. long, large, +t>u<K htnb.] Abnormal and the tarsus shorter than the first digit, 

of the attendant workers alone, but also to a certain **'>-■« of one or more of the limbs. MacropteryX (mak-rop'te-riks), n. [NL., < Gr. 

amount of mittativen, the I^».macromere«. Inembryol.: (6) One of the ,„„pdf,*^ lon'g, + .npi^,\-ing.] A genus of 

™<„.^«flnTa rma^',A.flnra^ „ rp- LnAr l^rgc yolk-ladcu cclls, foiiud about One pole of birds containing the tree-swifts of south- 

Tr?„ -^ VT ^T?/r SI" k» L"v+i?f '^ '^^' *° ^»^ '" '=?"' ?^ unequal segmentation, such eastern Asia and the larger adjoining islands. 

T\ , :^ ^^. ; "* ."''""■'' '° ^^^ *"*^«^' ^^■'''"'■' eo^t'-asted They are distinguished from ither swifts by 

The Italian botanists. Messieurs Levier and .Sommier, with *micromere. manv anatomical npciiliarities nnd nre nlscprt 

have given a vivid account of what they call the .n«*ro- .^ , , , -s ,-^ , ^""7 anatom'ca' pecunarities ana are piacea 

jtnra of the Central Caucasus— those wjldllower beds, in macromente (mak-rom'e-nt). n. [Gr. fioKpdc, m a separate family, the Macropterygtdae. 

which a man anil a horse may literally be lost to sight, long, -f- //(p"f, a part, +" -ite-.} In petroij., a macrOrMnia (mak-ro-rin'i-a), «. [NL < Gr 

the pr(,duct of sudden heat on a rich and s<xlden soil com- ^ock whose component crvstals are large /ia/cpdf, long, large, -^' pic (mi-), nose.] The con- 

p<»e<l of the vegetaljle nu>ld of ages. Has any competent „i. * u u n '• i j a 'j.j.- - ^* . » ' ry\h"-^;^^yov.j luvt^uu 

hand celebrated the mikr.>flora of the highest ridges, enough to be seen by the unaided eye. Same dition of having a disproportionately large 

those tiny, vivid forget-me-nots and gentians and ranun- as *phanerite. Vogelsang. nose. 

S?'>n,t'%'lat""^'K;n;Cl?S;mr;l!:"^nJ'enrel maCTOmerozoite (mak"ro-mer-o-zo'it)._«. [Gr. macrosceles (mak-ros'e-les), «. [NL., < Gr. 

thehighestrocksofihel!a.«"danoand the Lombard Alps? /^awof, large, -H //fpoc, part, -I- c.voi', animal, -(- imnpooKiAriQ, long-legged: see *macroscclia.'\ 

Smiiktiinian Rep., iDoi, p. 351. -/7<?2.] In sporozoans, a macrosporozoite : One who is long-legged. 

macrogamete (mak-ro-gam'et), n. [Gr. panpd^, contrasted with *micromero:oite. macroscelia (mak-ro-se'li-ii), n. [NL., < Gr. 

long, +- £. gamete.] A female germ- cell or macromesentery (mak-ro-mez'en-ter-i), n. paipocwf/'w, long-legged, < //oKpdf, long, large, 

ovutn. [Gr. //oA/xir, large, + E. mcsew/cry.] In antho- + (Jtf/'Of, leg.] .Same as *j««croc«c»«m. 

Coccidium differs further from Monocystis in that zoans, a large complete mesentery bearing macroscelic (mak-ro-se'lik), a. Pertaining to 

the mnjugating gametes are sexually diiferentiated. the gonads and filaments: Contrasted with *micro- or characterized by macroscelia. 

small, active one, i*T microgamete, functions a.** the male . -^ 

cell, and the larger, (luiescent one, or inacnxjanule, as mesentery. What is more, in a race like the French, there are two 

the female or egg cell, while in the gregarine, on tlie The first twelve mesenteries are disposed in couples, <l|stinct types, each having the same measurement, but 

other hand, the conjugating gametes are of equal size. and do not differ frtmi those of Actinia except in size. '"^ °"^ '^^'""' '* long-legged (macrogcelic, in the tei-m of 

Pop. .«d. Mo., June, 1901, p. 192, The mesenterial pairs, I. II. and III, are attached to the '"" anthropologists), the other short-legged (microscelic). 

marrmramfitniTrkA Cmnk . ro- cram'p.tri mt^ « stomodicum, and are called viacromegenteries . . ., but Simlhsaman Itcp., 1901, p. 628. 

"^5"°!*^" h.^lar^:^'E.|r,.foS" -' n Jn^se'nt:",!" "^^ """^'' '^'^i^^c'^r^^'^ macrOSCOpe (mak'ro-skop) n . [Gr.. ,a.p6,, 

sporozoans the mother-cell of a macrogamete "jr„r,l„„,,x„ , ^„ /""■."^^ «"'; -'^^^- ^5«- long, large, -f-mom^v, view.] An imaginary in- 

or a female element : opposed to *microgameto. mMromicrometer (mak"ro-mi-krom e-t6r), n. strument, antithetic to the microscope, which 

(.,,,,, ^^ •' [l^r. /mxpoc, loT.g, -I- M(AyV/r, small, -f- phpnv, should bring vast regions of the universe 

TWooi-«,Tl«<,o4«w™„v»,« „i„ .I'^n « „; rwT measure.] Dolland's micrometer, with wires within the range of vision. See the extract, 

"*Grf.°pd^hmg + Vfl^;« ^^^f+^M-\ °°' °"'^°"^'"^ ^y '''' ''"^'""'- ^Obsolete.] we may imagine a ^.croscope. which should shrink 

x ,.1. ^.u«po, i„u)„ -T /^.woou, lougue, -r ini.j jr.arTOVhaxe (mak'ro-fai), »l. [Gr.uoitpdc lone, experience as the microscope expands it, thus disclosing 

A group of hawk-moths or Sphmguiir, all ot ]ar?e +^,, ;™ e„t ^ A verv larirnha^ocvte '<> ™ "'"■■«' *"<• "'"'" "< "'""""sity »t once. 

which have a remarkably long proboscis. They ''"^^^' T v''"'' eat-J A very large pnagocvte C. .1. Sfro»y,Why the Mind has a Body, p. 230. 

are caile<i the /<«»..«,»„-'">(/ A««;A-mott«. '''' ^^"'^^P'^e >im<Bhou\ eeUthat devours other ^ (mak'ro-sizm), «. [Gr paKpdc 

_. ii.-_/ 1 / I.I.- > r cells. Macrophages develop from small lym- ,^'"°,°^ ^iiian. 10 oi^my, «. lvji . /luspoj , 

inacrognathl8m(ma-krogna-thizm),n. Imac- phocytes and are found in the lymphoid tis- lo»K, large, + aaap6<:, an earthquake.] A 

rognatli(ic) +] The character or state gues of the alimentarv canal great earthquake ; a heavy or intense earth- 

of being macrognathic. ,_'.',... ._ quake. 

inacrographic'(mak-r6-graf'ik), o. [macro- macropnagOCyte (mak-rp-fag o-sit), n. [Gr. Prof. Milne pointed out the distinction which exists be- 

<irai,i((in + -ic.l Relating to or characterized '""'£'*«■' '""«. large, f i. pnagoeyte.i same tween macroseieiM or large earthquakes, and micro- 

i>^i,-,, r- ^„„-=„ 1,. „,i...J2*:„~ SlS *mucrovh<iqe. seisms, or small earthquakes. The former he described as 

by large or coarse handwriting. ™, „,„„!, J„„„ ^„„v ,„f'A ,.„.^ « rp, world-shaking disturbances, while as regarded the latter, 

macrograpliy (mak-rog'ra-fi), n. \Gt. uaKi>6c, macropnonous (.raaK-roi o-nus;, a. ^ur. therewereaboutthirty thousand such disturbances every 

long, large, + -ypn6ia, <">pate.', write.] The /'"y"?"' "C. < . /'""/^f- large, -t- <^vi, sound, year, each of which disturbs frmn ten up to several hun- 

naftr^f TTorr larcrp nWo^otoiifT. wVitin^ i«™o voicc] Having a loud. Stentorian voice. dreds of square miles of the ei^h s surface. 

twe ot ver> large cnaracters in writing, some- -" *' ,,,-,- ^ , ,.< Set. ^mer. Sup., May 2, 1903, p. 22865. 

times carried to such an extreme by the insane macrophotography (mak 'ro-pho-tog ra-h), n. m,„ro„eismic fmak-ro-sis'miki a t macro 

that a word of three or four letters will run [Gr ,/aw, long, -t- E. photography.] The '^S^f^TTl Qf t he natTre of a ^ 

across the entire page. production of an enlarged negative from a s*^'*'" ^ /"-J yt t lie nature ot a mac roseism, 

macroevneTmak'r^1in> n FGr uaKo6c lon^ negative by means of th? cr.meVa. Woodbury, '^^''^^ *" "^^ Vf-^'^^e earthquake, or to one of 

macrogyne (maK ro-jin), n. [tjr. /raxpOf, long, p, ° t^.A pi „t_„ _ 07^ ' great area or of long continuance, 
largo, ■+- ;,.,,^. female.] A female, or queen, J^ntyc. inct. j-notog., p. -<*. In the earthquakes with distint origins, the periods of 
unt of conspicuously larger stature than the macropnysical (mak-ro-liz i-kal), a. [Gr. the preliminaiy tremore do not depend upon their dura- 
normal female form of the species. Wheeler, pcKpoc, long, large, -t- E. J>hysical.] Of or per- tion, the duration of i)reliminaiy tremors being propor- 
1907. taining to the phvsics of matter in the mass : tional to the distance such earthquake nuition niay have 

_ ^14 .' * , . „, „. ■ V ,„.„ . ,, travelled. This is probably true for other phases of 

macrohemozoite, macrohaemozoite (mak'ro- opposed to mtcrophy.ncal, which relates to the motion, and it has also been shown to exist for macro- 

hetn-o-z6'it), /(. [(ir. /luKpor. large, -t- alua, ultimate structure of matter. P. Drude,T:be- wmntc disturbances. jVafwrc, July 9, 1903, p. 238. 

blood, -I- Cv"i'i animal, + -i7X'2.] The large ory of Optics, p. vii. macroseismograph (mak-ro-sis'mo-griif), n. 

form of schizont in the development of the macrophysiCS (mak-ro-fiz'iks), «. Thephy.sics [Gr. //a/tpeif, long, large, + m7(T/;<(f, earthquake, 

hemogregarine />r<7)«nirfi«TOSfr/)e»(iM»i, which of the relations of large masses, or of bodies as + jpa^e/x, write.] A seismograph adapted 

infests various snakes. Compare *microhem- a whole, the problems of ultimate structure for recording large movements of the earth, 

ozoite. Lutz. being ignored. or maeroseisms. 


macrosepalous (mak-ro-sep'a-lus), a. [6r. 
fiaKpo^, long, large, + NL. sepahim, sepal, + 
-OH<.] In /(«(., having long or large sepals. 

macrosis(inak-r6'sis), H. [NL., < Gr. //<iKp<j<T/f, 
leugtliening, enlarging, */iaKpoii', lengthen, 
enlarge, < uaKpo^, long, large.] In pathol., in- 
crease in size. 

macrosmatic (niak-ro8-mat'ik), a. [Gr. /laKpo^, 
long, large, + oa/j^, smell, + -atic".'] Having the 
organs ot smell, especially the ethraoturbinals, 
well developed : contrasted with *micros- 
tmitie. According to Turner, the application 
of this and related terms depends largely upon 
the number of ethmoturbinals, five being char- 
acteristic of most osmatic animals, anosmatic 
animals having tour or less, and macrosmatic 
animals from six to eight. 

Echidna, on the other hanii, is, to nse Turner's nomen- 
clature, " macronHiatie," 

Proc. Xool. Soc. London^ ISIM, p. 9. 

macrosmatisni (mak-ros'ma-tizm), n. Imac- 
rosm(it(ir) -f -i*»i.] A characteristic condition 
in mammals which consists in their having the 
organs of smell well developed. Trans. Lin- 
nean Site. London, Zool., Jan., 1899, p. 298. 

macrosomatia (mak"ro-sp-ma'shia), H. [NL . , 
< Gr. naKpoi;, long, large, -I- c(JfJa{T-), body.] 
Great size of the body ; gigantism. 

macrosomatous (mak-ro-s6'ma-tus), a. [Gr. 
uaKpoQ, long, large, -I- auiia(T-), body, + -OJts.] 
In nnnt., having a largo body. 

macrosome (mak'ro-s6m), n. [Gr. /iaKp6g,\ong, 
large, + auiia, body.] In cytol., one of the 
larger granules scattered among the smaller 
ones (microsomes) in certain cell-nuclei. 
Some cytologists resnxrd the niacrosonies as composed of 
chromatin, the microsomes of achromatic substance. Ac- 
cording to othere, tile macrosomes are true nucleoli, 
whereas the microsomes are true chromatin granules. 

macrosomia (.mak-r6-s6'mi-a), fl. [NL.: see 
*>Hncrot.-»H(e.] Abnormal size of the body: 

macrosporic (mak-ro-spo'iik), a. [mncrospore 
+ -!>.] Relating to or of the nature of a 

macrosporozoite (mak*ro-sp6-ro-z6'it), n. 
[Gr. paKp6(, large, -f E. sj>oio::oitc.'] In 
Sporozoa, a large endogenous sporozoite; a 
macromerozoite. Compare *microsporozoi1e. 

The discovei-y by Schaudinn and Siedlecki of a true 
fertilization in a cei"tain number of Sporozoa, for which 
the present writer's announcement in 1896 of the sexual 
diniorphisui of macrosporuzuitrs and microsporozoites 
prepared the way. Ennjc. Brit., XXXII. 814. 

Masrostoma, «. 2. sing. A genus of deep-sea 
fishes of the family A/yc%)A»r/a'. — 3. shuj. The 
typical genus of the family Macrostomulse. 
M. hi/strix is found in stagnant water. Van 

Macrostomatidae (mak''ro-sto-mat'i-de), n. 
pi. [NL] Same as *Macrostomi(1se, 2. 

macrostomatOUS (mak-ro-stom'a-tus), a. [Gr. 
liaKpoi;, long, large, + aru/ia (r-), mouth,-f- -o««.] 
Having a, mouth of unusually large size. 

macrostomia (mak-ro-sto'mi-ii), n. [NL.] The 
state of having an alinormally large mouth. 

Macrostomidse, n. pi. 2. A family of rhab- 
doeoelous turbellarians in which the female 
gonad is an ovary and the female pore is in 
front of the male pore. It contains the genera 
Macrostoma, Omahstoma, and Mecynostom: . 
Also called Macrostomatklse. 

macrostomoid (raak-ros'to-moid), a. Resemb- 
ling the Maeriistomidie ; having a large mouth 
or apprture, as a shell. 

maCTOStomons ( mak-ros'to-mus), a. Same 
as * niacrostomatnn.i. 

maCTOStomilS (mak-ros'to-mus), n.; pi. inac- 
rostomi (-mi). [NL.] One who has a very 
large mouth. 

macrostructural (mak-ro-struk'tu-ral), a. 
[Gr. iiuKpic, large, -I- E. structure + -a/l.] Of 
or pertaining to gross, as distinguished from 
microscopic, structure — Macrostructural meta- 
morphism. See irmetamorph'tnn. 

macrostylous (mak-ro-sti'lus), a. Imacrostyle 
+ -r>«.s'.] Same as macrosUjle. 

macrotia (mak-ro'ti-a), «. [NL., < Gr. naxpdq, 
long, large, -I- oi'c (<Jr-), ear.] Abnormal size 
of the ears. 

macrotrachelous (maV'ro-tra-ke'lus), a. [Gr. 
jiaKpir, long, -I- Tpaxn'fM^, neck. + -o«.?.] Hav- 
ing the preintestinal longer than the postanal 
part of the body, as certain rotifers. 

maCTOtypal (mak'ro-ti-pal), a. [mncrotype + 
-aU.] Relating or pertaining to a macrotype: 
as, the macrotypal arrangement of the mesen- 
teries in anthozoans. 

macrotype (mak'ro-tlp), n. 



plete (microtype) 
sixth protocnemic 
pair and the en- 
larged or diminu- 
tive alar septa. 
Annah and Mag. 
Nat. Uist.^ May, 
1902, p. 393. 

Same as Ma- 

[6r. naKpd^, large, 
+ rinoi; type.] 
A modification 
of the usual ar- 
rangement of 
the mesente- 
ries in certain 
Zoanthidea, in 

, that the mes- 
enteries 6, 6, 
which form 
couples with 1, 
1, are macro- 
with *micro- 

', Some such rela- 

^, ' tionship may per- 

Macrotype. j^^p^ jj^^j j between 

Diagram of the final arrangement of the the complete {ma- 
mesenteries in the ZoafUhr<z, The left of crotype) or ilicom 
the figure shows the m.crotypal ; the right, ,,.,^^^^ /.niprotvn*^ 
the macrotypal arraiigenieiit. The fire mes- 
enterial pairs, 1,1: 2, 2 ; 4,4; 5, 5 : 6, 6, oc- 
cupy the asulcar aspect of the zooid. and it 
is seen that in this region the macroniesen- 
tery of each couple is furthest from the sul- 
car directives. In this remaining sulcar 
region the macromesentery of each couple 
is nearest the directives. ■ (From Lankes. 
ter's " Zoology.") 

Macroums (mak-ro'ms), »i. 
vrurii.'i, I. 

macrovariolitic (mak"ro-va-ri-o-lit'ik), a. 
[Gr. fjai<p6i; large, + E. varioUtic]. Coarsely 
variolitic or spotted : applied to certain vario- 
litic eruptive rocks. Amer. Geol., Sept., 1904, 
p. 139. 

macruran, «. II. a. Relating or pertaining 
to the Macrura. 

Spence Bate maintained that the Schizopoda ought not 
to form a separate order but to be ranged as a macruran 
tribe. Encyc. Brit., XXX. 479. 

macula-ring (mak'ij-la-ring), n. A ring which 
surrounds the macula or spot of most acute 
vision in man and some of the apes. Philos. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), 1901, ser. B, p. 74. 

maculature, ». 3. In etching, an impression 
or proof taken upon a sheet of common ab- 
sorbent paper laid upon the plate. 

One of these [the Hundred Guilder Plate], in the 
Museum of Amsterdam, is a * 'inaculatitre,' an impression 
on a sheet of ortlinary paper passed over the plate to re- 
move the ink. Ro^e Kin'jsley, in Burlington Slag., V. 70. 

macule, If. 2. Xr\.pat}iol.,sa.m&a,smacida. 

A macule, excoriation, or bulla on the site of the de- 
struction. Bach, Med. Handbook, I. 147. 

maculicolous (mak-u-lik'o-lus), a. [L. macula, 

a spot, + colere, inhabit, -f- -ous.2 In hot., 

found in definite spots upon the surface of 

leaves or stems : applied to fungi. 
maculiferoTlS (mak-li-lif-e-rus), a. [L. macula, 

spot, + ferre, bear, + -ous.} Covered with 

spots ; bearing spots. 
maculopapular (mak''''u-lo-pap'u-lar), a. [L. 

macula, spot, + papula, pimple, -I- -nr^.] Both 

macular and paptilar. 
Mad., Madm. Abbreviations of Madam. 
Madagass (mad-a-gas'), H. 1. Same as Jfo?a- 

g(ii<y.^2. A light-colored Jamaica negro 

whose hair is more nearly straight than is 

usual with the race. 

madarin (mad'a-rin), n. Same as *mudarin. 
madaroma (mad-a-ro'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. 

fuidapoiiv, make bald, < /ladapdc, bald.] Same 

as madarosis. 
madarotic (mad-a-rot'ik), a. [madarosis 

{-rot-} + -ic] Relating to or marked by 

madarosis, or a falling of the hair, especially 

of the eyelashes. 
mad-bred (mad'bred), a. Bred by madness 

in the brain ; madness-bied. [Rare.] 

This fell tempest shall not cease to rage 
Until the golden circuit on my head, 
Like to the glorious sun's transparent beams. 
Do calm the furv of this mad-hred flaw, 

Shak., 2 Hemy VI., ili. 1. 

madder^, w. — Blue field-madder. Same as jidd- 

Ttiadder : now adveiitive in Ontaritt and Massachusetts, 
also in Bermuda. — Purple madder, (a) See madder 
lakes. (/>) Same as *pnrplr-blark.~Wil(L madder, (c) 
The dyer's-cleavers, Galium iiuctoritwi. 

madder-bleach (mad '6r-blecli), n. Originally, 
a very thorough bleaching process to which 
cotton cloth was subjected before it was 
printed with madder: now used in many cot- 
ton-bleacheries to designate the most thorough 
form of cotton-bleaching. 

In calico-printing with alizarine colors, or in fact with 
any colors where a particularly clear and white ground 
is desired the madder-bleach is used. 

L. A. Olncy, Textile Chem. and Dyeing, IL 48. 


maddish (mad'ish), a. [jwarfl -I- -ish.} 1. 
Like a madman ; characteristic of a madman. 
— 2. Somewhat mad; rather mad. 

Mad-dog •weed. See *weed^. 

madega (ma-da'ga), n. [Abyssinian.] A 
measure of capacity in Abyssinia, equal to 
3.466 bushels. C. U. Haswell, Mecb. andEngin. 
Pocket-book, p. 48. 

madeleine (mad-lan'), n. [F. madeleine, from 
Madeleine, a feminine name. See maudlin.'i 
A small iced and decorated cake, usually made 
with a layer of jelly or jam. 

mademoiselle, «. 4. A French governess : 
useil as ' Frdulein is used for a German gover- 

madescent (ma-des'ent), a. [L. madescens 
(-cut-), ppr. of madescere, become moist, < 
madere, be moist.] Slightly moist. 

Madhuca (mad-ho'kii), n. [NL. (Gmelin, 1791), 
< Skt. madhuJca, a bee, also the name of a tree, 
Bassia latifolia or Madhuca Indica, the mahwa- 
tree.] A genus of dicotyledonous trees be- 
longingto the family Sapotaceee. About 30 species 
are known, natives of the East Indies. (See Bantna.) Sev- 
eral species are valuable for the oil yielded by the seeds, 
and for their fleshy flowers, which are largely used as 
food in central India and yield a coarse spirit by distilla- 
tion. The mahwa-tree, Madhuca Indica, is cultivated 
throughout India for these purjioses. M. butyracea, the 
Indian butter-tree, yields a solid white oil known as 
fulwa-butter. M. Innpifolia of southern India is the 
piincipal stmrce of illu'pi-oil. The bark, leaves, and oil 
of these trees are used in rheumatic and cutaneous dis- 
eases, and the timber is hard and durable. See illupi. 

madnep, «. (6) Heracleum lanatum, the cow- 
parsnip or masterwort. 

madness, «■— Greenland dog-madness. Same 
as *piblocl'tn. 

mado (ma'd6),M. [Prob. aboriginal Australian.] 
A fish, Tlierapon cuvieri, of the family Hxmu- 
lidcv, found in Australian waters. 

madonnina (ma-do-ne'na), n. [It., < via- 
donna, madonna.] A silver coin of Genoa, 
with a device of the immaculate conception 
on the reverse, worth Is. 6frf.; the double 

madras,". 2. A thin cotton cloth, generally 
eonled or figured, used for shirts, etc. 

Madreporic gland, in echinoderms. Same as 
*axial organ. 

madreporidan (mad-ro-por'i-dan), «. Re- 
sembling or characteristic of ihe Madreporidse. 

madreporigenous (mad'rf-po-rij'e-nus), a. 
\madreporc + -gen + -o««.] Producing mad- 
repore coral : as. madreporigenous polyps. 

madriale (nm-drf-a'le), n. [It. : see madrigal.'] 
In music : (fl) A 'madrigal. (6) An intermezzo : 
so called because madrigals were once much 
used as intermezzi in the opera. 

madrina(ma-dre'na),«. [Sp.,lit. 'godmother'; 
also sponsor, protectress, < madre, < L. mnter, 
mother.] In South America, the leading animal 
of a mule-train, usually distinguished by some 
head-ornament, chiefly by a bell dangling from 
the neck. In Spain the term is also used to 
designate the rope or leather band by which 
two mules are tied together; and for a wooden 
support in the shape of a pillar or column. 

madrono, ». The name was originally applied to the 
strawberry-tree, Arbtdus Unedo, which is so called in 
Spain. It was transferred to its congener, A. Menziegii, 
of the American Pacific Coast. It is now also applied to 
A. Xalapen»i» and A. Arizonica, of the southwestern 
United States and northern Mexico. 

mad'apite (ma-dii'pit), n. [Madiipa, an Indian 
name for Sueetwatcr, a county in Wyoming, -I- 
-j<e2.] Jn petrog., an aphanitic volcanic rock 
composed of diopside and phlogopite, with 
leucite in subordinate amount, also a little 
glass base. Cross, 1897. 

Madurese (mad'ii-res or -rez), a. and n. I. a. 
Of or pertaining to Madura, an island in the 
Malayan archipelago, east of Java. 

n. u. .<ting. and pi. A native or the natives 
of the island of Madura. 

mad'WOman's-milk (mad'wiim-anz-milk'*'), n. 
The sun-spurge. Euphorbia Helioscopia. 

Ma. E. An aVsreviationof Master of Engineer- 

maeandrinoid (me-an'dri-noid), a. Resem- 
bling the Mssandrinidse, a family of corals. 

mseandroid (me-an'droid), a. [Gr. /mianfipo^, 
a meander, -t- firfof, fonn.] Having the form 
of a meander, as a brain-coral. 

Aporose, mainly colonial corals, massive, branching, or 
mieandrvid. Encyc. Brit., XXV. 462. 

maestrale (ma-es-tra'le), a. [It., < maestro, 

master.] See stretto. 
Maestricbtian (mas-tricb'ti-an), n. [Maes- 

tricht + -ian.] In geol., the designation of a 



keeping small quantitit-:^ uf aiiiniunitiun for immediate 
use, as distinguished fn)iii a storage magazine. — Maga- 
zine flood-pipe. See *jiood-pipe. 

magazine-cock (mag-a-zeu'kok), n. A eoek 
or valve iu au ammunition-room which, when 
opened, permits sea-water to flow from the 
magazine flood-pipe into the room and to flood 
the ammunition in case of fire on board the 

substage of the Cretaceous in Belgium and magazine, » — Expense magazine, a magazine tor 
northern France : equivalent to Maestrichtieds ■- ■•■--■•" ■ H,i..„..f „ ,i.,., ,„, < — „.i,„f.. 

(which see, under 6e(il). 
maffia (ma'fi-ii or mii-fe'a), v. [Also mafia 
(X. E. D., Intemat. Encyc); = F. maffia 
(Larousse), < It. maffi<i (marked maffia, Ed- 
gren), a Sicilian word of obscure origin not in 
the local glossaries and only lately inserted iu 
Italian dictionaries.] 1. In Sicily, (n) a gen- 
eral sentiment of hostility to legal restraint or ^j^'^^ine-dress ( mag-a-zen'dres ), n. A 
punishment, or to the invoking of the law for ■ ■ ■ , ■, •• j •., ,• 

any purpose; also, (b) the collective number 
of those who sympathize with this hostility 
and often express it by criminal acts. — 2. A 
supposed wide-spread secret society of Sicil- 
ians, or other Italians, leagued in opposition 
to the laws or for purposes of revenge by as- 
sassination. [This is the sense reflected in 
the American newspapers since 1888.] 

Here and there it (the insurrection in Sicily] was 
based uikjii a bastard Socialism, in other places it was 
made a means of municipal party warfare under the guid- 
ance of the local mafia. Encyc. Brit., XXIX. (Hi). 

special woolen outside dress with slippers 
worn by men who handle powder in a maga- 

magazine-fuse (mag-a-zen'fiiz), n. A device for 
protecting electric circuits from excessive cur- 
rents, in which, when the fuse is melted, it is 
replaced automatically by another. 

magazine-passage (mag-a-zen'pas"aj), «. On 
shipboard, an alleyway in the magazine ; a 
small passageway cut off from the magazine 
proper but communicating with it by small 

The .\fafia is not, as is generally believed, one vast magazine-pistol (mag-a-zen'pis"tol), »!. A re- 

' ■ "■ ""' * "'"" '" peating pistol; a pistol which has a magazine 

containing a number of cartridges which are 
fed automatically into the chamber so that all 
of them may be fired in rapid succession. 
Magdalenian (mag-da-le'ni-an), a. and ». [See 
magdahn.] I. a. Ingeol., notingone of the divi- 
sions of the postglacial series in France, based 
upon the character and workmanship of the 
human relies they contain. The name is de- 
rived from the caves of La Madeleine in 
Perigord, where well-finished flints are found 
associated with carved bone and ivory. It 
is equivalent to the *Gh/ptic period. 

n. n. The paleolithic epoch described 

society of criminals, but is rather a sentiment akin to 
arrogance which imposes a special line of conduct upon 
persons a(fect«d hy it In substance the mattioso consid- 
ers it dishonourable to have recourse to lawful authority 
to obtain redress for a wrong or a crime committed 
against him. G. Mosca, in Encyc. Brit, XXXII. 61S. 

maffick (maf'ik), V. i. [Abaek-formation from 
miiffickwg, taken as a verbal noun.] To give 
way to a frenzy of enthusiasm ; celebrate a 
victory with a delirious uproar. [Slang, Eng.] 
The word had its origin in the scenes witnessed in Lon- 
don on May IS, iwm the night after the raising of the 
siege of Mafeking was annouriceil. . . . And because the 
celebration was so utterly unprecedented, because such 
scenes had been supposed t^ V>e imiM^ssible in London, i>r 
anywhere else where English isspoketi, there was no word 
U> describe it .Afterward, therefore, when the I>indon 
mob has shown a disposition to celebrate in a similar 

manner, a braiul-new word has t>een en\ployed to describe Magellania (maj-e-la'ni-ii), n. [NL.,< Magellan 

these manifestations 'jf enthusiasm — the word *in/rfick. 
y. r. Times, July 6. 1902. 

maffick (raaf'ik), n. [maffick, r.] A particu- 
lar act of mafficking. See *maffick, v. [Slang, 

The Peace ' ma/Uck ' has not yet been completely worked 
..If. Westmiiuiter Gazelle, June i.WK, p. '. y.E.D. 

mafficker (maf i-ker), n. One who 'mafficks,' 
or celebrates a joyful event with frenzied en- 
tliusiasm. [Slang, Eng.] 

(iu allusion to the Straits of Magellan t).] A 
genus of braehiopods having a long and deeply 
reflected loop. It appeared in Jurassic time, 
and still exists in southern seas. 
Magellanian (maj- or mag-e-la'ni-an), a. 
Sairie as * ilagellunic, 2.— Magellanian aeries. 

Sec -kxcrifit. 

Magellanic, a. 2. Pertaining to the region in 
the vicinitv of the Straits of Magellan.— Magel- 
lanic jackei, asailor'8wateh-coat,withahood. y. h. D. 

mafficking(maf'i-king)«. [From the name of Magelona ('maj-e-lo'na), h. [NL.] The typ 
,l/«/«/a;i(7,atownin SouthAfncawhich became •^'*^°'"-" V J. .■■". . l .. j, . ...r 

famous in the Boer war (1899-1900). Hehl by 
British troops under Colonel (later Major-Gen- 
eral) K. S. S. Baden-Powell, it underwent a se- 
vere siege by the Boers. It was finally relieved 

on May 18, 1900. The annoimcement of the „ , .j / ■ - i ,■ j-s i rxir 

relief of Mafeking produced an extraordinary Magelonidae (maj-e-lon i-de), n. pi. [NL., 
outburst of popular enthusiasm in London on < Magelona+ -k/«-.] A family of marine. 

icai and sole genus of the family Magelonidse. 
M. piipillicornis, of which the blood is madder- 
pink in color, is found lietween tide-marks 
along the coast of the United States. F. Miiller, 



the night of May 18. The name was humor 
ously treated as a verbal noun in -ing, and the 
verb viaffick was thus evolved.] A frenzied 
celebration of a victory, when the people of a 
city go wild with joy. 'Siee *nutffick, v. [Slang, 

Probably in years to come the perfervid ebullitions 

sand-inhabiting polycha^tous worms, having 
the body divisible into two regions by differ- 
ences in the sette, the prostomium large and 
flat, two long peristomial cirri, and a large 
eversible buccal region. The blood is madder- 
pink when oxygenated, but colorless when de- 
oxidized. It contains the single genuElfajce/onn. 

hlch were described as ".WnjfirH/i;;" will be looked upon magen-DaVld (ma gan-da ved), n. [lleD. 

^-' ■ '-•"--- »(a(/crt i»r(ri(/. Shield of I)a\-id.] A cabalistic 

emblem of two inter- 
twined triangles, forming a six- 
pointed star. This emblem has been 
adopted by modem Jews, although it is of 
non-Jewish origin. The supposed miracle- 
working cabalists Inscribe it upon parch- 
ment along with certain fonnula; and use it 
as a protecting amulet The Zionists have 

a.s beyond the bounds of physiological limits. 

Lancet, June li, W03, p. 15T4. 
mafficky (maf'i-ki), a. [maffick + -i/l] In- 

clineil to be uproariously enthusiastic ; fren- 
zied with joy : at, a, ma Ificky crowd. A'. 1'. 

Time.i, July 6, 1902. [Slang, Eng.] 
maffioso ( mil- fi-o'so), K.; pi. maffinsi (-se). 

[It., < »m^/(.] One who sympathizes with the Mai-cn-narid 

maffia; araember of the maffia. placed the mnj/pn-Danti on their Bag. See Ziunitt *Jtatj. 

mafoo ( mii-fo' ), «. [Chin, mafu, a groom, uagenta bronze. Hectunniten-trhrome.—fiewmae- 

sei-vitors in general: mn, horse, + fii, a man enta,aha8iccoal-tar color of the triphenyl-methane type. 

(servant).] A groom; by extension, a coach 

It dyes tannin-mordanted cotton a red which is brighter 
r4~ 1 /^'u- 1 -vr „. J /-» lA*-!. «..- and'bluer than magenta, 

man [Anglo-Chmese.] ^> •«»<*<?- lO'l- «"- j„aggiolata (maj-6-la'ta), «. [It., < Maggio, 

< L. Milium, May.] An Italian May-day song. 

mag. An abbreviation of magnetism. 
magaline (mag'a-lin), «. [mag(netic) 

sity equal to 1,000,000 gausses or lines per unit 
of cross-section. 

magastromancyt(ma-gas'tro-raan-8i), n. [Or. 
^<i)af, magus, + dor/wi', star, -f- iiavrda, divin- 
ation.] Magical astronomy. 

If there were any congruity or consistency betwixt 
prophecy and ma'fnxtrfnnnnftf. 

liec. J. Gnule, The Magastromancer. A". E. D. 

magautrap (mag'a-trap), n. [mag(,a2ine) + 
««(('/-) -I- trnp^.} A machine for throwing 
clay pigeons used in trap-shooting. It con- 

-f- -a- 4- maggot, " Beet leaf-maggot, the lana of an antho- 

\„^ ,\nr, myiin lly, Peiromun i-icina, which mines the leaves of the 
"r sugar-beet and o'thcr closely allieil plants. See *I'e- 

sugar- ---- . - ... r. 

ffinnya, with cut — Cabbage-root maggot. Same as 
caw/nvc-i""'/'/"'. — Corn-stalk maggot. .Ve *c<,rni. 
— Processional maggots, .s. e snnheu-onn. — Kea 
maggot, the larva of the wheat-midge. See wheal- 
iniXl'\ 1. .„ , 

Magian. I. a. 2. [I.e.] Magic. [Rare.] 
Will he touch me with his searing hand, . . . 
Or tear me piecemeal with a bony saw. 
And keep me as a chosen food to draw 
Uia magian fish through hated Are and flame? 

Keats, Endymion, iii. 

II. n. 2. [I. r.] A wizard. 

tains *a magazine from which the pigeons are Magic parallelepiped, photograph. See *paraHele. 
discharged autoroaticallv. ;">:''• ^fV'V'Larn^'' "^""^ ^'' 

During the day others shot at targets from the maffnii- . ,. „;'; i,„l ;,\ „ f • wi-At ond T^n 

trap. /•<<rerton<fStreoi«"Feb. 21, 11)03, p. l.i9. magicalize (maj 1-kal-iz), t). «. , pret. ana pp. 


viagicalized, ppr. magicalizing. [magical -(--tze.] 
To invest with a magical charm. [Rare.] 

The landscape, up to this point so Greek in its clear 
beauty, is suddenly magicalined by the romance touch. 
M. Arnold, Celtic Lit, p. 122. 

magiric (ma-ji'rik), a. [Gr. fiayeiptK.6i,<. /layeipog, 
a cook, also a butcher, earlier (by etym.) a 
baker, lit. 'kneader,' < /laaauv, knead: see 
mass2, n.] Of or pertaining to cookery. Soyer. 
N. E. D. 

magirist (ma-ji'risf), M. [magir4e + -isJ.] An 
expert in magirology. 

magirology (ma-ji-rol'o-ji), n. [Gr. /i&yeipog, 
a cook, + -\oyia, < Myuv, speak.] The art of 
cookery. [Rare.] 

magistrate, M.—01asg0Wmaglstrate,a red herring. 

magistratial (maj-is-tra'shial), ((. [liTeg. < 
■magistrate + -»a/.] Same as magisterial. [Rare.] 
Then nodding with a magistratial air. 
To farther anecdote he call'd the fair. 

\Yolcot, Bozzy and Piozzi, il. 

magna cum laude (mag'na kum la'de). [L.] 
With great praise : a phrase used in confer- 
ring a degree which has been taken with high 

magnalium (mag-na'li-um), n. [NL., < L. 
magntis, great.] An alloy of aluminium and 
magnesium combined iu varying proportions. 
Magnalium containing 25-30 per cent, of mag- 
nesium is not affected by air or water and 
gives good castings; with 7^10 per cent, of 
manganese, it takes on a good polish and is 
suitable for bells. The alloy also possesses 
great ductility and its melting-point lies be- 
tween 60U° and 700° C. 

Magner's hitch. Same as Magnus hitch (which 
see, under hi fell). 

Magnesia bleach-liquor. Same as -kmagnesium hypo- 
chlorite. —yiagnesia nigra, an eaiiy name for pyro- 
lusite or black oxid of manganese, fur a long time looked 
upon as an inferior kind of magnetite or lodestone, 
incapable of attracting iron.— Magnesia soap. See 
•ksoap. — Magnesia nsta, an old pnannaceutical name 
for magnesium oxid produced by heating magnesium 
carbouiite or magnesia alha. More commonly called 
calcined mafii)e.firi.—SoTeVa magnesia cement. See 
*cement. — MUk Of magnesia. Sto ♦w illr. 

Magnesic ozychlorid. Same as ^magnesium 

magnesiferous (mag-ne-sife-ms), a. [mag- 
nesium + \j. fcrre, bear, -I- -oas.] Containing 
magnesium as a constituent : as, a magnesifer- 
ous limestone. 

Magnesite bricks. See *6ncA2. 

magnesium, «.— Devllleand Caron's magnesium 
process. - s,.,- •i<)»o«.s-.— Gratzel's electrolytic mag- 
nesium process, a i> whicli consists iu electiuiyzing 
abathof carnallite for about thirty-six hours, a curi-ent 
of moderately high tension being employed. The reduced 
magnesium separates in globules which are collected and, 
on being remelted. yield a chemically pure metal.— 
Magnesium fluting. See *yi»(tHi/.— Magnesium 
hypochlorite, a substance use'd to some extent in 
bleaching, made by decomposing a solution of (U-dinary 
bleaching-powder with magnesium sulphate. Also called 
maqnesia 6icn<-A-/i</»o»-.— Magnesium manganlte, a 
compound obtained, instead of calcium manganite, in 
Waldon's modified process for recovering manganese in 
the manufacture of bleaching-powder. This process, 
though possessing certain advantages, has not come into 
general use.— Magnesium nitride, a yellow powder 
produced by heating metallic magnesium in nitrogen 
gas. It reacts energetically with water, forming mag- 
nesium hydroxid and ammonia. Its pi-oduction furnishes 
the mean's of separating nitrogen from argon and the 
other inert gases of the atmosphere, and its action upon 
water, or that of the analogous but cheaper nitride 
of calcium, may become industrially important as a 
means «»f making annnonia from atmospheric nitrogen. 
—Magnesium oxychlorid. This substance, or the 
hydi-oxychlorid, is tlie essential m.aterial of Sorel's cement, 
used in building and in the manufacture of artificial 
stone. Also called wiai/nem'c oii/cAioncf.— Magnesium 
peroxld, a substance, Mg02, produced bythe interactiijn 
of sodium dioxid and magnesium sulphate. It is valuable 
in the modem use of hydroxyl in bleaching, having the 
advantage over the original soiiium dioxid of not leaving a 
residue of corrosive character injurious to the fabric to 
be bleached. Also known as maynesium dioxid. 
—Magnesium pyrophosphate, the salt which is 
left on heating to redne-ss annnoniomagnesium ortho- 
phosphate. It is the fonn in which phosphoric acid 
is most commonly determined in analysis. 

magnet, »i.— Club-fOOt magnet, a horaeshoe magnet 
only one leg of which has a magnetizing coil.— Lifting 
magnet, an electronmgnet used instead uf hooks, chains, 
or^anii>s in lifting iron or steel sheets, bars, billets, rails, 
or structural shapes in a crane or derrick. It is made iu 
many forms adapted to the shapes of the metal to be 
raised. The magnet whatever its form, is suspended 
from the hoisting wire rope or chains of a traveling crane 
or the boom of a derrick, and is supplied with current 
through wires. The man who operates the crane controls 
the current by ft small switch. When the magnet touches 
the metal to be lifted and the current is tunied on, the 
magnet holds the metal until the current is cut otl. 
—Molecular magnets, molecules of a substance, such 
as iron, each uf which, according to Ewing's theory of 
magnetism, has a north and south pole. 
The phenomenon of magnetism consists of these molec- 


viar iHogneU being placed with their poles pointing in 
the game direction. 

W. WaUtin, Text-book of Physics, p. 729. 
Hormal ma^^et, a magnet the dimensions of wliich are 
such as to give tlie greatest attractive forte at tlie eiuis 
possible with a given weight of iron.— Vibration-mag- 
net, a suspended magnet from the rate of vibration of 
whieh the relative intensity of tlie held in » hich it swings 
is det*?nnined. orfrvnn the vibration of which one of the 
elements for the computation of the absolute horizontal 
intensity of the earth's magnetic field is derived. 

magnetarium (mag-ue-ta'ri-um), ».; pi. niag- 
Httariii (-a). [NL.] An instrument deN-ised 
by H. Wilde (1890) for illustrating some of the 
phenomena of terrestrial magnetism. It con- 
sisted of a globe surrounded with a coil of wire 



sumestocure disease by means of so-called magneto-therapy (uiag"ne-to-ther'a-pi) 

magnetic passes, magnetized water, etc. 
Lancet, June 16, 1900, p. 17G1. 
magneto, «. 2. Specifically, the electric gen- 
erator used as the source of the current in 
internal-combustion motors (the engines of 
motor-cars in particular) to cause the spark 
which ignites tlie combustible mixture. The 
magneto, « hich is in effect a dynamo, is driven from the 
motor-shaft and supplies current through a small storage 
battery for use in starting or before the magneto arma- 
ture reaches speed. The magneto is not liable to stop- 
page of its current, nor to change of voltage, and the 
renewal of the battery-cell is eliminated. See -kii/nition, 

^ ^^^ ^^ ..ii„. ^ ..V, •^. iim\ inti'rnal-comb-ustion-kinotor. 

and an outer concentric giobe representiilg tlie l^agneto-acoustic (raag"ne-to-a-k6s'tik), a. 

earth's surface 


or pertaining to magnetic and also to 

The use of magnetism in the treatment of 


magnetropism (mag-net'ro-pizm), n. [Short 
for *ma(i)u-totroi>ifim, < iiayvijc, magnet, + 
rpdTTo^, a turning, + -ism.'] An alleged change 
of tlirection of growth of organisms under the 
action of a magnet. 

magnet- wire (mag'net-wir), n. Wire of the 
sort commonly used in winding electromag- 
nets and similar apparatus; copper wire with 
a thin insulating layer of cotton or silk. 

magnicaudate (mag-ni-ka'dat), «. [Tj. vKiq- 
nu.i, great, -f E. caudate.'} Having a large 

Magnetic alloy, an alloy which may be proiluced from acoustic properties of a substance : as, the magnification, ". 4. In the theory of optical 

of a telephone dia- images, the ratio f/x or x'/f, where f is the 

noii-niasnctic metals by melting togetlier copper, man- Viaflllcto-acoiistic quality 

ganese. and aluminium in the proportion of about (ai, 27, nhrairm Ftfrf Wnrlrl nnil IR'nnin Auct 9Q 

and l:f per cent, in the order named. -Magnetic Chuck Vco^^^'q^a "^ " Ajtfl-tn., Aug. 29, 

Clutch, conductivity. See itchucM, etc.— Magnetic ^''"■'' P- ^■ 

concentration, the pnx-ess of 6ep;xrating the magnetic magneto-altemater (mag" ne- to - al't^r-na- 

fronitlienon-inai,-netici.articlesofanorebytlieactionofa tor),/). An alternating current, generator, 

ma-.ietictleld.-Magnetlc concentrator, a machnie for „r motor with ^1prm^llPlVt (ipIH imcmpts 

concentrating nnignetic minerals which occur with non- ,jr """';■ ^^l^n poimanent neia-magnets. 

magnetic material. By the use of powerful magnetic ■"J.agnetO-Catnoae rayS. See «)-o//l. 

fleUls this method of sep.iration has lately been aiiplied magnetocrystallic (mag "ne-to-kris-tarikl, a. 

to feebly magnetic minerals.— Magnetic creeping, tlie Saine asi maf/iie-crysialUc 

phenomenon of gradual increase in the magnetization of 
a specimen of iron when subjected to a sudden niag- 
netiring foi-ce.—Magnetlc curves. (*) Lines of force, or 
lines of flow, or stream-lines, supposed to emanate from 
the polar regions of the sun and communicate energy to 
the earth from the sun by the motion of the ether. The 
coronal streamers that are seen during solar eclipses have 
the curvature of stream-lines and are therefore assumed 
by some to he true magnetic curves in a coronal field 
of force.— Magnetic detector. See •detector. —Mag- 
netic explorer, a device for exploring the magnetic 
field. It consists of a spiral of bismuth the resistance of 
which varies with the strength of the field, or sometimes 
of a small, flat coil of wire of known dimensions in cir- 
cuit with a ballistic- galvanometer.— Magnetic fatigue. 
See *.f'(((i'5fi(.-.— Magnetic flux. See *mfi7)icfi«». i.— 
Magnetic fringe, that portion of the magnetic field of a 
generator, motijr, or electromagnet which extends into 
the air-space outside of the edges or horns of the pole- 
pieces of the machine.— Magnetic hammer, hystere- 
sis, latitude, loop, etc. Sce*/i«»ii;i<'/i, etc.— Magnetic 
permeance, scc *Hin.'/H<(i>)n,i.— Magnetic permea- 
tion, perturbation, phantom, polarization, pole, 
pressure, pulley, reactance. See irpurmeulion. etc. 
—Magnetic reluctivity. Sec •ma'/)ip?i'»m, 1.— Mag- 
netic resistivity, resonance, retardation, satura- 
tion, etc. See *remKtiritij, etc.— Magnetic separator. 
(0) Same as -kmagnetic concentrator.— 'WlagneWc shield, 
shoal shnnt, etc. See *«A!>M. etc —Open magnetic 
circuit. See *circi(i7— Solar magnetic period. See 
*//ero«(. — Unit of magnetic flux. .See*iau(.— Unit 
magnetic reluctance. See -kreluctance. 

magnetiferous (mag-ne-tif 'e-rus), a. [L. 
mmjiies (magnet-), magnet, + ferre, bear, -f 
-o«.s.] Having magnetic properties. 

magnetiflcation (mag-net'i-fi-ka'shon), )). 
The production of magnetic flux; magneti- 

magnetify (mag-net'i-fi), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
magnetified, ppr. magnetify ing. [magnet.] To 
render magnetic ; magnetize. [Bare.] 

magnetism, ». 1. As in the electric circuit so in the 
ma^'netic circuit there exists a quantity component, the 
magnetic current, or magnetic Jiux, measured in lines of 
magnetic force, and a pressure component, the magneto- 
motive Jorce, measured in absolute units, or frequently in 
ampere-turns. The ratio of magnetomotive force divided 
by magnetic flux is called the magnetic renstance or re- 
luctance, and its reciprocal is called the permeance. 
Magnetizing force is the magnetomotive force per unit 
length of magnetic circuit ; magnetic induction is the 
magnetic flux per unit section ; reluctivity is the reluct- 
ance, and perni«(iM(t(i/ the permeance per unit volume. 
To produce a magnetic circuit energy is required, which 
is partly or completely returned when the nnignetic cir- 
cuit is destroyed. Hu energy is required to maintain the 
magnetic circuit. Magnetic materials— that is, materials 
of high pemieability, as iron, nickel, and cobalt— remain 
pennaneiitly magnetized after withdrawing the exciting 
magnetomotive force. The remaining permanent niagm t- 
ism is called the remanent magnetism, the permanent 
magnetomotive force the coerciiie force. The coercive 
force, therefore, equals the magnetomotive force which 
has to be applied in the opposite direction to destroy the 

magneto-drop (mag'ne-to-drop"), n. An an- 
nunciator or drop-signal operated by an 
electromagnet. Elect. World and Engin., Dec. 
VI, 190.3, p. 907. 

magnetofriction (mag"ne-to-frik'ghon), n. 
A phenomenon observed when an electric dis- 
charge is acted upon by a powerful magnetic 

He [H. Pellat] describes how the positive column is 
squeezed tfigether into a thin pencil and calls this phe- 
nomenon magneto-friction. 

Sci. Amer. Sup., June 20, 1903, p. 22969. 

magnetographic (mag"ne-to-graf'ik), a. [L. 
niagnes (^magnet-), magnet, + ipdipnv, write, + 
-(>.] Of or pertaining to the graphical record- 
ing of fluctuations in the intensity of terres- 
triiil magnetism. 

magneto-inductive (mag"ne-t6-in-duk'tiv), a. 
Of or pertainiiig to magnetic induction Mag- 
neto-inductive capacity, magnetic induction per unit 
of magnetizing force; permeability. 

magnetometer, n. -Differential magnetometer, 

an instinnient for testing the permeability of iron by 
means of a balanced, divided magnetic circuit : analogous 

focal length of the object-space of the optical 
system and x the distance of the object from 
the principal focal plane of that space, or 
where f ' and x' are the corresponding quan- 
tities in the image-space.— 5. In math., in 
couformal representation, the modulus of the 

derivative ;j-^ = limit ^-^ —Normal magnlllca- 

tlon, the magnification obtained from a lens-system 
when the e.vit-iiui)il equals the pupil of the eye. 
magnificative (mag-nif'i-ka-tiv), a. and n. 
[magnijicatc + -ive.] I. a. ' Serving to mag- 

II. n. In gram., an augmentative, a word 
expressive of increased or large size : opposed 
to diminutive. Whitney, Life and Growth of 
Lang., xi. 214. 

magnipotence (mag-nip'6-tens), w. [magni- 
poten{t) -f- -cc] The possession of great 
power. [Rare.] 

•Tehovah's mild magnipotence 
Smiles to behold His children play 
In their own free and childish way. 
Coventrg Palmare, in Macmillan's Mag., Dec., 1881, 114. 

magnipotent (mag-nip'o-tent), a. [NL. 'ynag- 
nipoten.'s {-cnt-), < magnus, great, + potens, 
powerful, ^ee potent.] Having great strength 
and power. 

Satan, as he is a spirit, is magnipotent, but he never 
was omnipotent; and therefore there may be, and are 
abundance of flue things which such People expect of 
Defoe, System of Magick, iiL 


in principle to the Wheatstone bridge.— Vibration ~,__,-4.„j„ , -.'r.'"!, .-j»k!iu o 

magnetometer, a magnetometer of which the time of magniiUQe, "■— Algebraic magnitude. 

vihnition is lengthened by attaching a plunih-bob to the 


magnetometrically (mag"ne-t6-met'ri-kal-i), 
a(h\ By a magnetometric method or process. 

magnetomotive, o. — unit of magnetomotive 
force. See -trunit. 

magneto-motor (mag'ne-t6-m6"tqr), H. An 
electric motor the field of which'is furnished 
by permanent magnets. 

magneto-optical (mag"ne-t6-op'ti-kal), a. Of 
or pertaining to the influence of the magnetic 
field upon optical phenomena or to optical 
phenomena dependent upon magnetic action ; 
specifically, pertaining to the power of the 
magnetic field to cause rotation of the plane 
of polarization of light; magneto-optic. 

magneto-phonograph (mag'ne-to-fo'no-graf), 
n. In elect., a phonograph which records 
speech magnetically. It consists of a very 
small magnet attached to a diaphragm and 
acting on a moving steel tape or wire which is 
magnetized in waves by the vibrations of the 
itiagnet when gome one speaks against the 
diaphragm. In repeating, the magnetized 
steel tape, moving in front of the magnet, 
sets the magnet, and thereby the diaphragm, 
in vibration and reproduces the sound. Trans. 
Amer. In.<it. Elect. Engin., 1901, p. 47 

remanent magnetism. {See magnetic itiiystereing.) The magnetO-rOgulator (mag'ne-to-reg'u-la-tor), 
"""""'""■"'""""■'■''•' •■■-•—■■- ' • „. An electric potential regulator, con- 
sisting of two stationary coils at right angles, 
a primary and a secondary, and an iron core 
which is moved to change the path of the 
magnetic flux and thereby varies the secon- 
dary voltage or potential. 

magnetic permeability, or conductivity for magnetism, is 
practically the same for all substances, with very few ex- 
ceptions (the so-called magnetic suhgtanceg), in which it 
is from hundreds to thousands of times greater. The 
magnetic substances are iron, cobalt, nickel, magnetite 
liquid oxygen, and certain alloys of unniagnetic metals, 
as copper manganese and aluminium. All the other sub- 
stances differ from one another in permeability only by a 

fraction of I percent., and are called paramagnetic or magnctOStatiC (mag"ne-t6-stat'ik), a. Of or 

duimagnetie, according as they are of higher or lower 
permeability than air. 

magnetization, n. 

niairnctization of a bar or 

parallel to the axis of the magnetized body.— Magnet- 
ization by separate touch, a method of magnetizing 
a bar of iron or steel in wlii.h two magneta are used. 
They are placed with opposite poles together at the 
center of the bar to be magnetized, and are siniultane- 
ou.sly drawn apart along the bar. 
magnetize, v. t — unit of magnetizing force. See 


magnetizer, n. 3. Specifically, one who as- 

pertaining to a magnetic field whose lines are 
Longitudinal magnetization, magnetostatics (raag"ne-to-stat'iks), ». That 

l"'!;mg;i'etized''bod"-^Ma^ei- P^";* "f *''*^ «"''°'^^<' °f magnetism which deals 
with stationary magnetic fields. 

magneto-striction (mag"ne-t6-strik'shon), )(. 
Cliange of length or mechanical deformation 
of a body produced by the action of a magnetic 
field. I'hi/.^ical Rev., March, 1902, p. 158. 

magneto-stricture (mag"ne-t6-strik'tur), n. 
Same as ^magnetostriction. 

-., , . =, , a magnitude 

considered as negative or positive. This character is 
usually indicated by a qualitative use of the algebraic 
signs + and— .-Intensive magnitude, a magnitude 
which evinces degrees of ' more 'and ' less, ' but which is 
not a measurable magnitude or quantity. Thus, sensa- 
tions are intensive magnitudes, since they are directly 
given as 'louder,' 'weaker,' 'brighter,' 'fainter,' 'colder,' 
etc. ; but they are not quantities, since a ' loud ' sensa- 
tion is not the sum of so-and-so many ' weak ' sensations, 
and the difference between a 'loud' and a 'weak' sensa- 
tion cannot itself be represented as a sensation-magnitude 
made up of so-and-so many sensation-units.- Median 
magnitude, in triol., one above which and below which 
equal numbers of the variates occur. — Star magnitude, 
(hi the absolute scale (see magnitude, .i). Aldcharan is 
taken as the standard first-magnitude star and the scale 
is carried downward for the fainter stars. The equation 
which connects the n.agnitudes of two stars with their 

relative brightness is log --^ = — (n-ni), in which m is 

On 10 

the magnitude of the brighter star, and n that of the 
fainter one, while bm and hn are their respective bright- 
nesses. In applying the scale to objects brighter than 
Aldebaran fractional and negative numbers must be used 
Thus the magnitude of Vega is 0..'i; that of Arcturus is 
+ 0.0; of Canopus — 1.0; of Sirius, — 1.4; of Venns, 
when brightest, about — 4.0. That of the sun would be 
about —26. The earlier observers, Herschel, Struve, 
and Argelauder, used scales of their own, differing widely 
for the telescopic stars. The absolute scale most nearly 
agrees with Argelander's, the stiuidard first magnitude 
having been selected to secure such accordance as far as 

magnitudinous (mag-ni-tii'di-nus), a. [L. 
magnitudo (-din-), greatness, + -<)«.«.] Hav- 
ing the quality of greatness in size, amount, 
importance, etc. [Bare.] 

magnium (mag'ni-um), «. [NL. (Davy, 1808), 
< inagn(esin) + -ium.] A former name of the 
element magnesium. 

magnochromite (mag-no-kro'mit), ji. {mag- 
n(csium) + chromite.'] A'variety of chromite in 
which magnesium replaces a considerable part 
of the ferrous iron. The mineral from Grochau, 
Silesia, to which the name was first applied (1868). yielded 
14 per cent, of magnesia. Mitchellite, from Webster, 
Korth Carolina, is essentially the same mineral. It gave 
17,3 per cent, of magnesia. 

magnofranklinite (mag-no-frangk'Iin-it), n. 
Imagn(etic) + franklinite.'} A variety of 
franklinite from Franklin Furnace, New Jer- 
sey, stated to be highly magnetic and to con- 
tain but little zinc. 

Magnolia metal. See -''metal. 


magnolin (mag'no-lin), )i. [magnolia + -in".'\ 
An aromatic bitter principle contained in the 
bark and leaves of various species of magnolia. 
inagnolite(niag'no-lit), ». [iludnnUa + -itc'-.'\ 
A mercury tellurafe (perliaps IIgoTe04) occur- 
riuK in tufts of silky white crystals: louud in 
the Magnolia ilistriet, Colorado. 
magootee (ma-go'tf), w. [E. Iml.] A flute- 
like musical instrument used by East Indian 
snake-charmers. In the reed a mirror is set, 
to which, while the instrument is being played, 
the snake's eyes are attracted with a hypno- 
tizing effect. 

magophony (ma-gof'o-ni), h. [Or. uayo(p6via, < 
ua'joc, magus, 4- (Jiiior, slaughter.] The 
massacre of the magi, an event in Persian his- 
tory. X E. D. 

magpie, ». 6. A breed of small domesticated 
pigeons having the head, tlie under side of the 
body, and the long flight-feathers white, and 
the rest of the plumage clear black, red, yel- 
low, or blue: the line between the two colors 
shoald be sharply defined. The name is de- 
rived from the suggestion of a magpie found 
in the black-and-white variety. — 7. A black- 
and-white costume for women in which the 
contrasts are very marked, the masses of color 
being large. 

magpied (mag'pid), p. a. [mitqpxe + -ed^. 
Compare /)ied.] Variegated with black and 
white like a magpie: said of a black-and-white 
co.stume for women, at one time fashionable. 

magpie-goose (maa'pi-gos), «. A black-and- 
white goose, Anncranas melanoleucus, found in 

magpie-lark Cmag'pi-lark'), n. The pied 
grallina, (iniUhui. picata. 

M. Agr. Same as *J(/r. M. 

magra (ma'grai, II. [Aboriginal Australian.] 
A sort of sling or support by means of which 

■ the native Australian women carry their chil- 
dren on their backs. 

magrepha (mJi-gra'fii), n. [Heb.] A musical 
instrument mentioned in the Talmud as used 
in the temple at Jerusalem in the first century 
AD. : usually supposed to be a rude organ. 
Its sound is said to have been excessively louil. 

Magyarism (ma'dyar-izm), n. The political 
principles, sentiments^or aimsof the Alagyars; 
adherence to those principles or aims. 

Magyarization (ma'dyar-i-za'shon), n. The 
act of Magyarizing, or the state of being 

Magyarii!9 (ma'dyar-iz), r. t. ; pret. and pp. 
Ma(jijari;(il, ppr. Magyarhing. To render 
Magyar in character, language, or sentiment. 

mahajun (ma-hii'jun), n. [Hindi tnahdjan, a 
great person.) Abankerormerehant; amoney- 
lender; a usurer. Yule ami Burnell, Hobson- 

mahakavya (ma-ha-kav'ya), «. [Skt. mahii- 
kdrii'i, a great poem, < niahd, great, -I- kdcya, 
poem.] In Skt. lit., a great or classical poem 
(a term specifically applied to six particular 
poems. ) 

The artificial niles of prcwtxly and ptjetics, accordin)? to 
which a iMteni, a umhdkdvya, ought, according to the later 
writtfra on the Ara poetica, to be conirxwed, 

Kncyc. Brit., XXVI. 432. 

mahal (ma-hal'), n. [Also muhnl, mahl ; < 
Hind, mahhit, < Ar. nmhtill, < hiilla, lodge.] 
1. Private apartments. — 2. A palace; a sum- 
mer house. — 3. A territorial di\-ision; also, 
a divisioo of land for farming and hunting 

[Anglo-Indian in all uses.] 

mahala (ma-ha'lii), n. [Also mahaly, mohalc: 
said to be a corruption of Sp. niujrres. women, 
adopted by California Indians, and later taken 
up by the whites.] 1. An Indian woman ; a 
squaw. [Pacific coast of the U. S.] — 2. A 
female salmon. 

mahala-mats fma-haMii-raatz), n. A prostrate 
shrub. CdiniithuH primtrdtiis, which forms car- 
pets in the .Sierra and northern Coast Range 
of California, especially under yellow pine. 
In spring it is covered with delicate clusters 
of blue flowers, and in latf summer bears 8"ar- 
let fruit among a rich green foliage. Also 
called sfpiau'.i-airiiet. 

mahamari (mii-hii-mii're), «. \A\somftlin)iiiii- 
ree ; < Hindi (?) mnhdmari. Hind, mahdmdr, 
pestilence, < niiihd, great, -I- mar. beating, 
striking, in comp., killing, destroying.] The 
East Indian name for the plague, or a disease 


resembling it, which occurs on the southern 
slopes of the Himalayas. 

The native fonii o( plague, known as mahamari, is con- 
fined to the southern slopes of the Himalaya. 

Eiwijc. Brit, XXXI. 786. 

mahant (ma-hunf), «. [Hindi.] A religious 

superior. N. E. D. 
Maharanee (ma-hii-ra'ne), «. [Hind, mahd- 
rdiii, < nialid, great, -I- rdni, queen.] The wife 
of a maharaja. 

"Room for the Maharanee av Goliral-Seetarum." . . . 
She is a very estimable old queen of the Cential Indian 
States, and they say she is fat 

R. Kiplinij, Incarnation of Krishna Mulvaney. 

maharif (mil-ha-ref'), «. One of the large horse- 
antelopes of Central Africa, Eippotragiis bn- 
keri, a relative of the sable antelope, and, like 
that species, having long, decurved horns. It 
is pale liver-color, with a dark stripe over the 

mahatma (ma-hat'ma), n. [Skt. malidtmd. 
nom. sing, of »w/((7;»t((H, great-souled, of great 
intellect, very wise; as a noun, great spirit, 
universal soul; < mahd, great, + dtmon, soul, 
spirit.] An alleged adept in Brahmanism : a 
name applied by modern European and Ameri- 
can theosophists to certain imaginary persons 
who have acquired, by ascetic or 'astral' 
means, preternatural powers, and are asserted 
to exist in or near India. The term so used 
is modern and is due to European manipula- 
tion. No beings so named and endowed have 
any ancient recognition in Indian literature. 

maha-white (ma-ha-hwit'), n. In New Zea- 
land, a name for one of the mullets, Agoiios- 
ttniDis forstcri. 

mahayana (mil-ha-yil'na), M. [Skt.. 'the great 
vehicle,' < mahd, great, + yd»a, vehicle, road, 
way, coui-se.] A later form of Buddhism, ori- 
ginated by Nagarguna. 
The Mahdydna or modem form of Buddhism in India. 
Encyc. Brit. XXVI. 432. 

Mahdiship (ma'de-sMp), n. The dignity or 
otlice of a Mahdi. 

Mahdist, «. II. a. Of or pertaining to the 

As to the remainder of the region in question, the 
Mntidist troubles account suthciently for the absence of 
white men during the recent years. 

Gtiuj. Jmtr. (R. 0. S.), XVIII. 47. 

mahoe, ".—wild maboe, Matmrifetmnrhi^rewi, which, 
l>esides l>eing un (u-nanicntal greentionse plant, yields a 
coarse biist-flt)er applied Uy various uses in South Am- 
erica. Sec *.VrtfFarixc»jt. 

mahogany, ». 6. An old British collectors' 
name for a European and Asiatic noetuid 
moth, Amphipyra tetra False mabogany, the 

red l»ay or lKli>ella-W(XKi. I'tr^'d linrhimia. Also called 
Florida mah^Mjany. — IriBh mahogany, the European 
alder, Alnus glutinoga. — Philippine mahogany, a 
name S4>metimes given to the wtjod of I'terocarpuit 
IndicHg and P. echinatu*. Called in the Philippine 
Islands jiarra an<l a^a>ul. See itamna. — Valley 
mahogany, Cercocnrpun parvifiAius, which grows in 
valleys and on mountain slopes, and is also called 
vi'ittntniii if}ah'i<iany. 
maholi (mii-ho'li), n. [African.] A species of 
galago, (lalago maholi, found iu central Africa. 
See cnt under Galngo, 1. 

Mahoning sandstone^ See *san(lsti>iie. 

mahOW (ma-hon'), ii. [S. African.] An in- 
toxicating drink made from fermented mealie 
meal. [South Africa.] 

Kxcess mealie meal (this was burnt and drunk as a 
black liquor termed 'native coffee'), fennented makes 
a drink called 'tnahow' (intoxicating). 

Lancet June 18, 19W, p. 1717. 

mahzor (mach'zor), n.; pi. mah:orim (-z6- 
rem). [Heb., < Anrwr, return.] 1. A cycle ; a 
solar cycle of 28 years or a lunar cycje of 19 
years. — 2. A Jewish festival prayer-book. 
Each of the five principal festivals has a 
special liturgj'. 

mai (mii'e), H. [Maori.] In New Zealand, 
a tree, the same as mntai. 

maia-moth ( ma'ya-moth ), «. An American 
saturuiid moth, Hemileuca maia, in color black 

Maia-moth {Htmiltiic, 

with white markings. Its larvse feed on 


maid (mad), V. i. [maid, «.] To do the work 
of a maid : usually referring to a lady's-maid. 
N. E. D. 

maiden. I. n. 7. A frame on which clothes 
are dried. [Prov. Eng.].— 8. pi. See *minrjles. 
II. o.— Maiden number. See •ntmiJcr. 

maiden-cane (mfi'dn-kau), n. See *conel. 

maidenism (ma'dn-izm), ». [maiden + -ism.'] 
The manner or bearing of a maiden ; a 
maidenish peculiarity or idea. [Rare.] 

"When he confessed these maidenimis, I despaired of 
his suiting the pleasant, prancing, pop-gun situation of 
butler at Prior's Lea, and was the less concerned to find 
him in treaty for another place. 

Anna Seward, Letters, III. 38. 

maiden's-blush, n. 3. In Australia, either 
of two timber-trees, Echinocarpxis austrnlia of 
the linden family, and Euroschinus fiilcatxs of 
the cashew family, the wood of wliieh has a 
delicate rosy color when freshly cut. — 4. In 
Tasmania, Convolvulus erubesceiis, a species 
of morning-glory. 

maiden's-tears (ma'dnz-terz), n. The bladder- 
campion, Silcne vulgari.i. 

maidism (ma'i-dizm), H. Same as *maidis- 
m us. 

maidismus (ma-i-dis'mus), n. [NL., < maid-, 
false stem of mais, maize, -1- -ismus, E. -ism.] 
Same as pellagra, a disease produced by eating 
damaged Indian com. Vaughan and Novy, 
Cellular To.xins, p. 223. 

maid's-hair (madz'har), «. The yellow bed- 
straw, Galium verum; also the common bed- 
straw or goose-grass, G. Aparine. 

maill, n. 9. The breast feathers of a hawk 
when full grown. E. B. Mitchell, Art and 
Practice of Hawking, p. 9. 

maiP, «.— Open mall, in the postal service, mail for- 
warded to any country for redistribution in that country 
or distribution onward to still other countries or places 
of final destination. 

mail-boat (mal'bot), «. A steamboat or steam- 
ship which carries the mail on lakes, rivers, 
or the sea. Also mail-steamer. 

mail-chute (mal'shot), n. A vertical mailing- 
tube, having a glass front, erected iu a hotel 
or office-building, and passing through all or 
several floors ; a chute for letters. At each floor 
is a letter-drop, and on the first floor a collecting-box. 
The 1k>x and chute are nearly air-tight and the inclosed 
air acts as an air-cushion to check the fiiU of the letters. 

maile (mii'e-la\ n. [Hawaiian, etc., m«i7f, 
»«(-(■-/<! = Maori maire.~\ A name widely used 
throughout the islands of the Pacific Ocean 
for plants having myrtle-like leaves, and 
especially applied in certain groups to Gyno- 
pogoH, a genus of plants belonging to the 
Apoeyiiaceee, which have the agreeable fra- 
grance of eoumarin. Tlle glossy branches of the 
Ilawaiian nmile, Gynopogon oliviej'onms, are in great 
favor with the natives for making garlands and for dec- 
orating their houses and lanais on festive occasions ; 
and the lau-maile of Samoa, G. bracteologus, is used by the 
natives for wreaths and garlands, but is not so highly 
esteemed by then) as the more fragrant moso'oi blossoms. 
For other kinds of inaile, see ifmaire-. 

mailer', «. 2. A boat or steamer which carries 
mail; a mail-boat. [Colloq.] 

mailer- (ma'ler), n. [mail^ + -er-.] 1. One 
who pays rent. — 2. A squatter on waste 
ground (with the consent of the owner) who 
holds himself ready to be hired by the day. 
[Scotch, in both uses.] 

mail-flag (mal ' flag), n. A distinguishing 
pennant carried by vessels having the mail in 
transportation. The United .States mail-flag 
is a swallow-tail pennant with a red field, a 
blue border, and a spread-eagle in the upper 

mailing-tube (ma'ling-tiib), n. A pasteboard 
tube, used as a cover for maps, engravings, 
photographs, and the like when sent in the 

mail-order (mal'6r''dfer), w. In com. and 
m<i)iiif., an order for goods, received by mail. 
— Mail-order house, a business house which conducts 
a retail bnsiTiess by receiving orders and cash by mail and 
distributing the goods through the mails. In England, 
called a postal-trade tiouse. 

mail-room (mal'rom), n. A room which is 
used ill receiving and distributing mail-matter. 

mail-steamer (marste"mer), ti. A steamship 
that carries the mails. 

maimakterion (mi-mak-tc'ri-on), n. [Gr. 
Mai/mKn/piuv, so called from the festival, held 
in this mouth, of Zci'f Ma:/idiiTr/g, Zeus 'the 
boisterous ' or ' stormy,' < fiai/jdaaeiv, fiaijiaeiv, 
be eager, rage.] The "fifth Attic month, con- 
taining the end of November and the begin- 
ning of December. 


maimer (mam ' ^r), n. One who maims or 


main^, «.— Forclnit-main or force-main, a main- 
pipe thn>ugh wliicli water <>r otlier tiuid material ia 
force<i, by tiunipinp. to a reservDir, tank, or system of 
pipes for distribution or supply : used in distinction 
frt>m a »i<I(H mtpptv-pip^, which derives ita motive pres- 
sure fmm gravity tine to an elevated source of supply of 
the wat<T or other Iluid material transmitted. 

main'-', «.— Main clue-gamets, the tackles which 
kaul up the clues of the mainsail or course, and which 
on all s:iils above the courses are called clue-iines. — 
Main clue-lines, the purcha-ses which haul up the clues 
of the main-topsail, topgallantsail, and royal. 

main-backstays (raan'bak'staz), n. pi. The 
backstays of the maintopmast and raaintop- 
gallantmast ; also, the backstays of the main- 

main-breadth (man ' bredth), n. The broad- 
est part of a ship at any given timber or 
frame. Compare beanng, 10. 

main-buntlines (man'bnnt "linz), n. pi. The 
buntlines belonging to the square sails on the 

main-center (man'sen'tfer), n. 1. A shaft 
or axle on which a walking-beam rocks in a 
beam-engine. — 2. The center of the heaviest 
revolving part, as the shaft on which the 
levers vibrate in side-lever engines. 

main-chains (man'chauz), n.ji^ The locality 
where are situated the iron links on plates 
for securing the shrouds of the mainmast. 
See chain, 7. 

main-chuck (man'ehuk), n. A lathe-ehuek 
which carries other chucks or clamps for 
grasping the woi-k to be turned. 

main-crosstrees (man'kros'trez), n. pi. The 
crosstrees on the mainmast, situated at the 
meeting of the head of the topmast and foot 
of the topgallantmast on square-rigged ves- 
sels, and at the meeting of the head of the 
lower mast and foot of the topmast on fore- 
and-aft rigged vessels. 

main-en-griffe (man-on-gref '), n. [F.] Same as 

main-gaff (man'gaf), n. The spar to which 
the liead of the fore-and-aft mainsail is bent. 

main-keel (man'kel), «. In tcood ship-building, 
a name used to distinguish the keel proper 
from the false keel. See cut under free/l, 2. 

mainland, ". 2. The principal island of a 
group: as, the mainland of Orkney. 

mainmast, ". 2. pi. The lower topmast and 
topguUautmasts of the mast next abaft the 

mainmort t (man'mSrt), n. [F. maimnorte, 
'dead-hand': see dead-hand &nd mortmain.'] 
1. Same as mortmain. — 2. In Fr. feudal law, a 
right which the lord had (ou the death of the 
chief of a family which is mainmortable) 
of taking the best movable in the house. 

mainmortable (man-mor'ta-bl), a. and n. [F. 
mainmortable, < maimnorte. See ^mainmort.] 
I. a. Not having the right of alienating one's 
possessions in the event of dying childless, 
as serfs under the old feudal law of France ; 
also, not subject to this right, as the posses- 
sions themselves. 

n. n. A serf who, tinder the feudal law in 
France, did not have the right of alienating 
his possessions in the event of a childless 

main-piece (man 'pes), n. A'ai/i., the timber 
of which the rudder-head is composed; the 
principal part of a timber ; the main section 
of a timber. 

main-rope (man'rop), «. In mining, in the tail- 
rope system of haulage, the rope which draws 
out the loaded cars. See tail-rope system, un- 
der tail-rope. 

mainsail, «. 2, pi. The square sails on the 
mainmast : they are the course, or mainsail 
proper, the lower and upper topsails, the top- 
gallantsail and royal, and also a skysail if the 
ship is lofty. Men-of-war usually carry sin- 
gle topsails instead of a divided sail Main- 
sail liaul ! an order to swing the main-yanls so tliat the 
sails on the main may be filled on tlie new tack. 

main-sheet, «. 2. pi. Collectively, all the 
sheets of the square sails on the mainmast, 
but especially the sheets which belong to the 
main course. — 3. In Jamaica, weak rum and 
water. [Slang.] 

We . . . have seen an old man invited to have a drink 
of "main-sheet" (Jamaican for a cool and seductive mix- 
ture of rum and water). 

idnckwrmVii Mag., June, 1890, p. 784. 

To haul aft the main-sheet. See *i(/ti. 


main-shrouds (man'shroudz), n. pi. The 
shrouds on the main lower mast. 

mainstay, «. 3. pi. All the stays which give 
support to the main lower mast, maintopmast, 
and maintopgallantmast. 

Maintenance of way. See *way^. 

maintop-bowline (man'to-b6"lin), n. Naui., 
something very long: as, liis yarn was as long 
as the maintop-bowline. [Sailors' slang.] 

maintopgallant (man'top"gal-ant), «. The 
name given to the rigging, yard, and sail be- 
longing to the maintopgallant-mast.— Maln- 
topsall haul ! the order to swing the after-yards when 
tiicking. This onler is given in distinction from main- 
mil haul, which is the order proper when the mainsail is 
not clued up before tacking. 

main-yard, «. 2. pi. All the yards which 
belong to the mainmast, namely, the lower, 
lower topsail, upper topsail, topgallant, royal, 
and skysail yards. 

main-yardman (man'yard-man), n. A sailor 
whose station is on the main-yard for the ptir- 
poses of loosing, furling, and reefing the main- 
sail, or for sending the main-yard on deck. 

Maioli (mi-6'le), a. The name of an Italian 
bookbinder (Thomas Maioli) of the first half 
of the eighteenth century: used as descrip- 
tive of his style, or of a style resembling his. 
The principal features of a Maioli design, I claim, are a 
perfect curve in scrollwork where it is used, a framework 
of flowing curved lines more than of figures of geometri- 
cal shape, oniaments of Moresque character, mostly in 
outline, sometimes azured, and an enrichment of part of 
the field with a studding of gold dots. 

W. Matthews, Modern Bookbinding, p. Vi. 

maiotic, a. See *miotic. Nature, Nov. 29, 
1906, p. 98. 

maipuri (mi-po'ri), «. [S. Amer.] An Indian 
name, used to some extent as a common name, 
for the South American tapir, Tapirus ter- 

maire^ (ma'i-ra), n. [Maori maire = Hav^ai- 
ian, etc., mai'le, a widely spread name for 
plants with myrtle-like leaves.] 1. Ungenia 
Maire, a small New Zealand tree of the myrtle 
family, with white bark and four-angled 
branches, oblong- lanceolate, acuminate 
leaves, and white flowers having a tuft of 
many stamens. The fruit is a red berry 
crowned by the thickened rim of the calyx. 
It is distinguished from the other maires of 
New Zealand as maire-Tatvhili, or ' myrtle of 
the god Tawhiki' (the Tafa'i of Samoan myths 
and Kahai of the ancient Hawaiians). — 2. 
Alida salicifolia, a small New Zealand tree of 
the sandalwood family, having variable, 
myrtle-like or willow-like leaves and short 
axillary cymes of small green flowers. — 3. 
One of several species of Olca indigenous to 
New Zealand: («) The black maire, O. Cun- 
ninghamii, a lofty tree with white limbs, long 
coriaceous leaves, racemes of unisexual flow- 
ers, and frmt in the form of a drupe contain- 
ing a bony nut. The wood is dense, hard, and 
durable, (b) The white maire, O. lanceolata, 
a smaller and less robust tree, yielding the 
New Zealand boxwood (which see, under 
*boxwood). (c) The narrow-leaved maire, 
O. montana, a large bushy tree with leathery 
linear leaves and racemes of minute flowers. 
(d) The broad-leaved maire, 0. apetala, which 
yields the ironwood of Norfolk Island. — 4. 
In Tahiti, Gynopogon stellatus, a plant with 
ternate, myrtle-like leaves. Compare *maile. 

mairie (ma-re'), «• [F., < maire, mayor.] In 
France, the public building which serves as the 
office, and usually as the residence, of the 
mayor of a town, or, in Paris, of one of the great 
divisions of a city. 

mairogallol (ma-ro-gal'ol), n. A colorless 
compound, CisHyOioCln, which is formed by 
the action of chlorin on pyrogallol. It crystal- 
lizes in lustrous prisms, and melts at about 
190° C. 

maise^ (maz), n. The mayweed, Anthemis 
Co tula. 

maisin (ma'zin), n. [NL. mats, maize, + 
-j'|2.] A colorless pulverulent protoid, Cjs4- 
H.')oo051-N46S, found in the seeds of maize, 
which contain from 4 to 4^ per cent, of it. 

maisonette (ma-zo-net'), n. [¥., dim. of mai- 
son, house.] A small house. [Rare.] 

The Oharlevilles have exchanged their maisnnetie in 
Berkeley Square for Queensberry House, Piccadilly, and, 
with their usual kindness, have invited ua to two dinners 
and one rout whilst we remain. 

Lady Morgan, Autobiography, p. 38. 

maiz, n. A simplified (and former) spelling 
of maize. 


maize, n. 1 . Indian com presenta numeroas varieties, 
wlucll fall under tJ types, all leferable to Zea Mays. 
According to E. L. Sturtevant, wlio based his dassifica. 
tion on trie chai"acter of the kernel (endospenn), these 
types (agricultural species) are as follows : (I) Fop-com, 
distinguislied by the small size of the keniel and by it« 
property of popping with heat See pop-aim. The 
kernel, split transversely, exhibits the chit (embryo) sur- 
rounded by corneous matter, glossy in appearance, some- 
times having a thin line of starchy matter between. (2) 
Flint corn, which has larger kernels incapable of popping 
with heat ; the chit is sun-ounded by stai'chy matter, and 
this by a corneous envelop ; the kernels are in from 8 to 
16 rows in different varieties, but usually in 8. (3) Vent 
corn, which has kernels with a transverse furrow at the 
top, the section showing corneous matter at the sides and 
starchy matter between, reaching from the chit to the 
summit ; tli^ kernels are usually in from 16 to 20 rows. 
(4) ,S<(/( corn, in which the grain is wholly starchy (amyl- 
aceous). (;t) Su-eet corn, wliich has kernels with a trans- 
lucent appearance, usually corneous throughout, the 
starch being more or less reduced to sugar, the grains 
generally with a wrinkled surface, usually in 12 rows. 
(6) Starchy sii'cet corn, in whicli the lower half of the 
kernel is starchy, the upper half corneous and translu- 
cent. (7) Pod-corn, in wiiich each kernel is inclosed in 
a separate husk, the whole ear being also in a husk. 
Eacli of these groups except the last two, admita, 
according to Sturtevant, of subdivision into three, accord- 
ing as the kernel is broader than deep, as broad as deep, 
or nmch deeper than broad. Pop-corn is divided into three 
subgroups : golden pop-corn, marked by the small size eif 
the ear and kernel, and by its extreme eailiness : regarded 
by some as a form of pearl pop-coni ; pearl pop-corn, in 
wliich the kernels are densely aggregated anil have a 
nacre-like color : and rice pop-corn, whicli has pointed 
kernels, and a tendency to yield cone-fonned eai-s with 
the kernels imbricate rather than aide by side. The pop- 
corn stalk usually grows from 5 to 7 feet high, and tends 
to bear many ears. Flint corn usually grows from ft to 8 
feet high, and inclines to bear two ears to the stalk. 
Though less prolific than dent corn, its varieties a:-e 
planted in the more northerly regions on account of their 
shorter season, prevailing overview England, New Yoik, 
and Canada. Dent corn ordinarily attnins a hei;:Iit of 
from 8 to 12 feet, and bears but one ear Ui the 
stalk. Its varieties alone are planted in the corn-belt of 
the United States (see below). Soft com was liked by 
the aborigines on account of its being more easily crushed, 
but it has no modem commercial standing. The best qual- 
ity of sweet corn is produced in the more northerly regions, 
where it ia grown chiefly for use as a fi-esh vegetalde and 
for canning. Soft sweet corn consist*, as far as is known, 
of a few Mexican varieties. Pod-corn is grown, under 
various names, merely as a cnnosity. It is thought to 
approach nearest to the primitive form from which all 
these types have sprung. No wild speciea of maize is at 
present clearly known. Com was grown by the American 
alKJrigines from Maine to Chile and Argentina, whence 
its cultivation has spread over the wanner part.s of the 
globe. Tile world's protiuct from 1902 to lOOtS inclRsive 
averaged 3,340,000.000 bushels, of which North America, 
chiefly the United States, yielded 2,680,000,000. Almost 
three fifths of the crop of the United Stat*s is produced 
(1(K)7) by the seven States (named in the order of quantityl 
of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska. Kansas, Indiana, and 
Oliio, these being known as the corn, or maize, surplus 
States and forming the corn-helt. Among other impi^rtant 
corn-pixxUlcing States, are Texas and Oklahoma. — MlllO 
maize, one of the non-saccharine sorghums, related to 
Katir-corn, cultivated for forage in warmer pails of the 
United States. 

maize-meal (maz'mel), «. Same as Indian 
meal (which see, under mea/l). 

maizenic (ma-ze'nik), a. Pertaining to or de- 
rived from maize.— Maizenic acid, an organic acid 
contained in the styles and stigmas uf Zea Mays. 

maize-thorn (maz'thorn), «. Same as mouse- 
maja (mii'hii), a. [Sp., fem. of *majo.'] Noting 
a Spanish woman of the lower classes who 
dresses gaily and is a belle in her circle. See 

Now bring me, dear Dolores, my basquiiia. 
My richest maja dress. 

Long/eiUnc, Span. Student, ii 1. 

majagna (ma-ha'gwa), Ji. [West Indian Sp., 
from a native name.] 1. A malvaeeous tree, 
Pariti tiliaceum, native in Porto Rico, Cuba, 
Mexico, Central America, and South America, 
and widely distributed throughout the warm 
regions of the world. Its strong, flexible bast-fiber 
was in use by the natives of America before the advejit 
of Europeans. In Porto Rico, nearly all the ropes in use 
are made from this fiber. Called alao emajagua. See 
ifbatibago, irfau, 2. 

2. A collective name used in Spanish-speak- 
ing countries for the bast-fibers of a number 
of malvaeeous and similar plants. See mahoe. 

majo (ma'ho), a. [Sp., gay, tine.] Noting a 
Spaniard of the lower classes, who is a gaily 
dressed dandy. The feminine is maJa. 

Here, too [in the Vivairambla], were the Ma/os anti 
Majas, the rural beaux and belles, with fine fomia, flash- 
ing eyea, and gay Andalusian costumes. 

Irving, Alhambra, p. 15.% 

majolist (ma-jol'ist), n. [majol(ica) + -ist.'\ 
A maker of majolica ; a potter who makes pot- 
tery in the style of the old Italian majolica. 
Also maiolist. 

major, a. 6. In pros., noting the longer of 
two tv-pes of verse which bear a common name. 
— Major arc, the arc on the same side of its chord as the 
center of the circle.— Major Circle, a great circle. 

majordomo 763 malapaho 

maiordomo, ". 2. See *Kater-master. makhna, makna, n. Same as *»nuctna. malacologlc (mal"a-ko-loj'ik), a. [malaco- 

major-generalcy (ma"jor-jen'e-ral-si), n. making-up (making-up'), x. 1. TUe act or logd/) + -ic] Same a.a matacological. 
Same us major-generalship. " process of compensating. — 2. In j)nH«j«5f, the malacophilous (mal-a-kof 'i -lus), a. [6r. 

Majorism (ma'jor-izm), n. The doctrines of process of arranging composed type in col- //a/iasdf, soft (see mollusk), + <j>iAe'w, love, + 
Georg Major. See ilajoristie. umns and pages. -ous.'\ In hot., adapted to cross-fertilization 

majorize (ma'jor-iz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. ma- Notes are a hindrance in composition and making-up by moUusks : applied to plants or their 
jorized, -avT. majorizing. [ma/or + -i.e.] 1. ••• Tlie composition and «M«-m!7-«» of this matter must flowers. 

Tocome of age.-2. In Rugby foot-ball, to con- ''»^<' *"'«'" "" Df\Tn^,f^u^iti Typography, p. in. malacophonous (mal-a-kof 'o-nus), a. [Gr. 
vert a try into a goal, that is, to increase the Maklng-up piece, a smooth convex plate fastened to the I^a^-a.ii6<puvuq, < iia2xiK6^, soft, 4- fji^, voice.] 
points from three to live. -V. E. I). comb-cylinder of a Heilmann cotton-combing machine, Soft-voioed ; having a gentle voice. 

mak (mak), a. [D., tame, domesticated.] In between the needle and the fluted segments, to allow malaCOpod (mal'a-ko-pod), n. A member of 
South African Dutch, tamo: applied especially ''"If.'"''"''' ^."5''i^»'?' P»'^^ '"^^Jjh. -, , , , the McUacopoda. " 

to Kafirs who have come under European in- inaklta (ma-ke ta), n. [tgian.J In hot., see malacostome (mal'a-ko-stom), n. [Gr. //oA- 
fluenees. "if' , ..,,., „r • i mu x- t i "i^oc, soft (/ia?.6Kta, rabl\usks), + ardfta, raouth.] 

makaisa (ma-ki'sa), n. [Tagalog viakaisa.} mako (ma ko), n. [Maori.] The tiger-shark The mouth of a mollusk. 
In the Philippine Islands, Crolon Tiglium, a (which see). The t^eth of the mako are used malacotomist (mal-a-kot'6-mist), n. [mal- 
shrub or small tree bearing poisonous fruit 15"" ornaments by the Maoris. A. L. Morris, acotom-y + -isi.] 'One who is versed in 
which is used bv the natives for stupefying fish _^'l®*'^i ■'^''Sl'Sh. ,,,,,. , , malacotomy; a student of the anatomy of 

and crabs and for killing dogs. It is very acrid Mai. An abbreviation (c) oJMalachi, a book moUusks. 
and is Hsed medicinally as a counter-initant, the seeds ot the Uld testament ; (o) ot Malayan. Malacotvlea (mal-a-cot-i-le'S), Same 

being made into a paste or plaster and apjilicd externally mal, " Mai de caderas [Sp. 'disease of the hips'], as *Mal((COCOtlllea " 

tothebody; tal£eniiitenially,itactsasadnisticpurfrative. a chronic (at present, incurable) infectious (but not con- ~,-l„„„_„xl«,r^ / ' v/ v- - 1'- 'I rp 

The natives sometimes administer the fourth part of a tagious) disease of horses ia South America, caused by niaiacOZOOlOgy (mat a-KO-zo-01 O-Ji;, v. [tjxT. 
seed, but its action is so violent that the remedy is eon- the presence of flagellate protozoa of the species Trypano- /laAaKO^, soft {/laAQKia, mollusks), -I- E. zoology.] 
sidered dangerous. This plant is also called ^iiff, or? ut>a goma e<ininum. ■ The parasites live in tlie blood plasma The zoology of moUusks * malacology. 
iM*ni»«. and by the Bisayaua niatasia. See Crufon, 1 and are supposed to be transmitted by flies.— Mal de loa malac+iV Fmn InV'HVI n ond., fftr nn7n 
(with cut). • Plntoa. Sameas7rf«(a.-Mal de mer. Same as ««/- ™*^°'<''J<' V™^ ^'^'^^ "''.^ "• i;"" "• '-^^•, 'i . 

makara (mii'ka-ra), Ji. [Skt. mdkara.'] In *ictn«8s.— Petit mal, a mild epileptic attack, not marlted i^'i'<o^,\ faAaaaeii; make aott.i I. a. Malsmg 
Hindu myth, and art, a fantastic marine mon- by strong convulsions or complete uuconsciousness. Com- soft; emolUent. 

stpr fi<riiipfl with f'lR hod v and tail of a fi°h '^'^ ■'/"! -",'!'.\ rT . . , ■ II. "• An emollient medicine, 

ster nguiea wim dou> anu rau oi a u.n mala^ (ma'la), n. [L. mala, law, cheek: see malnilif Cmii IH-def"! n rV < mnlnrle sick • 
and the forelegs, neck, and head of an ante- , -J . c«iprito in the mouth narts of cer ™*^"'"^^ *™*^^^7,^' "• ,.1-* ;' ^ ™«'«««) sicK. 

lope, an alligator or a shark: used as a sym- itl^Jr^^ he bird joTnTof tSrmaniible, '^'nerf^f fiL^^r^ 'stafd^^fr; the comer silent 
^^^"ri:^:^Z ^""' ''" snpportiuithe k-lerites which homologize with ...a^nlifa^ ^?e ti hiV gSll b.a'Sf Ts'\:T"^^ 

sign 1 apriLoru. the galea and lacinia of an insect's maxilla. smoliing cigarette— a fragile, mniodi/' little figure, with 

^te *l^;i£'.'" '''^' "• ^''"'''■" "'" " -^ Malabar almond. , Same as country almond ^ '^-™''"'ST',^!rSl?r,rPortf„uo, issa, p. m. 

r'^t'r''' " etJ-)-"T w«^;, alVarif ik t^ malabatS^\mIll"Srum), n. [L. mala- maladminister (mal-ad-min'is-ter), . f. [,««/- 
(a train etc ) as, we «,ade Pans in three j„^,„.„, „Johathrum, < Gr. ^aU,3aepov, +J<d,mmster.] To adnnmster m a faulty, m- 
hours. [CoUoq-] ^ ^aUSaO^v, < Skt. tamdlapattra, 'le^totihi efficient way, particularly public affairs. 

^j ■..•..• i""''V °° T?!?.. ."^T-,. ,■ "■ tamaK tree ' < fnnin/n Hindi tomninftmeof The people, themselves, In all countries, might confide 

.Mdeit," he said: "and that s what Hike tod . tamala tree, \tamala, tlinai Mm«(, name Ot ^^ j^ [the tine Scheme of Human Economy); to vindi- 

i/o«W(*, Silas Lapliam, VI. severaUrees, + i)fl<(ro,leaf.] 1. The dried, aro- cate tlieir respective interests, by its moderate repie- 

Tomakeabalk. ^e-khalkl. — Tomakeaberth('H(»^), matic leaves of sevt rul Incian species of Cin- sentations, when necessary to tlieir several sovereigns, or 

t'j reaili an uiicliorage ; olitain dockage.— To make an an- namomum especially C. iners and C. nitidum, otherwise, as those interests might l>e vmladminutered. 

h'''?h**Ti™a'i,';',"nX^V"."^7»^»L''\,f;riX';'''^e formcriy uscd iu medicine. Also called A- , f. £d««,d«. Practical Plan, iii. 

*^''^,^7l?.-TTm%^.^ollr?^^)'u;tp^^^^^ dianorMalabarleavea. (See Malabar leaves, maladministrator. (mal-aa-min'is-tra-tor),». 

sign on h,.ar.l of naval vessels. laihts. eto.: a ceremony under /fo/".)— 2. An ointment or perfume pre- <-'"<' who nialadmiuisters affairs, especially 

whicht4ikesiil.ace at SA.M — To make It 80 (<in"'.), an pared from the malabathrum leaf ]iublic affairs. 

order, given by the ca^ljuiin, which means that autlR.nty is '„j„ ^ abbreviation of nialae'olonv malafu (mal'a-fS), «. Same as toddy, 1. 

given to strike the ship 8 trell elglit strr.kes as the oflicial m"***- .(iii aooreviaiiuu oi /«a»H,oiwj/y. lJr„i„„„ „„4.+A_, c„« *,,^«™,, 

annouiiceiMentof meridian, or 12 o'clock by the sun.-To Malacanthlda (mal-a-kan'thi-de), n.;)?. [NL., Malaga pottery. See *pottery. 

make the course pood (.naut.\ to allow the vessels < Malacdntlius + -idse.] A familv of traehi- Malagasy, n. 2. The language of Mada- 

head alternately 'o m-li"e as much on one side of the ^^j^ jj^,j^.g pj j^jg temperate and tropical seas, Kii'^car. 

l\lf grire^,u;;:^Vat 'St'ir'dedr^Il'irXr':' 't^hVu including about sLx genera, the greater number malakin (mal'a-kin), «. [Gr. ,aU.6c, soft, + 
done on s-ailiiig vessels when, owing to a heavv sea or of species being American. -tn-. \ iue tratle-namc ot salicjl-parapneneti- 
;■w;aw.;^frl^heT,',".I«''om ^ """ ""'"^''- *"" Malacanthus (mal-,a-kan'thus) n [NL., < dine, CoH56c6H4N:CHC6H46h, prepared by 
' U CtrZ%Tm^ec^^Ou,u,yu^ /-^("^e^)' soU, + thorn.] A genus of the 'action^ of" plraphenltiiiue ' L salicylic 
ourT-mJhing. avoid -Tomake off. (^):va«l., to chop fishes found in West Indian waters aldehyde. It crystallizes in silky, lustrous 
whaleblubber into pieces. Malaces ( ma - la se-e), n. pi. [>L. (Small, needles and is used in medicine as an anti- 
make', n. 7. In bridge, the declaration. 1903), < Mains + -<icea>.'] A family of dieo- pyrotic and antirheumatic. 
In considering a heart make, the dealer should be in- tviedouous choripetalous trees and shrubs of malakon H. See malacon. 
lluence.1 by the general Btrength of his hand and by tne the order Sosales, the apple family, typified by malamethane (mal-a-meth'an), «. [mal-ic + 
numlM^r of honours he holds iiyh^tramp suit, _^ the genus 3/«to.- usually included in the „,,(;,„„<,.] A colorless compound, NH2COCH- 
8. In m,ni«^, a system of' metal-b;ari,y,/vcins \Zfel HZchleeT "' Bubfamily (OH)CH.,COOC„H5, formed by the action of 

nLke-and-break (m.k'and-brak'). „. A de- ^^^^^^^Sl^^S^Z^s ^^^ZS "fS" '^-^^'.r-eJlZ^Z^'^ll;^^ 
vice lor alt.-niately closing and opening an 3^«,,„,,^. SeePavonia. ^ nScH?OH)CHoCOOH ™ 

miilXe47mk'ki)n"rnv7,',',iol and cxwr malachite-green, «. 3 One of the modern diazosuccinie ester." It crystallizes in short, 

maXe-Key (maK Ke), M. in pny.not. ana cxper. ^^t ,; a < vcs, a salt of tctmmethyl-paradi- thick nrisms and melts at 146° 

iMi/ciol., an electric key the action of which „„•,,. ,,.:„i;„„'.i„„-i,;„^i. ,,„„,i ;„ rUir,<T ^;ik prisms ana mens at 110 y^. 

closes an electrical circuit araido-triphen>lcarbinol. used in djmg silk, malamide (mal-ara'id), «. [mal(ic) + ow(V?c.] 

Closes an eiectncaii-irtuii. , ^ ^ wool, and cotton. A\so caUed benzaUMn/de "T"''T^'^°^ „^^„^',' tt VrrirHmw^PTT 

ItttheScripture-DeseoirreactionkejlmayaUobeused, _,„„„' „„,,j _..,,,, -_,, rirfnrin nrren Moi, ^ colorless compound, tl2^^*^'-'*'^('-'")'^tl2- 

thoughlessaJcMirately. asaT,m*«Vfy.'" ''vfti '^i n^ ^ ' ,,/z ^r^Ii , jMT^^Z'^mie; CONHo, prepared by the action of ammonia 

I IS Titck.,.r. Ex,«r. Psychol., 11. 1. 105. =Wte-green 0. Same as Myl green (which see, under ^^ ^^^^ -| l^J^^^ It crystallizes in rectangu- 

m^er, «. 4 In brulge, the declaring hand, ^^^lacia, «. 2. A longing for some special lar prisms. 

ta^^t^^tVou^Tr^umlril^/oTrhfs''' '°" '"""' "" "'■■""" article of food; specificaUy, a depraved appe- mala-miyer (ma"m-mo-her'), «. [Sp. mala, 

.7. a i^drfH, Bridge, p. 24. tite. Syd. Soc. Lcx. bud, -I- jMiyer, woman.] A name applied in Mex- 

6. In »Ao<^mnil•i»l(7, the laster (a man or boy) wlio Malacocephalus (nial''a-ko-sef'&^lus),n. [NL., ieoto several pernicious plants, some of which 

places the closed uppers of a boot (in hand- < (jr. iia'/.uKix;, soft, + Kc<pa/.r/, head.] A genus are armed with prickles. Among them are 

sewn work) over the last and attaches the bot- of deep-sea fishes of the family .l/acr«i)rf«. Solanum rostratum, called sand-bur in the 

torn material. Webb, Industrial Democracy, Malacocottns (mal"a-k6-kot'us), »i. [NL., southwestern United States; Cnidoscolus iirens 

I. 418. < Gr. /la'/uKuc, soft, +"NL. Cottiis.'] A genus {Jatropha urens of Linnreus), which ia armed 

make-record (mak'rek'ord), «. In physiol. of cottoid fishes found in the North Pacific. with stinging hairs ; and Rhus Toxicodendron, 

and exper. psychol., a record (chrouoscopic or Malacocotylea (mal'a-ko-kot-i-lo'a), the poison oak, also called guao and tetlatia. 

chrouographic) obtained by the use of a [NL., <Gr.Ma>u2(«)f, sof't,+'Kor;X)7, cup,'socket.] See *(7i(ffO and *fa<to«a. 

make-key. An order of endoparasitic Tremaioda equiv- malamute(mara-mut),n. [Name of an Alaskan 

Tlie lost time of the ma*-?-rccord» may be reduced to a alent to TMflCHea A\so Mala cotylca Indian tribe.] A local name for the Eskimo 

minimum by «|i-t„^ent^of the lower "Hdm^ block.^ ^^ nialacocotylean'(mal"a-ko-kot-i-lo'an), a. and log, apparently used in Alaska. 

makeshlftiness (mak'shif-'ti-ness), n. The n. I. a. having the characteristics of the siJS";To"a7rnr;w'rpToyeTirtrn^l''rvi'?e' 

character of being makeshifty. Suskin, Proe- Malacocotylea. Their legs are too sliort, their feet sink tuo readily 

tfrita ii 267 H. «. One of the Malacocotylea. through the snow. 

makeshifty (mak'shit-ti), a. [makeshift +-y3.-\ MalacoctenUS (mal-a-kok'te-nus), «. [NL., iWo /(.». .VcCaft., in St. Nicholas, March, 1908, p. 387. 

Ot the nature of a makeshift; characterized < Gr. itaAaKdc, soft, + ktcI^ (^'■fl'-), comb.] A malapaho (mil-lii-pa'ho), n. [Philippine Sp., 

by the use of makeshifts. [Rare.] genus of blennioid fishes found on both coasts said to be Tagalog.] In the Philippine Is- 

make-spark (mak 'spark), fl. A spark pro- of tropical America. lands, a name of several forest trees, espe- 

duced in the air-gap of the secondary circuit malacoderm, n. II. a. Malacodermatous. cially of Sindora Wallichii and Dipterocarpus 

of an induction-coil or transformer when the malacodermous ( mal 'a-ko-dfer'mus), a. vernicifluus. The latter yields a valuable oleo- 

primary circuit is made or closed. S&me aa malacodermatous. resin. Also called j^awao. 

Bipartite Malar Cone, 


malappropriate (mal-a-pro'pri-at), a, Imal- 

+ af>}>ropriate, a.] Iiiappropriate. 
malappropriation (mal-a-pro-pri-a'shon), n. 

\_fn<il- + appropriation, J^ Misappropriation. 
malapropian (mal-a-prop'i-an), a. [malaprop 

+ -((/«.] Of the nature of or addicted to 

malapropoism (mal-ap-ro-po'izm), «, [wm?- 

apropo{s) + -i5w.] Same as ymdapropism. 

malar, «.— Malar dlvlsioii, in 

craniom., the coiHlitioii, of the 
malar bone, of being divided by a 
sutnre into two bones ; a bipivr- 
tite malar. 

malare (ma-la're), w. [NL. 

(sc. os)f the malar bone. 
See mahu'.'] In craniom. j 
the most prominent point 
of the tuberositas malaris. 
Von Torok. 
malaria, ». ^'nnle^o^^s Investl- 
pations made in recent years have established the 
fact that malaria is a disease resnlting fi-om the pres- 
ence within the red bUwd-corpuscles of & protozoan 
parasite, the llaemamoeba malariie, or Pla>t}nodium 
malarise. The parasite has two cycles of existence, 
one in the human body, the other iu the body of a 
mosquito of the gemis -k Ano- 
pheles (which see, with cut). In 
the^ blood, repitiduction of the 
parasite occm's only by fission or 
segmentation ; but in the stomach- 
w^l of tlie mosquito, which it 
reaches in the bloott sucked by this 
insect fn^ni the skin of the sick, 
sexual repn>iluction occurs, the 
parasite giving birth to a large num- 
ber of exceedingly minute fonns, 
called sporozoids. Tliese make their 
way through the tissues of the mos- 

auito to its salivary glands, whence 
ley are injected into the blood 
of the human subject whom 
this infected mosquito stings. On 
reaching maturity in the blood, the 
protozoan invades the red blood- ^ ,, 

corpuscles, and so completes the stance of the red cor- 

two cycles of its existence. The puscie haring disap- 
malarial paroxysm of chill, fever, P^^'^^'* ' '^' flagellate 
and sweating occurs at the time of ^%y;,„ j„j,„, „ 
invasion of the blood-cells by a new ^ins Hospital Reports- 
brootl of the parasites, either those Thayer and Hewetson.) 
resulting from segmentation of the 

protozoan within the human blood-vessels or those repro- 
duced sexually in the body of the mosquito and thence 
injected into man. There are three varieties of the Uiema- 
mceba which are concerned in the production of the 

«) iertiana-. 

f/a-'tama-dfi *naiaritr 
( />/as*nodium gtia r- 
iaiiar), the Parasite 
of Quartan FcTcr. 
a, a deyeloping form 
within the red blood- 
corpuscle ; i>, a full- 
grown body, the sub 

O) M *^' 



Diagram of the Complete Life-cycle of the 

Parasite of Pernicious Malaria, 
Hamamoeba {.Plasmodium) ntali^ium or 
Laverania maiariex. 
The stages shown above the dotted line are those found in hu- 
man blood; below the dotted line are seen the phases through 
■which the parasite passes in the intermediate host, the mosquito. 
I-V and 6-IO show the schizogony; VI-Xll, the sexual genera- 
tion, which at VIl splits into two lines, male (a) and female (*), 
to be united again by conjugation (XI and XII); XII!, the motile 
zygote; XIV-XIX. sporogony. I-III, young amcebula; in 
blood-corpuscles, the last two showing the ring-form (which is, 
however, not quite correctly draw..). IV, older, actively amceboid 
trophozoite. V, still older, less amceboid trophozoite. 6. mature 
schizont. 7, schizont with nucleus dividing up. 8, young rosette 
stage. 9, fully formed rosette stage, merozoites round a central 
residual mass of protoplasm containing the pigment, and blood- 
corpuscle beginning lo break down. lo, merozoites free in the 
blood by breaking down of the corpuscle. VI, young, indifferent 
gametocyte. Vila, male crescent. Vllb. female crescent. Villa 
and Vlllb. the gametocytes becoming oval. IXa and IXb. spher- 
tral gametocytes ; in the male (IXa) the nucleus has dirided up. 


Xa and Xb. formation of gametes; in the male (Xa) the so-called 
fiagella or male gametes fji) are thrown out— one of them is seen 
detached; in the female (Xb) a portion of the nucleus has been 
thrown out. XI, a male gamete penetrating a female gamete at a 
cone of reception formed near the nucleus. XII, zygote with two 
pronuclei in proximity. XllI, zygote in the motile stage (vermi- 
cule or ookinete). XlV. encysted zygote (oocyst). XV. commenc- 
ing multiplication of the nuclei in the oCcyst. XVI, oiicyst with 
numerous siwroblasts. XVII, commencing formation of sporozo- 
ites : the nucleus of each sporoblast has divided to form numerous 
nuclei, each of which is growing out in a little tongue of proto- 
plasm to become a sporozoite. but a few nuclei remain behind as 
residual nuclei. XVIH, full-grown oOcyst crammed with ripe 
sporozoites; on one side the cyst has burst and the sporozoites 
are escaping. XIX, free sporozoites, showing their changes of 
torra. «, nucleus of the parasite; p, melanin pigment; .fi, flag- 
ella ; j/.*/, sporoblasts ; »•.«.. residual nuclei;, residual pro- 
toplasm. (Chiefly after Neveu-Lemaire, from whom the plan and 
arrangement of the diflTerent stages are borrowed, with slight 
modincations ; details of the figures are founded on the figures of 
Grassi. Schaudinu (Leuckart's " Zoologische Wandtafelu "), Ross, 
and others.) 

(From Lankester's " Zoology.") 

three varieties of malaria, tertian, quartan, and esttvo- 
aidmnnal or pernicioux. Symptijmatically, there are 
four forms of malaria : tlie intermittent, in which the 
interval between the pai-oxysms is fever-free ; the remit- 
tent, in which the fever 
is continuous, but is 
marked by exacerba- 
tions with intercurrent 
chill and sweating ; the 
perniciong or congestive 
form, in which the 
blood-poisoning is pro- 
found ; and the chronic 
form, constituting what 
is called the malarial 
cachexia. See */vrtrc?-a- *■ 

jiirt. -Hybrid malaria, 

malaria modified by 

association with some ^^,„„^^^„(/,^^,„^^, 

ouler aisease. jhe parasite oi Tertian FeTer. 

m^lRria/l, O.. — Ma- «■ a young form within a red Moo<1- 

larial cachexia. See "'P""''- *. a developing pigmented 

V^ T^ Y**^"™*™ _. , form within the corpuscle : c, a full- 

*mc/lfa:ia.— Malarial grown body: rf. a segmentir.g body; 

crescent. Same as e, a degenerating form undergoing 

ircreacent, 4 {e). — Ma- vacuolization. 

laXlal fever Of cattle. (From Johns Hopkins Hospital Re- 
Same as Texas fever. ports— Thayer and Hewetson.) 

II. n. One who suffers from or is subject to 

malariated (ma-la'ri-a-ted), a. [malaria + 
-ate'^ + -fr(2.] Infected with malaria. 

inalarigenous(mal-a-rij'e-tius), a. ^malaria + 
L. -genus, -producing.] Producing malaria; 
malarious. [Rare.] 

malarin (mara-rin), n. [malar(ia) + -in^.'\ 
The trade-name of acetophenone-paraphenet- 
idine citrate, (CoHgOCeHiN : C(CH3)CeH6);^- 
CgHgOY. It is prepared by the action of acetoplfien- 
onc on paraphenetidine, forms a crystalline powder, 
and is used in medicine as a febrifuge. Also called acetf:- 

malarioid (ma-la'ri-oid), a. [malari{a) + 
-aid.'] Like or resembling malaria. Syd. Soc. 

malariologist (ma-lil-ri-ol'o-jist), n. Same 
as malariatisi. 

malarrangement (mal-a-ranj'ment), n. [mal- 
+ arrangement.'] Bad, defective arrangement. 

malashaganayCma-la-shii'ga-ni), n. lAmcr. 
Ind.] Same as fresh-water arum, which see, 
under drum'^, 11 (6). 

Malaspina glacier. See ^glacier. 

malaxation, ». 2. In entom., with certain soli- 
tary wasps, the act of kneading or bruising 
with their jaws insects already stung, in order 
more thoroughly to paralyze them before 
storing them away in their burrows as food 
for their future young. 

Malay cat. See*cati. 

Malayic (ma-la'ik), a. [Malay + -Jc] Same 
as Malay. 

Malayo-African (raa-la"6-af 'ri-kan), a. 
Malayan and African ; connected with Malay- 
sia and Africa. Keane, Ethnology, p. 331. 

Malayo-Chinese (ma - la " 6 - ehi - nes '), a. 
Malayan and Chinese ; connected with Ma- 
laysia and China. A'coHP, Ethnology, p. 333. 

Malayo-European (ma-la'6-ii-ro-pe'an), a. 
Connected with Malaysia and Europe. Keane, 
Ethnology, p. 333. 

Malayoid (ma-la'oid), a. [Malay + -oic7.] 
(Similar to the Malays. 

Malayo-Indonesian (ma-la'o-in-do-ne'si-an), 
a. Connected with Malaysia and Indonesia. 
Keane, Ethnology, p. 333. 

Malayo-Malagasy (ma-la"6-mal-a-gas'i), a. 
Malayan and JIalagasy ; connected with Ma- 
laysia and Madagascar. Keane, Ethnology, p. 

Malayo-Papuan (ma-la"o-pap'u-an), a. and«. 
I. a. Common or relating to both Malays and 

n. n. One of mixed Malay and Papuan 

malcMte (mal'kit), n. [Malchen, Mount Meli- 
bocus, Hesse, Germany, + -iff 2.] Inpetrog., 
a fine-grained to aphanitic, porphyritic, ig- 


neous rock, composed of labradorito and horn- 
blende, with a subordinate amount of quartz. 
Osann, 1892. 

malconduct (mal-kon'dukt), V. [mal- -)- eon- 
liuct.} Wrong, faulty, or improper conduct; 
especially, maladministration of public affairs : 
as, malconduct in office. 

malcontentism (mal-kon-tent'izm), H. [mal- 
content + -ism.] The condition or state of 
being malcontent or dissatisfied. 

maldigestion (mal-di-jes'tyon), H. [mal- + 
digestion.] Imperfect digestion. 

mal-di-gomma (mal-de-gom'a), h. [It.: mat, 
disease; di, of; gomma, gumj also the name 
of a disease.] Same as *J'oot-roi, 2. 

icalduck (mal'duk), n. The fulmar petrel, 
Fnlmarus glacialis. Also malmarsh. 

malei, n. 3. A 'male 'precious stone. In the 
middle ages and until quite recent times, all 
the darker gems, such as sapphire, ruby, and 
topaz, were known as 'male' gems; the 
lighter blue, lighter red, or lighter yellow 

were called 'female' gems Dwarf male. ((-) The 

minute, parasitic male which is attached U, tlie liody of 
the ordinaiy hermaphrodite individual in certain ciiri- 
peds. It is supposed to secure the cross-feitilization of 
the hermai>lir(,dit«. See cmnplemental, 2. 

Malebolgian (mal-e-bol'ji-an), a. [Malebolg(c), 
< It. male, fem. pi.' of malh, evil, -I- holge, pi. 
of bolgia, budget, + 4an.] Pertaining to or 
resembling Malebolge, the eighth circle in 
Dante's description of Hell. 

Malebolgic (mal-e-bol'jik), a. Same as *Male- 

malediction, «. 2. In anc. cedes, late, a curse 
annexed to the donation of lands to churches 
or religious institutions against those who 
should violate their rights. Cowell. 

maleducation (mal"ed-u-ka'shon), n. [mal- 
+ education.] Faulty, imperfect education. 

malefactoiy (mal-e-fak'to-ri\ 0. [NL. "male- 
factoriiis, <! malefactor.] Ill-doing; criminal. 

One of the boasts of Riversley was that while the rest 
of the world ate and drank poison, the (Jranjce lived on 
its own solid substance, defying mate/actory Radical 

G. Meredith, Adventures of Harry Richmond, xHx. 

male-fern, «. 2. The dried rhizome of Dry- 
opteris Filix-mas of Schott, or of Dryopteris 
marginalis of Gray, used as an anthelmintic. 
The chaff, tojrether with the dead portions of the rhizome 
and stipes, should be removed, and only such portions 
nsed as have retained their internal green color. — Oleo- 
resln of male-fem. See *oleoresin. 

maleness (mal'nes), «. The character of be- 
ing male. [Bare.] 

The discovery of these morphological fact« does not in 
the least shift the old-time attribute of maleness as ap- 
plied to the stamen or of femaleness as applied to the 
pistil. L. II. Bailey, in Science, June 5, 1896, p. 826. 

mal-entendu (miil'on-ton-dii'), a. and «. [F. 

mal, ill, -I- entcndu, understood.] I. a. Wrongly 

understood; mistaken. 

H. n. A misunderstanding. 
Maletra burner. See *burner. 
malfeasant (mal-fe'zant), a. and n. [F. mal- 

.faisant, < mal, ill, + faisant, ppr. oi /aire, do. 

Compare damage feasant.] I. a. Doing ill; 

guilty of misconduct in office. 
II. n. An ill-doer; a malefactor. 
malgovernment (mal-guv'em-ment), n. [mal- 

+ government.] Bad government; misgov- 

malgrace (mal-gras'). «. [OF. male grace, 

'bad grace.' See mal- and grace.] It. Ill 

grace; ill favor; disfavor. — 2. Something of 

ill grace or ill favor ; something unbecoming. 
May these not see in us some malnraee which it needs 

the gentleness of Christ to get over and forget, some 

savagery of which we are not aware, some gaucherie that 

repels though it cannot estrange them? 

Geo. MacDonald, "Weighed and Wanting, iv. 

malice, «. 5. The common dwarf mallow, 

Malra rotnndifolia Particular malice, actual 

malevolence ; positive ill-will : it is directed t^iward a 
definite person or persons and is distinguished from legal 
vutlice, that is, the doing of a wrongful act without spite ; 
and from Blackstone's universal malice, which is inten- 
tional but not definite. 

malignite (ma-lig'nit), n. [Maligne river. 
Canaiia, -1- -ite'^.] In pctrog., a name given 
by Lawson (1896) to phanerie igneous rocks 
composed of orthodase with 8egirite-augite, 
biotite, sodie amphibole, nephelite, melanite, 
sphene, and apatite. Some varieties of malig- 
nite are rich in melanite, others in nephelite. 


malik (mii'Iik), N. [Ar.] The head man of a 'romVireinia to Florida and Texas, and also in Central maltpsitB rm a 1 ««, Mf i .. rj^ 7. 
village in parts of India and central Asia. and South America. -European maUow. Malva Alcea »"'*"eBiw (tnai - tes it), n. IMaltese (see 

About this time a letter arrived from the Prince Sultin sL^"™??; ^? «™^''■^;'^ ''S'^/'''^^^^^^^ "„ { T 1 , 'J-. . Variety of chiastoUte or 

DAnijal, reporting that (ilalik) Ambar had collected his SF<«r rioh« mil Aw i^^"' ^■^° '^''/ """-"V"- f"?,'^'^ (aiidalusite) which is found in the crys- 
tr«,_psinliidar. iV«o(, Hist. Ind.. VI. 104. ZZ%2c°J^s7^°Tc-J^a:r;^?:!A'\^^^^^ schists of eastern Finland. It occurs 

mall-mall (ma'h-ma'Ii), H. A f orm of ch ronic g'obe mallow, and S. c»).yidn(a, the sharp-fruited globe ™ ^^^ge nodules that exhibit a Maltese cross 
chorea or tic prevalent in the Philippine "\»'''^"' P'^esteraXorth America.-Hi«h mallow. See or the pure mineral separated by areas of im- 
Islands «'»«•»>««««•— Low mallow, the dwarf mallow, iiffftea pure material. See cut under c7(ia.sto«te 

malipes (mal'i-pez), n. Singular ot malipedes. F«"to SlelSSn^^pr^c^Z,*;'^^^^^^^^ malt-grist (malt'grist), «. See the extract, 

malism (ma'lizm), «. llj. malus, had, + -ism.l fwamp-maUow, the swamp rose-mallow, HiMscus ^^ fif" "'»"teil the malt is again scoured, and is ground 
The doctrine that the world is evil, or that ou •?'<»"■'"'»"«■ -Virginia or Virginian mallow, Sida Z,!?^,^^ crushed in specially-constructed malt mills, 

., , I „ -1 D .Yuiiu 10 cvii, ui luai, uu hennaphrodita. See Sida, 1.— Water-mallow the "hich press the grains so that the hulls remain intact 

the whole evil prevails over good : a less ex- swamp rose-mallow.-WMte mallow, the mS miUow »■>"'« "'« "'t'^rio'- starch body is finely ^wdered. It is 
treme doctrine than pessimism. Altheea officinalis. now termed "inoJ<-<?nX" and it is stored in grist hop- 

Malism, to me a convenient expression, is acknow- malm, V. t. 2. To mix (clay and chalk) for ^!!?' "'«*'''' '' '* ^^^^ ™ readiness for the mash-tub un- 
ledged on all hands. making bricks demeath. •S^«. ^jMsr., June 18, 1904, p. 480. 

H. eoodufn. Science and Faith, p. 243. -V. £. A malma (mal'ma), «. [Kamchatkan.l Same ■ *^*' "• ?' Haeekel's term for the gelat- 
mallSt (ma'hst), n. [L. «m/«.5. bad, -(- -isf] as Dolly Farden trout (wMeh see under trouti) i'^?"^,^<^"°<i-s^Dstanee or mesogloea and con- 
One who believes that the world is bad, but malo (ma'16), «. [Fiiian and Hawaiian the if^"^ , , . * °^ various kinds, which forms 
not the worst possible. paper-mulberry, a malo or girdle made from J,uw?+5*'/'°T.i^^*''^.''' sponges. 

Bad as things are, he does not believe that the world is it, Maori maro, a girdle.! 1 In the Fill Islands •'"'HJ'iaciie (mal tua-sit), n. [dr. fiaWoKoc, 

getting worse and worse ... he is a' niart«(.' Hawaii and other r>ni-tsi nf PnU-noolo fh^ ^„' SOtt (a variant of //a/.axdp, soft), -t- -ite'^.'] A 

CA.,« Job* Solomon, I. 202. V, ^ z,. ^e^Zih^y^%lHurUpP^eT::^2" ""l -^te or yellowish clay which ^'ccurs in sclle^ 

mahstlC (rna-lis tik), a lmahst + .,0.] Per- cloth or girdle made from the^fiber of th; pa- r^^^l^,*TY^ ' JlW ^^^''^'t'^ *° ^"'"•«' ^^^l^- 

tainingtoorofthenatureofmahsm. per-mulberrv. See Brousso,wtia, *kapa,iala ^^^^^^.^""^^^^H' "■ ["'«'«'«+ -'^2.] A 

malltza (ma-ht'sa), n. [Samoyed fj A kind *nute and *n-atd-e '■«/'«, «y«(, general term sometimes used to embrace the 

of fur coat or tunic reaching to the knees, and malobago(ma-16-bk'g6),«. [Bicol malubaoo 1 "^"'^V^ bitumens of varying consistency, 

open only at the neck and hem, worn by the Same as *b<iliba 00 muuwayo.i namely, maltha, mineral tar, brea, and eha- 

Samoyeds. It is made with the hair inside, malobservance (mal-ob-zer'vans) « rmnl •.S'^Pi'v^- • . 

and with mitts attached to the sleeves. See + ohsc^ra^cef Wron| obser^nce • as mat Malthusianize (mal-thfi'si-an-iz), .. ,. ; pret. 
extract under *fo«;,?A«. ofc-enY,«rf of the SabbSth. ' f^d yp. MaUkmiani^ed, vvr^. Malthmimtizmg. 

malkuth (mal-kOth ), n. [Heb. kingdom, malobservation (mal"ob-zer-va'shon1 « [Mamiman+ -izeA To become a supporter of 
< m<,/aA-, to rule, < mf/rf, king.] The tenth [tml +obsen^tim^^ the doctrines of Malthus. [Rare.] 

Sephira, forming the Adam Kadmon. See the act orseeing oribserv?nTtongTv * ' ^alt-jelly (malt'jel'i), n. The trade-name of 
*f,e,,hm,th and*Adam Kadmon. Further experimtnt [in "crystal-gazing "f may reveal '''' ''''^'■''"'^ "^J"''" *° ^^^^^ isinglass, gelatin, 

mallagong (mal a-gong). «. [Australian.] A some nonnal explanation, while scepticism (which seldom o"" agar-agar has been added at a boiling tem- 
native name for the Australian duck-mole or '"^es the trouble tu examine the alleged facts with anv P^rature and the liquid gelatinized by cooling 
platypus, Ornithorhynchm paradoxus : used to J^"g^<;»" always repose on a theory of „,«io6»erM(^^^^^ malto-. A combining form used in organic 
some extent locally as a common name. Also, „„L, \ ■, , - ,- . ^^"^yc. isnt., jLi^:>^ii.. bs. chemistry to designate a relation to maltose. 
mhooks, malUm()onq and vmllagong. maioirontal (ma-lo-fron tal), a. [L. »m?«, maltodextrine (mal-to-deks'trin), »i. A vari- 

Malleable castings! See •castoo. jaw, -1- /ro»«(/ron<-) forehead -f -o/l.] In ety of dextrine or starch-gum, produced in 

malleableize (malT-a-bl-ii'.), r. t.; pret. and fj;"""""- Pertaining to both the malar and 'mashing' brewers' malt, al an intermediate 
p-p. malkublei.:ed, pX>T. malleableizinf;. [ma««- „„?„„?,,"*';., , ^ „• , , , product between starch and fermentable glu- 

able + -ire.] To make malleable, "as iron or ^f*"^"' (ma-lon ik), a [mal(ic) + -on + -/c] cose. Its claim to be considered a distinct 
other metals. [Rare.] /n°Al?&.''" / i " eolo^less compound, CHo- substance is not clearlv established 

mallealfmal'e-al),a. andH. [ma7?<»« -I- -n/l.] C^UH),, found m the sugar-beet and pre- maltol (mftl'tol), m. Imaltl + -oU A colorless 
I. a. Of or relating to the malleus. P*""®" °^'.^'^f, hydrolysis of cyanaeetic acid ; C(OH) : CH 

II. n. Same as interoperculum. StarVs, Propanediacid. It crystallizes in triclinie compound, CH< O ^CH {?), formed 

Svnonvmv of the Fish Skeleton, p. 515. W^ -l *">" ^f'lts and decomposes into carbon CH : C(OH) 

malleate (mal'e at), n. [malleus + -atey^.^ \n '""^d and acetic acid at 132° C. Malonic during the roasting of malt. It crvstallizes 
rotifers, having the mallei stout, the manubria ■ ^"^ and their sodium derivatives are exten- in long needles and gives a violet color with 
and unci being of equal length: as, the rnalle- ,^' "^^.*^ ^F organic syntheses. ferric chlorid. 

lite type of trophi. malorgamzation (mal-or "gan-i-za'shon), n. maltometer (mal-tom'e-ter), «. hiiam + Gr 

malleatory (mare-a-to-ri), (I. [NL. 'mai/ea- l"">'- .+ ">y<'>"^atio>i.'\ Imperfect or wrong //frpox, measure.] A hydrometer with a spe- 
toriiis, < L. mallea'tor, a hammerer, < malleare, "iKanizatiou cial scale, used to detei-mine the strength of 

)•., hammer: see mortfafe] Of or pertaining ™*^°'^^*'}^^®? f™"'""'" gS""'^"^)' «• ["»«'-+ brewers' wort or extract of malt. 
to a hammerer or hammering.- MaUeatory wT'o"'- ^i^-^' °''''^™"^'-^°''^*°'^*'''- ™*1*0I"C (maU [mnfti + -on -t- -io ] 

spasm ..r chorea. Same as m««ea(to», :i. ' malo-Kussian, ». n. o. Pertaining or re- Pertaining ultimately to malt.— Maltonlo acid 

mallee- (mare), ». Same as molly3. lating to the Little-Russians. Same as in/luemic add. 

mallee-scrnbber (mare-skrub*^r), «. in malpais(mal-pa-es'), w. [Sp., 'bad land': see maltosazone (mal-tos-az'on), >i. [maltose + 
Australia, a name given to cattle that run wild mal-, jmis, peasant.'^ The ragged surface of a "-""f] A crystalline compound, Ci.)Ho409- 
in the mallee-scrub, or thickets of dwarf eu- lava-flow. [Southwestern U. S.] (N.NH2)o, prepared by the action of "maltose 

calyptus, Eucalyptus dumosa and E. oleosa. In the old times, up to the present generation, in their on hydrazine acetate. The name is also used, 
The brush-turkey, Leipoa, is similarly known '™'1'''K visits to the Plmas the Hopi Uolt the trail through less correctlv, ioT phenyl maltosazone. 
as the mallee-bird. .nS»a%^Tth^M^"nw^^'' '"'"'*'*"' '*''™'^ maltoside (mal'to-sid), «. [jmaltose + -frfel.] 

mallein (mal'e-in), n. [L. TOaZte(i(«), glanders, ^. II* F™'A-f»,''i'iT'smith8onian Rep., I89«,p. .'i20. ^"^ organic chem., the name of a class of 

+ -in.] A sterilized filtered extract of give- malno«»d Cmal no^d"! n tmnl 4- -t. 'compounds which are both intramolecular 
erin-bonillon cultures of the bacillus of gfand-'°*,??^SadrDrced^ anhydrids and ethers. They are formed 

ers, containing substances from the holies of l'Lfff;-J J 7°"«ly Placed- from alcohols and maltose by the action of 

the bacilli and their soluble products which dis^^r ""' ''e^Z Brit Kx^u'u^ hydrochloric acid, closely resemble the corre- 

have not been destroyed by heat. ™oi^,».i.j» /„ 1 ^, ■ \ r 7 'j '■ -.' sponding glueosides from glucose, and are 

malleh-bug (mal'e-bug), n.^ Same as miana- "^A^^li"""^'^^^^ ^'^^' "• ^""''- '^ ^'"""''^ hydrolyzed by certain enz>-n,s. ' 

bug ( which see). "ill malt-SCreen, «.-Waterfall malf-acreen, a sieve or 

mallemak n See mallemuclc malt', n.— Pale malt, in brewing, malt which has been screen placed in a sloping position and having several 

mallomnt Vma lo mnt'\ ., rr><.,.« -n ™„77 a, dried m a kiln, butata comparatively low temperature, stripsof wood crossing it horizontally, by passing over 

maiiemot ( raa-le-mot ;, n. 1 t-ape U. mallemdt, so Uiat it has less color than yellow or amoer malt.— which malt is cleansed from dust, rootlets, and plumules, 
s mill, loohsh, + mot, moth.] A name given Slack malt, malt which, after having been dried, has preparatury to its use by the brewer. 
in South .Africa to a poisonous wasp. absorbed moisture from the atmosphere. It produces m- maltZVme (malt'zim), n. [malt^ + Gr. Lviin 

malleotomy (rnal-e-ot'6-mi), H. (malleus + 'enor beer, and requires to be redded before use. ferment.] A specially prepared form of dias- 

Gr. -Toiua, < Ta/«(i.,'cut.] 1. An operation for Malta gray. Same as methylene *gray. tase or malt extract. 

separating the malleoli by division of the liga- n^alta^n (nial ' tan), n. [malt^ + -an.'] The malu (mii'lo), n. [Melanesian.] The initia- 
ment which holds them in apposition.— 2. An term used in organic chemistry to designate tion ceremonies of the Melanesians performed 
operation of division of the malleus in the an atomic complex which is supposed to be at the time of puberty of boys, 
middle ear in cases of ankylosis of the ossicles. Pfesent in the starch molecule and which malum, n. 2. In pathol., a disease.— Malum 
mallochorion fmal-o-kn'ri-onl »i r"Nn, < dr gives rise to maltose and its derivatives when coxae, hip-disease— Malum perforans, perforating 
,,n>>^)^ Q lV;.^\,f „ 1 1" / U-i^-,^ijr. the starch is hvdrolvzed ulcer of the foot.— Malum senile. <«) Arteriosclerosis. 

A^^n/./Oi, a lock of wool, + ;fd,Kov, membrane, '""'''arc" 18 nyuroiyzea. ., . , (6) Inflammation of the sclera in the ^ed. (c) A chronic 

bee chorvm.] In embryol., the presumably ^^'-t^Se (mal tas), «. [vialti-i- -ase.] A fer- destructive disease of one of the larger joints, usually the 
primitive form of the mammalian chorion ment which causes the cleavage of maltose '"P. winch occurs in advanced life, 
characterizeii by a uniform covering of villi! *"to two molecules of dextrose. Maltase, malunion (mal-ii'nypn), «. [nial- -i- union.] 
malloplacenta (mal'o-pla-sen'ta), n. [NL. < l"*e lipase, has been shown to be capable of Union of the fragments of boue in a faulty 
Gr. fia'A/o^, a lock of wool, -t- K'L. placenui] reversible action in concentrated solutions, position after a fracture. 

In embryol., a non-deciduate placenta corre- ^t occurs widely distributed in both the ani- Malvavi8CU8(mal-va-vis'kus), «. [NL. (Adan- 

sponding to the mallochorion, that is, having ™al and the vegetable world. son, 1763, adopted from Dillenius, 1732), < L. 

uniformly distributed villi. Such a placenta maltate (mal'tat), k. [malt^ +-ate'^.] A com- -l^a/va, mallow, -I- rj'sctow, bird-lime, in allusion 

occurs in many ungulates and in cetaceans. pound of malt with another substance. to the mucilaginous or fleshyfruit.] A genus 

mallotoxill (mal-6-tok'sin), n. [Gr. /ia>26i, Maltee (mal'te), o. Same as Maltese (cat). °/ plants of the faniily jl/«to«cpa'. They aie 

m^'llowT^iJ^i- *^Zl Samea8*ro<«.r,„. Dialect Notes, ill. iii, 193. [Colloq.] t±i^7]^^tJ^tto^:'^^tZ 

lUdllOW, n — BrlBtly-lrmtea mallow, .Vodtofa Carn- Maltese cross. (6) A plant. Lychnis Chalcedonica. twenty to thirty species, native to wann paits of America. 

(imam/, a low plant of the mallow family with pedately Also called CTO»«-o/-J'er««aJcm.— Maltese lace. See Jf. ortorcux, known to gardeners as ^cAajiw AfaZi'amsc7;s, 

clelt leaves, red flowers, and hispid-aristate carpels, found -klace. is a window-garden or greenhouse plant, with alternate, 


BhfUIowly 3-1obed leaves and scarlet flowers which remain 
nearly or quite elosed and bear a projecting column of 

Malvern quartzite. See *quart:ite. 

malwa imurwii), n. An intoxicating liquor 
made from ripe bananas and fermented millet. 

mam. An abbreviation of mammalogy. 

mamaki (ma-mii'ke), «. [Hawaiian.] 1. A 
name in Hawaii of a shrub of the nettle fam- 
ily, Pipturiis albidiis, found on all the islands 
of the group, and one of the two principal 
plants from which kapa is prepared. — 2. The 
ka]ia or cloth made from this plant. 

mamaloi (ma-ma-16'i), 71. [Also mamati-loi i 
< mama, mother, + Bantu loi, sorcerer.] 
The priestess in voodoo ceremonies. [Haiti.] 

MamamoUcU (ma-ma-mo-she'), n. [F., a 
factitious word.] A pompous title, from that 
supposed to have been conferred by the Sul- 
tan on M. Jourdain in Moji&re's play, ' Le 
Bourgeois Gentilhomme '; hence, one who takes 
such a title ; an ostentatious, self-important, 
and ridiculous pretender. 

mamane (ma-ma'na), n. [Native name.] A 
U'guminous tree, Sophora chrysophylla, grow- 
ing at great elevations in the Hawaiian 
Islands, which has pinnate leaves, racemes of 
pale-yellow flowers, and fruit in the form of a 
four-winged pod deeply constricted between 
the seeds. The wood is hard and durable, and 
is suitable for posts in building. It was used 
by the ancient Hawaiians for making their oo, 
or digging implements, and the liolita, or 
sleds, in which they coasted down the moun- 
tain sides. 

mamanite (ma'ma-mt), n. IMaman (see def.) 
-+- -i7e2.] A mineral closely related to poly- 
halite in aspect and characters, but stated to 
differ in the proportion of the bases. It occurs 
with carnallite at the salt-mine of Maman in 

mamelonated (mam'e-lon-a-ted), a. [mame- 
/o».] Having roundei, nipple-shaped eleva- 
tions on the surface. 

Mameluke bit, a heavy iron bit used by the Brazilian 
niamelucoa. — Mameluke point, the double-ed^'cd cut- 
tinp-point of tlie Mamciulie saber. — Mameluke sleeve, 
a fashion of sleeve worn by women in Paris under tile 
Fii-st Empire. .V. E. D. 

mamillariform (mam-i-la'ri-form), a. Same 
as mammilliform. 

mamma'-^, ». — Supernumerary mammae, breasts in 
excess of the nonnal number. They may be situated 
near the natural ones, or may be found in the axilla, 
groin, or abdominal wall. Also called accessory vunnmte. 

mammaeform, a. An erroneous form for mavi- 

mammalgia (ma-marji-a), n. [L. mamma, 
breast, + Gr. aXyo^, pain.] Neuralgic pain 
in the breast. 

mammality (ma-mal'i-ti), n. The state or 
condition of being a mammal. J. Fiske. 

Mammary arteries, three main trunks which sup- 
ply the breast, the internal arising from the subclavian 
artery, and the superior and inferior external derived 
irom the axillary artery. 

mamma-shrimp (mam'a-shrimp), V, A West 
Indian crab, probably of the family Homolidse. 

mammatO-CUmulus, n. 2. Same as mammi- 
form cloud (which see, under *cto«(Jl). 

mammilla, «.— Splmilng mammilla, one of the 

ni:uiiiiiillif')nii spitmerets of a spider. 

mammillaplasty (ma-mil'a-plas-ti), n. [L. 

mammilla, nipple, + Gr. TrJatrrdf, < n'Aacaeiv, 
form.] A surgical operation for restoring a 
defective nipple or raising a depressed one. 

mamjnoid (mam'oid), a. [>«aTO»j(a)2 -f- -oid.'] 
Pertaining to or resembling a mamma in 
character or shape : as, the mammoid process 
of the temporal bone of man. [Rare.] 

mammoniacal (mam-o-ni'a-kal), a. Same as 

mammonic (ma-mon'ik), a. [Mammon + -ic.'] 
Related to or influenced by Mammon or world- 
lines.s. [Rare.] 

mammonitish (mam'on-i-tish), a. Resem- 
bling Mammon; worldly; avaricious. N. E. D. 

mammular (mam'u-liir), a. [mammuta + 
-or^.] Having or consisting of mammulaj. 

mammulose (mam'ii-16s), a. [mammula +".] Same as *mammular. 

mammy, «• 3. Same as stone-lugger, 2. 

mamo (ma'mo), «. [Hawaiian.] 1. The 
sickle-billed sunbird, Drepanis pacifica, one 
of the honey-suckers of Hawaii : extermi- 
nated for the sake of its yellow feathers, which 
were used in making feather cloaks worn by 
the chiefs. It was black with golden-yellow 
rump and lower back. See cut under l>re- 


panis. — 2. A cloak made wholly or partly 
from the feathers of this bird, 
mamsell, mamselle (mam-zel'), "• [F- mam- 
selle, mamzclle, short for mademoiselle.] Made- 
moiselle. [Colloq.] 

Put on Miss Maria's bonnet this instant, Mamsell. . . . 
I sliall take care, Mamsell. that you return to Switzerland 
to-morrow. Thackeray, Kitz- Boodle Papere, Pref., p. 170. 

man^, «. 14. In Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
and Lonsdale, a cairn or pile of stones mark- 
ing a summit or prominent point of a motm- 
tain. Compare Low Man, High Man, as local 
names for particular cairns, also applied to 
portions of the mountains themselves. N. E. ]J. 
—Blue-sky man. See •.tA-i/i.— Comer man. la) One 
of the two end-men of a company of negro minstrels. (6) 
A loafer who hangs about street^corners. [Eng. in botli 
uses.] ((') In building a camp or barn of logs, one wlio 
notches the logs so that they will fit closely and make a 
square corner, (rf) One who makes a corner in stocks or 
commodities. — Second man. ilt) in domestic service, a 
butler's first assistant, to whom, among other duties, tlie 
care of the silver is intrusted. — The man In the street, 
the ordinary man ; one who takes the conmionplace view 
of things : the type of commonplaceness. 

The man in the street, finding no worth in himself 
wliich coiTesponds to the force which built a tower or 
sculptured a marble god, feels poor when he looks on 
these. Emerson, Self-Keliauce, Essays, 1st ser., p. Q2. 

A Greenwich nautical almanac he has, and so being 
sure of the information when he wants it, the man in 
the street does not know a star in the sky. 

Emerson, Self-Reliance, Essays, 1st ser., p. 83. 
Third man, in cricket, (a) A fielder who stands beyond 
point, but farther from the wicket, and more behind it. (h) 
His position in the field. — Ward man, a police ofJicer 
detailed as a detective in the service of his captain. The 
oifice was abolished in New York in ISiM. [U. S.] — White 
man. («) A man of the Caucasian race, (h) An honest, 
upright man. [Slang, U. S.] 

man^ (man), n. [Per. man. Hind, man, usu- 
ally man, Skt. muna, a measure, a weight, < 
V^'i'i, measure : hence E. maitiid.] A measure 
of weight in Persia, varying in value, in differ- 
ent localities, from about 6 to about 25 

Man., Manit. Abbreviations of Manitoba. 

mana^ (ma'na), n. [Jap. mana, the true or 
real characters, from ma, just, true, perfectly, 
exactly, + na, name.] The Chinese characters 
as used by the Japanese. 

Chinese characters have been adopted by only one 
people with an agglutinative language, the Japanese, 
who along with these charactere ( Mana ) use another 
method of writing ( Kana ), which is syllabic. 

Deniker, Races of Man, p. 141. 

mana^ ( ma ' na ), n. [Maori and Tahitian 
mana, authority, influence; Samoan and 
Hawaiian mana, supernatural power, etc.: a 
word common to many Polynesian and Mel- 
anesian languages.] 1. Power in general; 
authority; influence. [New Zealand.] — 2. 
Magical or supernatural power. 

A degraded and conventionalised representation of a 
bird, probably of the sacred bird of the West Pacific, the 
frigate bird, which possesses mana (spiritual or magical 
power) in an eminent degree. 

Nature, May 14, 1903, p. 36. 

manaca, or manacaa (ma'na-ka'), «■ [Tupi.] 
In Brazil, the name of a shrub belonging to the 
solanum family, Brunfelsia Hopeana, the 
tough woody root of which is used as a 
remedy for rheumatism and syphilis. See 

manada (ma-na'da), n. [Sp.] A Spanish 
term for a herd of cattle or drove of sheep ; 
adopted to some extent in California and 
southern Texas. 

managemental (man-aj-men'tiil), a. [man- 
agement + -0(1.] Relating to management or 
to the management ; of the nature of manage- 
ment. [Rare.] 

managerially (man-a-je'ri-al-i), adv. In the 
manner of a manager; in the capacity of a 

manal (ma'nal), a. [L. man{us), hand, -t- -a?l.] 
Of or pertaining to the manus or hand.— Manal 
formula, in zool., a statement of the distance between 
the distal ends of the second to fifth metacarpals of a 
bat, measured when the wing is extended as in fliglit. 

manana (man-yii'na), n. and adv. [Sp., the 
morning, the moiTow; < L. mane, the morn- 
ing.] 1. n. To-morrow : used as a synonym 
of easy-going procrastination. 

Six hours [to wait] ! What difference did it make? 
There was a flavor of the waiiana por la mannna of the 
Spaniards ... in the acceptance of the situation tllat 
appealed to me. 

F. Hopkinson Smith, A Pot of Jam, in At Close Range, 

[D. 243. 
Land of Ma&ana, the land of To-morrow ; applied to 
any region chai-acterized by the easy-going procrastina- 
tion of its inhabitants ; a land where the Spanish disre- 
gard of the value of time prevails. 

A lethargic sloth beyond that of sluggish ox or somno- 
lent swine, which was an iiritating marvel to the patiei t 


padres of the eighteenth century, and is to-day a by- 
word in the even-tempered land of Mahaiui. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., Marcll, 1002, p. 421. 

II. adr. On the morrow ; to-morrow ; on 
any future day; by and by. 

" Lazzarillo," despairingly, *' order the liorses, it is time 
to go." 

" Oh! manana, senora ; we go maiiana." 

•' But the luggage ? " 

" Oh ! aie, manana," murmured Lazzarillo, provok- 
ingly, ]uitting off the evil day. 
.S. J. Cunnin'jham, Thiough the Byways of Andalusia, v. 

mananguete (ma-nan-ga'ta), n. [Philippine 

Sp.] A person who sells tuba, a drink made 

of palm-sap. [Philippine Is.] 
mananosay (man-a-no'sa), n. Same as 7Han- 

manarvel (ma-nar'vel), f . t. Same as mancKc/. 
Manasquan formation. See ^formation. 
manazo (mil-nii'zo), ». The Japanese name of 

a small shark, Mustelus manazo, of the family 

man-breasted (man'bres'ted), a. Presenting 

a human appearance as far as the breast or 

upper part of the body is concerned, as the 


And in the light the white mermaiden swam. 

And strong man-breasted things stood from the sea. 

And sent a deep sea- voice thro' all the land. 

Tennyson, Guinevere, 1. 244. 

man-broker (man'bro'ker), n. A sailors' 
boarding-house keeper; a sailors' shipping- 

mancala (man'ka-lii), n. [Ar. manqaJo, a 
game plajed with 72 small shells on a board 
of 12 boles, lit. ' place of transferring or mov- 
ing' (compare the meaning of draughts, lit. 
' moves'), < tna-, a prefix forming nouns of 
place and time, -1- naqala, transfer, remove.] 
A game played on a board containing two or 
more rows of cup-shaped holes in which peb- 
bles are placed and transferred from hole to 
hole according to certain rules. The game has 
been carried by the Arabs over the greater part of Africa 
and eastward to the Malay Archipelago. It is known 
locally as naranj (Maldive Islands) ; chanka (Ceylon) ; 
chonffkak (Malay Peninsula); ^oo (Liberia) ; chvncaJo7i 
(Philippine Islands); gabattu ("Abyssinia); abangah 
(Ntam Niam) ; 7vawe (West Indies); chuba (as pub- 
lished and played in the United States). 

Mancalias (man-ka'li-as), 71. [NL., irreg. < L. 
7nancus, defective, -t- -alia.^, "a quasi-diminu- 
tive termination to correspond with tVrai/a*."] 
A genus of fishes of the family Ceratiidse, in- 
habiting the open seas, usually at consider- 
able depths. 

Manchester cotton. See Kendal *cotton. 

Manchesterism (man'ches-ter-izm), n. The 
economic philosophy and policj' of the so- 
called Manchester school ; especially, the prin- 
ciples of free trade and laissez faire. Kidd, 
Western Civilization, p. 23. 

Manchurian subregion. See ■''svbregion. 

mancinism (man'si-nizm), n. llt.manci7ii.9mo, 
< 7nancino, left-handed, < 7na7ico, left-handed, 
maimed, defective, < L. mancvs, defective.] 
Left-handedness or left-sidedness. 

It seems that sufficient care has not yet been taken to 
detennine what constitutes left-handedness. The relative 
strength of the two hands is not enough to decide this, 
for mancinitnn, or left-sidedness, is a matt^jr of relative 
skill as well as of relative strength. 

H. //. Ellis, The Criminal, p. 110. 

mancipant (man'si-pant), n. [L. mandpans 
(-ant-), < 7nancipare, deliver. See mnncipate 
and mancipation.'] One who disposes of prop- 
erty by mancipation ; a maneipator. 

mancipatio (man-si-pa'shi-6), n. [L.] Same 
a-s mancipation, 1. 

mancipative (man'si-pa-tiv), a. \7)ianeipate 
•¥ -i'v.] In Bom. laic, having the character of 
mancipation (which see) ; mancipatory. 

A mancipative will was executed by the same process. 
Paste, Gaius, IL § 103. 

maneipator (man'si-pa-tgr), 71. [L. maneipa- 
tor, < mancipare, deliver. See mancipate and 
mancipation.] In Bom. late, one who disposed 
of property by mancipation; a mancipant. 
Mancipation ... is an imaginaiy sale which is only 
within the competence of Roman citizens, and con- 
sists in the following process t in the presence of 
not fewer than five witnesses, citizens of Rome above the 
age of puberty, and another person of the same condition, 
who holds a bronze balance in his hands and is called the 
balance holder, the alienee holding a bronze ingot in his 
hand, pronounces the following words : Tliis man I claim 
as belonging to me by right quiritary and be he purchased 
to me by this ingot and this scale of bronze, fie then 
strikes the scale with the ingot, which he delivers to the 
7iiancivator as by way of purchase money. 

Paste, Gaius, 1. 1 119. 

mancipee (man-si-pe'), "• [Irreg. mancip(aU) 


+ -^«l.] The purchaser of property by man- 
cipation, or the executor of a maucipatory will. 
mancipium (man-sip'i-um), n. [L. See dkdi- 
cipiitr.'] In Rom. Iiitr, the power over a free- 
man acquired by mancipation, that is, exercise 
of the paternal power to sell a son. The son 
then came into a condition similar to that of 
a slave, but to the purchaser alone. The 
transaction could be only among Eoman 

Bonilage was an institute of the CivU law, slavery of the 
law of nations. [The custom did not exist in Justin- 
ian's time.] PoHe, Gaius, pp. 30, 8.^ 

Mandaic (man-da'ik), a. Same as ilandeean. 

mandant, «. II. a\. Commanding; ordering: 
chiefly in the phrase member mandant, the 
brain! as the controller of the body. 

mandarah (man'da-ra), 71. [Ar. mandarah, 
place of seeing, <."nddara, see.] In some 
Oriental countries, a reception-room. 

mandarin, «. 6. Same as mandarin orange 
(whicli see, under orange'^). 

mandarinize (man'da-rin-iz), r. f. ; pret. and 
pp. tnandurinized, ppr. mandarinizing. [man- 
darhi + -ire.] To raise to the position of 
mandarin: make a mandarin of. [Kare.] 

mandarinship (man'da-rin-ship), n. [man- 
darin + -.ihip.'] The office, authority, or rank 
of mandarin. 

mandate vman'dat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. man- 
dakd, ppr. mandating. [L. mandare, pp. 
mandatus, commit, enjoin, command. See 
mandate, n.] If. To command. — 2. To com- 
mit (a sermon, speech, etc.) to memory by 
repeatipg (it) aloud to one's self before de- 
livery. [Scotch.] 

My father . . . flung away his life without stint every 
Sabhatl»-day. his sermons being lalwriously prepared, 
loudly iiunidatej, and at great expense uf IxKlyand mind, 
and then delivered with the utmost vehemence and rapid- 
J. Brnurn, Jt/etter to J. Cairns, 1880, in Horse Subsecivse, 

[p. 97. 

mandatee (man-dS-te'), «. One to whom a 
mandate is given; a mandatary. 

mandation (man-da'shon), «. [mandate, v., 
+ -ion.'] The act of committing (a sermon, 
or speech, etc.) to memory. See ^mandate, 2. 

mandative (man'da-tiv), a. [ML. mandalirus, 
< L.. man'lare, command.] 1. Relating to or 
of the nature of command. — 2. Ingram., not- 
ing the imperative use of the future. 

mandelic (man-del'ik), a. [G. mandeJ, al- 
mond, + -ic] Noting an acid, a colorless 
compound, <'pHgCH(OH)COOH, prepared by 
the hydrolysis of bitter-almond oil or by the 
action of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of 
benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid. It forms 
large rhombic crystals, melts at 118° C, and 
may be resolved into its optical isomers. 
Also called phenylglijcolic acid or paramai 
delic acid. 

mandible^ n. (e) in polyzoans, an operculum. 

mandibled (man'di-bld), a. Provided with a 
mandible or operculum, as the avieularia of 
certain Folyzoa. 

An acute mandibled ftvicalariam. 

Annall and MttJ. Xat. Uitt., June, 1903, p. 691. 

mandibnla (man-dib'u-lji), n. In ichthyol., 

saijii- as (Icntiirij. 

Mandibular condyle, fenestra, fontanelle, 
foot, goniometer, index. See *condyk, etc. 

mandibularis (man-dib-li-la'ris), n. [XL. 
See niinidiliular.] The ma.s8eter muscle. 

mandilion^ (man-dil'yqn), n. [NGr. ftavSi/Mov, 
fiinih /.loi', a handkerchief, rb ayiov iiavii/'Aiov, 
'the sacred handkerchief of the legend; orig. 
identical with mandilion^, a garment.] A 
handkerchief on which, according to an ecele- 
Hiiistical legend, a portrait of Jesus was 
painted, and which was sent by him to Ab- 
garus, prince of Edessa. In the earliest version 
of the legend, that of Ku-Hcbius. the portrait is not men- 
tioned. Tliree churches claim to i>'issess tlie original 
fflic, the Sainte-Chapelle at Paris, the chui-ch of San 
silveKtro in Canite in Kome, wlience the relic was trans- 
ferred U) the \ atlcan in 1H70, and the church of .S. Itar- 
tolonniieo in OelMja. The mandilion is not to be 
confused with the sudariuni of St Veronica. 

man-dLoor (man'dor), n. In mining, a small 
trap-diiiir on a traveling road. 

mandragorine (man-drag'o-rin), n. [mandra- 
gnra+-ine^.] A hydroscopic resinous alkaloid, 
Ciyll.^ijNOs, contained in the root of Mandra- 
giira nutumntili.-i and M. rrrnnlis. It melts at 
77-79° ('., and its salts are mydriatics. 

mandragorite (man-drag'o-rit), n. [mandra- 
gorn + -ili-. J One who consumes mandragora 
as a narcotic. [Kare.] 


mandrake, «.—WUd mandrake, (n) See ivildi. (6) 

Tile encltanter'a nightsliade, Ciraea Littetiana. 

mandram (man'dram), n. [West Indian.] A 
mixture, used in the West Indies as an appe- 
tizer, consisting of sliced cucumbers, chopped 
shallots, lime-juice, wine, and peppers. Also 

mandrel-press (man'drel-pres), «. A hand- 
press used to push a mandrel into a metal 
object for the purpose of holding it in a lathe 
or other machine-tool: al.«o used to push the 
mandrel out again when the work is done. It 
is usually made as an attachment to a lathe 
and is sometimes a separate machine. Also 
called an arbor-press. 

mandriarch (man'dri-ark), n. [LGr. /lavSpcdp- 
Xnc, < Or. /xavdpa, monastery.] The founder or 
head of a monastic order. A''. E. D. [Rare.] 

mandrin (man'drin), n. [F. mandrin, a man- 
drel, former, strike, etc. : see mandrel.~] A 
stiff wire used to give shape and rigidity to 
a soft catheter during its introduction. 

mandruka (man-dro'kii). )(. A trade-name of 
a kind of honeycomb-sponge of fine quality. 
Honeycomb sponges are various in quality, these being 
known as Mandruka^ ainl found in deep water, are per- 
fect forms, and have a close fiber and no horny fibers 
protruding from the surface, and are characteristic for 
their small root. Sci. Amer. Sup., Feb. 14, 1903, p. 22670. 

manflight (man 'flit), «. The flight of a 
human being through the air by means of a 
flying- or a gliding-machine. Aeronautic An- 
nual, 1895, p. 145. 

manga, «. 2. A cone-shaped bag for the fil- 
tration of amalgam. Phillips and Bauerman, 
Elem. of Metallurgy, p. 746. 

mangan (mang'gan), n. [Gr. uayyavov, a ma- 
chine, war-engine : see mangonel.] Same as 

mangan-, mangano-. A prefix used with min- 
eral names to indicate the presence of mangan- 
ese : as, manganapatitc, manganosiderite, etc. 

manganandalusite (raang"gan-an-da-lu'sit), 
n. A variety of andalusite of a grass-green 
color, wjiich contains considerable mangan- 
ese : found in muscovite-quartzite at VestanS, 

manganberzeliite (mang'gan-b6r-ze'li-it), n. 
A variety of berzeliite from IJingban, Sweden, 
peculiar in containing both manganese and 

manganblende (mang'gan-blend), n. Same 
as aldhandint'. 

manganbmcite (mang-gan-brS'sit), n. A 
massive variety of brucite which contains 
considerable manganese : found at Jakobs- 
berg, Sweden. 

Manganese bronzo. 0>) Same as nuinffanete brotcn. 
See Oritwn. — Mang&uese dlOXid, the connnon black 
oxid of manganese, fcanid in nature as the mineral pyro- 
lusite : valuaiile in tlie manufacture of glass, steel, 
l>Ieaching-iM,wder, and in other industries. Its comimsj. 
tion is represented by the fommla SIn02. — Manganese 
peroxld, manganese dioxid, MnOg, also known as l>Iark 
oxid of niaitgatiese. As found in nature it constitutes 
the mtnenil pyrolusite. See in<i«.7«»u?«/'.— Manganese 
Silicate, a compound which occurs in nature in several 
minemls (as rh«-*tionite, tephroit§, and bementite) and as 
a ('Mistitnt-iit at many nu)re complex silicates. — Red 
manganese. ('*) Rh<xlonite. 

manganesious (mang-ga-no'shius), a. [man- 
i/inicxc + -i-nii.<i.] Same as manganous. 

manganic- (mang-gan'ik), a. [Gr. jiayyaviKd^ 
(used in reference to charms), adj., < iiayyavov, 
a machine: see *mangan.] Relating to the 
form of civilization in which machinery is 
used : opposed to *naturistic, 2. 

Professor Roulean, of Berlin, divides culture into phases 
which he calls 'manf/ant'c' and 'naturiatic '; the former 
term applies to the use of machinery and the domesti- 
cation of nature's forces, the latter to that condition of 
culture in which the hand was aided by the simplest 
appliances. Pop. Sci. Mo., Feb., 1902, p. 338, 

manganin (mang'ga-nin), «. [niangan{ese) + 
-in".] An alloy of 84 per cent, copper, 12 per 
cent, nickel, and 4 per cent, manganese, used, 
generally in the foi-m of wire, to make elec- 
trical resistance-coils, since its resistance va- 
ries little with changes of temperature. 

manganite, «. 2. A substance which may be 
viewed as a compound of manganese dioxid 
with tlie nionoxid of a more basic or electro- 
positive metal.— Calcium manganltes, compounds 
which represent the jn-oiiuct of the union of lime and 
manganese dioxid in dirt'erent projtortions. They coTisti- 
tute the ' Weldon nnid ' oht.iineil in ttie process, patenteil 
by \V, Weldon, ff»r recovering maTiganese in available form 
from the still litiuorof the manufacture of chlorid of lime. 

manganitic (man-r'a-nit'ik), o. Pertaining to 
or containing mangxnite. 


n. Same as manganeolumbiti. 

manganosphserite (mang"ga-no-sfe'rit), «. 

An iron-manganese carbonate occurring in 
globular aggregations : found at the Louise 
Mine near Horhausen, Germany. 

Manganous acid, a hypothetical acid, HoMnOg, corre- 
sponding t(> the manganites. It is not Known as an 
actually obtainable substance, — Manganous oxid, 
manganese monoxid or protoxid, MnO, 

manganpectollte (mang-gan-pek'to-lit), n. A 
variety of pectolite containing several per 
cent, of manganese protoxid : found at Mag- 
net Cove, Arkansas. 

mange^, ".—Texas mange. Same as icmferifcA. 

mangel, «. An abbreviation of mangel-wurzel. 

mangle", «. 2. See plate-straightening *rolls. 

mangle-padded (mang'gl-pad"ed), a. In eal- 
ico-prinfing, noting cloth which has been sat- 
urated, or padded, with a mordant or color in 
a mangle. 

man-god (man'god), «. A deity regarded as 
being in form or origin or in other respects a 

ITie old tradition of the fish-headed vmn-ffod Cannes, 
who taught men to read and to write, and to sow, and to 
reap, and to build. Nature, Feb. 11, 1904, p. 338. 

mango-fish,)'. 2. Polynemus paradoxus, a, &sh. 

found in the East Indies. 
mango-fool (mang'go-fol), 1). Mangos beaten 

to a pulp and mixed with cream or milk. 

y. ]■:. 1). 

mangostin (mang'go-stin), 11. [viangost{een) 
+ -!«-.] A tasteless golden-colored compound, 
C20H02O5, contained in the husk of the fruit of 
Garcinia mangostana from India. It crystal- 
lizes in thin plates melting at 190° C. 

mangrove, »!.— Black mangrove. Same as *co«r- 
i(/(i. — Button mai^ove, Ctmocarpys erecta: same 
as buttumcood, 1,— Flve-petaled mangrove, Ceriaps 
CandoUeana, a tree whit'li yields a nit-dieinal bark. 
See Temjah *6arJ-. —Pour-petaled mangrove, Rhizo- 
})hftra mucronata and R. Mangh-. See lUdzophora and 
iiinngrore, 1.— Mangrove grouper. See *<jrouper. — 
Many-petaled mangrove, Jiruinuera gymnorhiza. — 
Milky mangrove. Same as ■khtindinff-irce, — Native 
mangrove, m Tasmania, a variety of Acacia lonftifolia, 
abundant on the sea-coast and an excellent tree for binding 
coast sands.— Red-flowered mangrove, I.umnitzera 
ii((orC(l.— Red mangrove. ('<) in Australia: (1) Bru- 
guiera Rhcedii, a small tree which yields a good tan-hark 
and a hard, durable, yellowish-brown wood ; (2) Ileritiera 
Wtoralist, a tree of the family Stcrcnliaccse. See Heri- 
tiera&ni mmdan', —River-mangTOVe, ^Ktticeras majus, 
a small tree of the family Myrginacae, which grows on 
swampy shores from India and Ceylon to China, the I'hil- 
ippine Islands, and northern Australia. It forms im- 
penetrable thickets like the common mangrove. 

mangrove-fly (mang'gr6v-fli), n. A West 
African fly of the genus Glosaina, a tsetse-fly. 
The genus Tabanidre, to which *' hippo" and "man- 
grove " Jticg belong, has a wide distribution, which extends 
all over the country mid along the Nile, and in no way 
agrees with that of sleeping sickness. The bite of these 
flies is, however, severe, and they may be regarded as pos- 
sible carriers of disease. 

Jour. Trap. Med., Nov. 2, 1903, p. 343. 

mangrove-minnow (mang'grov-min'.o), n. 

See *mi)inotr. 
Manhattanese (man -liat-an-es'), a. and n. 
[.Manhattan + -ese.] I. a." Of or pertaining 
to the island of Manhattan (New York) or to 
its inhabitants. 

I'nlike most "stellar vehicles," however, "Her Own 
Way " is very far from being a one-part piece. It brings 
together a immber of highly piquant Manhattanese types 
of to-day, sketched with captivating drollery. 

The Forum, Jan. -March, 1904, p. 410, 

II. n. 1. One who lives upon the island of 
Manhattan. — 2. The characteristic phrase- 
ology of a New-Yorker. 
maniole (man'hol), v. i. ; pret. and pp. man- 
holed, jjpr. manholing. To enter or use a 
manhole, as for the purpose of examining or 
repairing machinery. [Nonce-word.] 
" Mister McAndrews, dont you think steam spoils ro- 
mance at sea ? " 
Damned ijjit ! I 'd been doon that mom to see what ailed 

the throws, 
Manholin', on my hack— the cranks three inches from my 
nose. li. Kipling, McAndrew's Hynm, 1. 147. 

manhole-plate (man'hol-plat), n. The cover 
of a manhole. 

manhole-ring (man'hol-ring), n. A ring, usu- 
ally of steel or wrought-iron, riveted to a 
boiler-shell around a manhole to strengthen 
and stiffen the shell at that point and form a 
flat surface for the joint with the lid. 

mania, ». — AlCOhoUo mania, delirium tremens.— 
Mania mitis, delirium,- Reasoning mania, parancea. 

manic (ma'nik), a. [Gr. /mv/Kdc, mad, insane, 
< fiaria, madness : see mania.] Relating to or 
affected with mania. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
V. 120. 

Manicaria 768 


Manicaria (man-i-ka n-a), H. [NL. (Gaert- manitology (nian-i-tol'6-ji), «. [»ianj«(o) + mannitine (man'i-tin), n. [wanwj/fe + -)«A] 

uer, 1(91), < L. mamcir, sleeve, glove, gaunt- -uloyy.} The study of mauitos. A colorless liquid, OuHwNo, i)repared l>v the 

let ; from the appearance of the spathes.] A Wc shi-uld du itieat injustice to tlie Indian character, distillation of a mixture of mannite and aiu- 

genus of palms. It contains but one species, not to mention liy tar the most prominent of their beliefs, moniuiii ehlorid It boils at 170" V 

M miefifrrtl the blissn of the Rrnyilinn im- so far as tliey govern his daily practices. We allude to -l ^.. ,' , <^ ^ " '^^ 

ti J«f w^;/,.l i Jfm.^^frn^, t»7» Ai;„ J;^^^^ "'« '''«"■"'« "' M>">it<«s. or what may be denominated mannohcptite inan-o-liep'tit), n. [»nOH«« + 

Uves. which is found from the Amazon region ,„„,„■,„,„„,,. Schoolcraft, Ind. Ti-ibes of u. s., 1. 311. Ur. »•--«, .scv.n, + -(fe2.] 8ame a.H*i>eT8eitf 

to Central America. See buisii-palni. ■ ■ -^ , .-,.., ^„ ■ , . ^ . «, v ^ / - i , - \ i^'oc.... 

-^ manjairah (man-ji'ra), n. fSynan.] A Syrian mannoheptoEe (man-o-liep'tos), n. [mantia + 

manic-depressive (ma'Dik-de-pres'iv). n. direct flute with six'holes. Gr. tnra, Hevcn, + -ow.] The name of three 

Both manic and melancholic : noting a form . stcreomerie compounds. The i-derivative is 

of insanity in which mania and melancholia __ j— — , -~ ^ , a colorless svrup, C7H14O7. prepared from the 

alternate. Baldwin, Diet, of Philos. and Psy- ' ' li if ii l J f i. . . T J ,a.f ii J i . ii, -.n,Jtiii i i J-rn. . 4»n-ir i ,J-rrW eorrespondiiig maunoheptonic anhydrid. It 

chol., U. 393. Manjairah. '8 uot fermentable with beer-yeast. 

manicurist (man'i-tiir-ist), «. [manimire + . mannonic (ma-non'ik), a. [mdiina + -one + 
-ixl.} One who practises manicure ; a mani- maiyak (man ' jak), n. [West Indian.] A -«•.] Noting an acid, a hypothetical corn- 
cure, variety of bitumen found in Uvalde county, pound, CqHi.JJi, known only in the form of 
The surseons, thouRh they had ceased to rank with I®"""'; o^'"^ '" r Barbados. Smithsonian its anhydrid and salts. Three stereomerie 
iM«ii4d/ri«f» and barbers, were often little better than ««;>-, looy, 1>. 440. Substances with this name are known. The 
iKmc-settcre. .Vnf«rf, .July 26, 1900, p. 294. mg^jygg (man'je), n. lAlso manjie, mangee, d-'lerivative, which is the most important, is 

manifest," — Master's manifest («<!«?.), the dcwu- mauiKjcc ; < Hind, nidnjhi, Beng. nidji, mdf/hi, Prepared by the oxidation of mannose. 
meiit, Bi>,nied by the master ai.dsulnnitted to the customs lit. 'one who stands in the middle,' < Skt. mannononose (man-6-non'6s), w. {manna + 
authnnties, showing to what itort the carK<t is destined, ^ ^j _• i n o ■ n n mi , > ^^ i-. j_ , ,„ n a i ' i i * ^ ^ 
ami(!ivinKanitenii7.edaccountofit,andthenamc8ofthe >»n'?'i.'/", middle. See »«mM.] The master, or -o) <-■ + -o,sc.] A colorless dextrorotatory ear- 
shippers and consiKnees. steersman, of a boat or any native river-craft; bohydrate, CgHigOg, prepared by the redue- 

manifestational(man''i-fes-ta'shon-al), a. Of, also a title boiTie by the head men among the tion of mannonic anhydrid. It forms small 

pertaining to, or of the nature of manifesta- Paharis or Hill-people of Kajmahal. ¥ulc and crystals melting at about 130° C. 

tion. lUtrncU, Hobson-Jobson. manno-octose (man-o-ok'tos), n. [manna + 

manifold^. «. 6. In »loft., given a general The principal Oaut ma.isrie* of Calcutta have entered Gr.o/fr,i eight. + -<«e.] A colorless svrupy 
conception capable of various determinations '"'f, f/.TSv '.b,.™ w!?i, w« '"""* *" '"'"''''' *" """ «'^''^?'^>'l^'^t<'. CsHieO^, prepared by the re- 
or determination-modes, the totality of the de- '"'" """ "'"'"^ ""-" *'"' ^f^aia Gazette Feb 17 1781 ''""*"'" "^ nianno-oetoie anhydrid. 
tenninable particulars is a wfomYoM, of which „„„.„ , „ ,..,.., rn v ' t \- mannose (man'os), n. [vianna + -oncl Th- 
each is an element. The manifold is continu- n^ajyiia (maii-ho a), n. [Cuban, of native name of three stereomerie compounds, CeH,. - 
ous or discrete, according as the passage from ""f^."'-^ . ^^^'^^ ^^ "''"/f «'^ *anchov,j. Og. The dextro-derivativeis found in ground- 
one determination to another is continuous or manjuan (man-ho a-re ), «. [Cuban, of native nuts and is prepared by the oxidation of 
discrete. origin.] bame as alliyator-yar (which see, mannite. 

Now since every point of the colour mnji^/-,*/ is com- i""'*^"" j/r()l). manO (ma'no), M. [Sp., lit. 'the hand,' < L. 
pletely determined by three magnitudes which are given manfealan, «. aee*mancala. mantis, the hand.] A cylindrical stone, 
in fact ami cannot be arbitrarily chosen, it is plain that manyH (man'lid) re The cover of a manhole ^^'Khtly tapering to each end, used for grind- 
measurement liy superposition-mvolving, as it does, mo- •»"*""" I.'"*" i'";> »• f "'; '-"^er oi a mannoie ^ -f j- » „ , *„,„(„/-, 
tion, and therefore change in these detemiining nuigni- "t a steam-boiier. [British.] i"g Ki^am "r eotoa. bee also -^nutate. 
tudes— is totally out of the (incstiiin. tnanlihnnil fman' li -luidl « MnnlinAaa The grindlng-stoneconcordantly changes from a simple 
/I. .1. H-.y(»»«.«, Foundations of Geom., p. 07. v /■ /) rR»™ 1 Manliness, roller or crusher t.^ a 7n<»w (or mullcr), and flnallv to a 
a Q„™„ „o *,..^.,.<v.7,7 ..,.)., •, ^ , . ->. J^. J'. Lnare.j pestle, at first broad and shiu-t, but afterwards long and 
fili^Jl*Z:^:^::St-^1!!^!:.^^ Mannaheim (man'a-him), re. [Icel. 'Manna "lender. ^„„v..„,»v,n Av^.. 1H99, p. 37. 
is aasociatlveand commutative. —Infinite manifold, one "'.'""' home ot men, ,'l/«H«/(«»Har, pi. 'homes manoao (mS-no-a'd), re. [Maori.] A small 
thatisequivalent to a part of itself.— Numerable manl- ot men.'] In jVonse m»/<A., the earth. tree of the yew familv Diicri/ilium ColfiiSGi 
^?\tVr'i;tL'rar?Zibe,f a^t-ro;ii'trre;;,S manna-insect (man'a-in;sekt), re. A scale- yielding a hard, close-grLiiu-d 
dice can he established.— Ordered manifold, a inani- '"Sect, Cossi/paria manntfera (former>y known wood. Called also Aew Zealand yellow pine 
fold aiTiinged in order liy a dellnite criterion.— Progres- as Coecus matiniparus), which lives on the a\\i\ tarvond. 

™retaS°antSI„?trau";hf^rt'Vnd'(iVLUrre"^ tamarisk an<l has been fancied to have pro- manoeuver, re.-orldlron man«uver inaral), a 

rac'ut X Is Joliowed by a definite next elemenC i" so that ^ueed the manna of the children of Israel. Hntish tactidu mana.uver of a fleet in .louble iohnnn, in 

a: (-x- and no element falls within the interval (x, rC).— mannan (man'an), re. [«*n«H« + -nre.l A "''■'c'' "le s"'l'« ""^''l'i column tuni inward simullane- 

Seif-constltuted manifold, a manifold wherein only colorless comnoimd or mixtnreof ""»>' and i.ass through the nitervals between the ships 

the properties which the clemdits represent are used to ^'^'<" ".''^ compound, or mixtureor compounds, „f the othercolumn. then again tuni simultaneously, thus 

define tlie rehitiims betw en clementT. The manifold of tou"" I'l the seeds ot certain leguminous and fonning d(juble column in the inverse order, 

integral numbei-8 is self-constituted, since all relations of other plants and in the tubers of several or- manogtaph (man'6-graf) n [Gr uav6r rare 

such numbers can be defined in temis of them.-Unl- chids. It constitutes a reserve food of the thin (ace maiiomelcr) + ynddav' vrrite '\ A 

form manifold, one m which each element bears the T,i„„t n„fl is renrlilv nonvpr-tod int^ .„n,>„oQo 1 • ^- '"^"'<^""''<^ ), ^ JP^wn , wiiie.j A 

same relation as any other element to the manifold con- f^^^h f"'^. 1^ readily convertecl into luannose device m which a beam of light, moving over 

sidereil as a whole. Tiie perimeterof a circle, the jKiints ''y the action ot soluble termentg. a ground-glass screen, shows the pressure in 

^rtace'^IffTc'lrcie'"™'" " """""" """'""'''■ ''"'■ ""' ">" mannane (man'an), re. [manna + -aree.] Same the cylinder at any point of the stroke for a 

as *iH««Hn«. given engine: used on high-speed engines, as 

manifold^ (man'i-fold), M. [Also mannifold, manna-oak (man'a-6k), n. 8ee*oofr. of motor-cars, which are too small for ordinary 

manifolds ; many + fohn, «.] The third stom- manneotetrose (m"an"e-6-tet'r6s), re. [manna intlieators. 

ach of a ruminant; the manyplies; the in- -|- Gr. r<V,)«-, four, + -ose.1 A sugar, C24H40- Manometabola (man"6-me-tab'6-la), re. pi. 

testines generally. [Eng. dial.] O.j,, obtained from manna. It forms small [NL., < Gr. //wfic, thin; -t- //cra/3oA^,'change.] 

manifolder (man'i-fol-der), re. Any contriv- monoclinie crystals. Also called «tat7(^ose. In e«to/»., a division of Packard's /ffferowKta- 

ance, sueli as a manifold-writer, for making a manneristic (man-6r-is'tik), a. [mannerist + *"''" including those insects which undergo a 

number of facsimile copies of a document, a -if.] Characterized by mannerism. slight or gradual metamorphosis but which 

sketch, or the like, at one time ; also, the per- i have much to say on the danger which (I think) at ^re active in all stages. It includes the Ortliop- 

Bon who uses such a contrivance fortius pur- present besets the Apostolical movement of getting pecu- if ra, JJermaptcra, rialyplcia,Tliysanoptera, aud 

pose. "•'' '" "externals, i.e. fonnal, manneristic. Memiptera (the Voccidse excepted). 

manifold-valve (man' i- fold- valv''^ n A , f. '^' ■'^ "'''''"''' ''*''*™' ^'' ",^^' manometer, re. 2. In p/i.i/sio/., an instrument 

mamioiu yd,ivo (.man i loiu vaiv ;, n. ^ mannersome (man ' er- sum), a. Manner v. nsed for determinine- hlood-iiressurp 

iiuiiibcr ot yulves combined m one valve-body ri.',,„ (Hall * usiu lor ueitrmiimig oioou-pressiiie. . 

or -chamber. Each valve has a separate ,, " ',,. , . , -^ , » ^ , ... Ilurthle's differential wnHOT)i<-(rr has proved to be an 

opening below it to which a pipe can bt con- J^ZZZl^I^^x^tt^\^/Z^l\^Z^''nZ «nX '"f™""-'"*"'.^'-.^"'' -?l>»'r"' '?i"r'""- . ^ <louble-hored 

nooforl y,i,t llic^ni. <,W,o tl.o „., Kroo ic Jvnj """;"" «™'| . wnen tne door was tlliown open, ana tube cannula is introduced so that one tube leaches the 

nocted, but the chamber above the valves is m came her mother. it. D. Blackmore,, xxviii. right auricle and the other the right ventricle. In obser- 

common to all. Usually called »non(/oM. mannid (man'id), «. [Also mannide • manna vations on the left side of the heart, one tube is placed in 

manigraphy (™f-"ig'ra-fi), « [Gr /.av/a. -f -,V/l.] One of a class of organic substances JilLilUeri^llUght'h? »n,re.t,"^ 

madness, + -ypa<pia, <, ypiv^eiv, write.] The de- which occur widely distributed m the vegeta- Encyc Brit XXXI. 733. 

scription of the various forms of insanity. ^le world and on decomposition yield mannite, RegnatUt manometer, a fonn of manomeUr'in which 

man-in-the-grOUnd (man'in-the-ground'''), n, C(;rlj4t>g. jiny desired adjustment of the mercury is effected by 

Same as «!(/(< *(/oHrrf (6). " mannie (man'i), n. [Dimin. of «)«».] A means of a three-way cock. 

maniple, re. 5. In the middle ages, a garment little man ; a boy. [Scotch.] Manometric unit. See *i(»f7. 

worn under the armor. " Well, )n«jim>," he added, " it 's nane of my aflairs ; manorrin (ma-nor'in), «. [Ojibwav name.] 

TnaniBTn rrnn '„;-/.„ ^ ., TT ™/>„C/..•^ ^co«. ,„^..«o but ye seem a decent-spoken lad." The wild rice. Z(rn«ia OOKrt^Cfl. 

manism (ma ni/.m;, re. ^Li. »iare(eA) (see ?nawe.«, ii. i. S(ei)en«on, Kidnapped, ii. . . , _ . ^ ^^ 

1) -t- -i.sM.] The worship of the manes or rnannitan fman'i-tanl re {mannite + -«» 1 manostat (man o-stat), ». [Gr. //oi-df, rare, 

shades of the dead (; S Hall Adolescence ™*°^"*" ^™f° ' '^S'"-'' "•, V>ia>^itc^ -on. J ^,, , + araTO^, verbal adj. of taravai, stand, 

sua le^ dead. (,. *. Hall, Adolescence, 'y he name ot two compounds, CflHp.Os. They g^^ _;^„„.,^ A device for keeping constant the 

WonV«,;.ia r,.„r. i =••' • ^ rXTT n ■ are formed by prolonged boiling ot mannite essure of the gas in some apparatus ; a. pres- 

^anismris (man-i-so ns), re. [NU (Lmn»u8, with eoncent,rated hydrochloric acid, and are ^^^^ regulator. Jour. Phys. Chem., Feb!, 1907, 

1/ (1), <. (jrr. //ai'6f, loose, scanty, + cA-pa, tail, distinguished as amorphous and crystalline. iny " .■> j > 7 

The allusion is to the character of the inflo- The former is semisolid and feebly dextroro- ' ' ' ... .„ 1 1 -1 t 7 <i 

rescence.] Agenusof gresses. See Rottba'llia. tatory ; the latter forms monoclinie tables ™a°^'J®,("''"'^)' "• -l-^-'V. ici' i" ''<'«'«"«> 

Manitoban (man-i-to'ban), „. and H. I. „. and is strongly levorotatory. one of he numbers from 1 to 18. 

Of or pertaining to Manitoba. mannitic. a. 2. Pertaining to mannitic acid ..i^e'i^lJirt^ wTS^lff Jln'£Xof';U^r^be^^^^^^ 

II. re. An inhabitant of Manitoba. or manna.— Mannitic acid, a strongly acid syrupy i to 18 inclusive. -Inw-r. Hoyle, p. 378. 

manitoism, manitonism (man'i-to-izm, -to- S''"irre.ui^"i&?3Cer"Sut'Si°uVsol«: manqnea (miin-ka'ii). «. [Sp., < manqnea,; 

izm), M. Same as *rft'»(0«i'«iH, 2. tion when wanned. pretend to be maimed.] An infectious disease 



of young cattle existing enzootieally through- 
out tropical and subti'oi)ieal South America. 
It is characterized by the formation of ab- 
scesses of the size of a walnut or a hen's egg 
upon the legs. The cause is a minute oval 
bacterium which closely resembles the bacil- 
lus of fowl-cholera. 

To Mr. (>. \'oges, of Buenos Ayres, is due the credit of 
having; discovered the smallest bacillus which has yet niantlfl-f« 
been identiUed. It is much smaller than the influenza *"f'^»'^0 ~IU- 
bacillus, and is only just discernible when magnifled SiOn(man - 
about 1.^W times. These very minut« rods were obtained 
from abscesses which cattle suffer from in South America, 
producing a disease known as m<inquea amongst 
other names. It is usually found in Quite young 
cattle, and is easily recognisable by the chai-acteristic 
lameness of one leg which it produces. 

yature, March 13, 1902, p. 446. 

manciueta (man-ka'ta), «. {Also maquata ; 
\V. African.] The native name for a fossil 
guni-re.>*in found in Angola. It resembles 
copal gum. 

Man-rope stanchion. See *stanchion. 

M. A. N. S. An abbreviation of Member of 
the AeiiiUiiiij of yatural Sciences. 

mansard, mansarde (man-sard'), n. [F. : see 
Maiiminl cor;/'.] In French, a mansard roof; a 
dormer-window ; hence, a chamber lighted by 
such a window; a chamber in the roof: in 
English used in all these senses. See Mansard 
roof, under roof^. 

man'S-motherwort (manz'muTH'fer-wfert), w. 
The oastor-oil bean, Ilicinus communis. 

mant (mant), V. ('. and t. [Origin obscure.] 
To stammer. [Scotch.] 

manta, «. 5. A wrap of black cloth, cash- 
mere, or silk extensively worn by women on 
the west coast of South America, especially 
in the forenoons and to church and funerals. 
It is worn less now than formerly, when it was 
in general use on the streets. 

Mantchu, ». and a. See MancktA. 

mantel, «. 4. lu geom., lateral surface : as, the 
miiutcl of a frustum.— Mantel flfnres, statuettes 
or flgurines for the decoration of mantels or small apart- 
menU ; conunonplace and commercial sculpture. 

manteltree, ". 2. Sameas;««n?ef/<i>rf. .V. E. D. 

mantic, ^f. —Mantle bees, bees supp^^ed to have pro- 
piietic ]M)Wer. llees played an important part in Oreelc 
mytliology and in tlie oracles. 

In the Homeric Hymn to Hermes we get a seeming 
personification of mantic beeg in the neighlw^rhiHul of 
l>elphi. A. B. Coitk, in Jour. Hellenic .Studies, XV. 7. 

n. n. Divination ; an object used in divin- 

In these eight lectures are discussed, first, the methoiis 
of religious psychology and various views concerning the 
essence of religion, its development and diverse forms, 
subjective faith and the specific utterances of faith, 
offerings, vows, castigations, sacramental acts and ob- 
jects, tnanticK, revelations, prayer, symbols and symlx»lic 
acts, religious iirt, iiresentations in words, doctrine, 
dogma an<l free Ifnowleilge, religious ethics and religious 

Amer. Jitur. Relig. Pfyehol. and Education, May, 1904, 

ip. 107. 

manticoceran (man-ti-kos'e-ran), n. Relat- 
ing or belonging to the genus ilanticoceras. 

Manticoceras (man-ti-kos'e-ras), n. [NL., 
< Gr. iwrrikik, prophetic, + Ktpac, horn.] A 


connect the chromosomes during the anaphase 
stages of 
k a r y o k i - 
netic eell- 
di vision. 
See inter- 
zonal *fi- 

«. In "bi- 
union of the 
edges of 
the man- 
As the re- 
sult of such 
fusions the 
anal and 
siphons and 
the opening 
for the pro- 
trusion of 
the foot are 

(man ' 1 1 - 
lin), n. 
Same as 


mining (as kainite), or at least requiring transportation 
from points where found (as guano). Chemical tetilizers 
are here included and materials of organic origin, such as 
ground bone, tankage, etc. In America these are usually 
termed commercial fertiUzen, soil amendments being 
often included.— Barn-yard manure. Hee fnrm.yard 
•maftur*'.- Chemical manure, an inorganic fertilizer 
which consists of one or nioie cliemical compounds (mu- 
riate of potash, nitrate of soda, etc.)containing a nianurial 
ingredient,- Cold manure, an animal manure wliich 
ferments slowly, as tliat of cattle and liogs.— Complete 
normal, or general manure, a fertilizer which sup' 
plies all the elements of plant-fcKid in which soils are lia- 
ble to be deficient, namely, nitrogen, phosphorus, and 
potassium. See -kmanurial ingredient. — Fann-yard, 
barn-yard, or stable manure, the solid and ii(juid 
excrements of stock kept in and about stables, more 
often mixed with litter. This is a complete manure, but 
the ingredients are not in due proportion. Tile, urine is 
more valuable than the solids.— Fresh manure. Same 
as </rpc)i*7nnni(re ((/).- Green manure, (a) Any fresh 
vegetable substance, as weeds, prunings, seaweed, etc., 
used as a fertilizer ; in recent use, chiefly, a standing crop 
plowed under for fertilizing. See ffreen ■kmanurini/. 
(b) \ nfermented dung. Also called ,/^resA or (on(/?/i<i»Hrc 
— Liquid manure. See manure. — Long manure 
barn-yard manure which contains unrotted litter ; hencel 
fresh manure.— Short manure, well-rotted bani-y'ard 

Ueterotypic.ll Mitosis in Spermatocytes of the 
Salamander. ( 
.^. prophase: chromosomes in the form of * i_ / - / ., , 

scattered rines. each of which represents two manUrC-SlCE (ma-UUr Sik), O. 
daughter-chromosomes joined end to end, B, ' ' "' -. ~ 

the rings, ranged about the equator of the 
spindle and diriding ; the swellings indicate 
the ends of the chromosomes. C, the same, 
viewed from the spindle-pole. Z?, diagram 
(Hermann) showing the central spindle, asters, 
and centrosomes. and the contractile mantle- 
fibers attached to the rings (one of the latter 

(From Wilson's ■■ The Cell.") 

See /arm-yard -kinamire. 

See *mnshroom- 

pnllial line. 

mantle-lobe (man'tl-lob), «. In brachiopods, 
either the dorsal or the ventral reduplication 
of the body-wall, closely applied to the in- 
ternal surface of the corresponding valve and 
containing a prolongation of the ca?loma. 
Parker and Hastoell, Textbook of Zool., I. 333. 

mantle-rock (man'tl-rok), n. Residual depos- 
its, consisting of the insoluble portions of rocks 
which have been exposed to the atmospheric 
agencies. The layer covers the more solid 
and unaltered rock like a mantle. Compare 
lateritc, *regolith, *saproUte. 
It is not to be inferred, however, that any part of the manutype (man'u-tip), n. PL. nianus, hand, 

jHtinffc roc* (soil and subsoil) now remaining in this area 4- riw .r,m-n/- f,rr,o *1 D».J«*-«rl »;,«*■*■«« w,«.q i*-u 

is necessarily millions of year„ old. It is possible that 7.^ " '^"'^"f' We-J Printed matter made With 
all product* of decay in the distant past have l)een carrieil letters separately impressed or formed by hand, 
away by erosion, and tliat all which now remain are the manutype (man'u-tip), V. t. ; pret. and pp. 
prwliict of (iecay within relatively recent times. manuti/ped, mr. 'manutypint/. To make by 

7f. />. .SatM^ttry, in (Jeol. Surv. of >iew Jersey, 1897, p. 7. i a V„ /J^ - -ii- •, • "^ 

, X '.I'- hand from types, or with pen or pencil, iso- 

"^^PH^iJ; . •»""h„'Jf°'**'?*°P- Se«*?f'*'-.Man- lated letters in imitation of print: errone- 

ual training-school, a school where the pupils are „„„i,, „.,„l;„.j *„ t i- 

taught vari.ius craft* liy actual practice ; also, a class or ously applied to tj pe-writing. 

schix>l in which the manual methods of instruction are manward (man'ward), adv. and a. Toward 

•^'iKjit- man; with regard to man. 
II. ».— Manual of arms. See*nrni2. 

manualist, ". 2. One who teaches the deaf 

manure.— stable manure, 
manure-fly (ma-nur'fli), 


In such a state 
as to receive no benefit from manuring : said 
of land. Apparent cases of this kind are 
probably due to the lack of some essential 
ingredient in the application. Storer, Agri- 
culture, p. 47. 

Mannrlal Ingredient, constituent, or element, one of 
tlie substances required in a complete manure. 

manuring (ma-ntir'ing), n. [Verbal n. of 
manure, v. /,] The addition of any substance 
to the soil to increase its fertility; fertilizing. 
—Green manuring, tlie plowing under of a green crop, 
usually one sown for the purpose, to serve as a manure. 
Legumes (clover, cow-pea, etc.) are cliiefiy used, owing 
particularly to their nitrogen-gathering capacity ; but 
buckwheat, rye, etc., are useful on poor soils. It is often 
liettcr to harvest the legume, the root growth still enrich- 
ing the soil; but this is not usually called green manure. 
See ameliorating, renoratinff. and nitrogen-Jixiiio -kcrop. 

Manns cava, a deformity of tlie haiid marked by a 
deej) hollow of the palm.— Manus valga, a fonn of club- 
hand in wliich tlie hand is deflected U> the ulnar side. 
—Manus vara, a form of club-hand in which the hand 
is deflected to tlie radial side. 

iiid dumb by means of the manual alphabet 
or method. 
manubalist (man'u-ba-list), n. [F. nuinuba- 
liste, < ML. 'manubatiista,<. L. manus, hand, + 
ballista, balista. See ballista.1 In medieval 
armor, a hand-weapon by which projectiles Manx penny, 
were thrown. The tenn includes the arbalist. many-minded 

The correlative change in the conception of His man- 
ivard activities and relations. 

A. M. fairbairn, Philos. Chris. Kelig., p. 643. 

man-wise (mau'wiz), adv. and a. Pertaining 
to or in the manner of any relation of indi- 
vidual to individual, rather than of group to 
group. E. A. Ross, Social Control, p. 29. 


genus of nautiloifl cephalopods or goniatites manuf. An abbreviation (a) of manufacture ; 
with broad lateral sutural saddles which cover ('') of manufacturer; (c) of manufacturing; (d) 
the principal part of the lateral surface of the of matiufactory. 

(men'i-min"ded), a. Having 
many successive states of mind in regard to 
some matter, but unable to come to a decision 
about them ; lacking in decision ; vacillating. 

whorl: characteristic of the lower Upper manuka (ma-no'kii or miln'6-ka), Ji. [Maori.] nianTWhere (men'i-hwar), adv. [Also for- 

Devonian (zone of Manticoceras intumeseens) 
and eijuivalent to Gephi/roceras. 

mantid (man'tid), n. and a. I. «. A member 
of the family Mantidee. 

U. a. Having the characters of or belong- 
ing to the orthopterous family Mantidie. 

mantispid (man-tis'pid), n. and a. I. n. 
A iiii'mber of the family Mantispidie. 

Either Leptospermum scoparium, a low shrub, 
called white or scrub manuka, or L. ericoides, 
a tree, called red manuka. The wood of the 
latter is very hard and durable and is a favor- 
ite with the natives for making spears, paddles, 
fishing-rods, etc. The leaves of L. scoparium 
are sometimes used as a substitute for tea, 
whence it is called tea-tree. 

merly maniquare, many vheres ; < many + 
where.'] In many places. [Rare.] 

This kind of Pmier . . . was many U'heres received. 

Jewell, Repl. Harding, p. 433. if. E. D. 

Smoothed and polished rocks occur also " manywhere," 

if I may coin the word, in our northern districts, where 

the rocks are hard enough to receive and retain their 

characteristic marks. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Scenery of England, p. 52. 

II. «. Havingthe characters of, or belonging mannP (ma'nijl), n. [Origin obscure.] In the manzai (man-zi'), «. pi. [Jap.] Strolling 

to, the neuropterous family Mantisjndse. 

mantle,". 2. id) a) AIso, the plumage of the back 
and upper parts of the closed wings, which, as in gulls and 
teniit. is often <juil« distinct in color from the rest of the 
pIUMiagc and suggests a mantle. , 

(iieat I'.l:nk-hacked Oiill. Mantle intense slate-color 
nearly hlark, witli a purjilisii reflection. 

ConeK, Key to North Amer. Birds, p. 743. 
Incandescent mantle, a mantle consisting of refract/>ry 
etirtlis iM«s*:ssing high ladiating power, rendered lumin 

. ...... K.. I......:.... ... 1.. ....... I...... ........ :.. *,... n.... .-.i — u... .. 

ous by lieating to incandescence in the flame of a Bunsen 
bunitrr, as in the Welsiiach light. As now matle, these 
nuiiitles consist of more than 99 per cent of thorium manUrO, n 

pearl-fisheries of Ceylon, a pearl-ovster bank 
which consists of soft or loose sand, as distin- 
guished fromaj«/or, which consists of rock 
or hard bottom. See *paar. 
manumitter (man-u-mit'tr). n. One who man- 
umits or frees; an emancipator. 

Tile Cliurch was the great mamnnitter improver of 
the condition of tlie serf in the middle ages ; and in the 
jiresent age religious feeling has been at the bottom of 
the great movement against slavery. 

J. B. Mozley, Eight Lectures on Miracles, vii. 

Tlie advent of commercial fertilizers has 

Qxid mixed with less than 1 percent of cerium oxid ; 
without this admixture they would give but little light 

mantle-cavity (raan'tl-kav"i-ti), «. In a bi- 
valve, the- whole space incl»ded between the 
pallial lobes, containing the gills, visceral 
mass, anrl foot. 

mantle-fibers (man'tl-fi''berz), n. pi. In cytol., 
a bundle of delicate achromatic fibers which 
S.— 49 

made it necessary to distinguish/an/t or natural manures 

and artilicial jnanurett. Recent usage tends to restrict 

the teni'i manure t4)the fonner. In scientific agriculture, wi-rtwiort ("mU r, ma'iw 

only those applications are properly manures which IU<>;OI"«w (uia-o-um o) 

directly supply plant^fiKid, and those which serve mainly 

to improve the soil physically (as gypsum, lime, marl) are 

distinguisheil as ttoil amendments or improvers. This 

distinction alfects alsti, to some extent, the tenn /er(t/t2er. 

iiee arti/icial -kmanure. — Artificial manure, manure 

ballet-singers and -dancers who go about at 
the beginning of the new year. Hepburn, 
Jap.-Kiig. Diet. 

manzana(man-th!i'na), «. [Sp., a block of 
houses, a square measure.] 1. A group of 
houses surrounded on every side by streets ; 
a square or block. — 2. A unit, equivalent to 
about \% acres, employed in Central America 
for measuring laud. 

manzanillo (man-za-nil'o; Sp. pron. miin- 
thii-neryo), n. [Sp. See manchinecl.'] The 
common manchineel, Bippomane Mandnella. 
C. Lumholtc, Unknown Mexico, H. 64. 

, ,, H. The Maori name of 

a New Zealand sea-fish, Ncptotichthys violaceus, 
one of the Stromateidte. E. E. Morris, Austral 

maon, «. See makone. 

provided by manufacture (as superphosphates), or by Maon. I. ". — Fakeha Maori ('foreign Maori'), a 



cium tungstate or seheelite. [New Zealand.] COSUS, a destructive diaspme coccid. 

n. «.- Maori chief. See *cM>^. -Maori Hen, the "l^'Ple-WOnn (ma'pl-werm), «. Any one of 
weka rail, or \vo«t-heii, a large New Zealand land-rail of several lepidopterous larvfB which defoliate 

the genus Oci/drotnun. 
Maorian (ma-d'H-an, or mou'ri-au), a. Same 

as Maori — Maortan subreslon. See irsubre<iion. 
Maorilander (mii'o-ri-lan der, or mou'ri-lan''- 

der), «. IMaorilaiid (New Zealand) + -«r2.] A 

native or an inhabitant of New Zealand. 
mapi, «.— Ciiltttralmap. See *eiilturai.— t-o max), 

a map issued by the topographical ollioe of the ordnance 
sur\-ey of England ; a purely to|M)graphical map, contain- 
ing nothing relating to land divisions. Geoff, Jour. (K. 
0. S.X -W. 379. 

mapau (ma'pou), «. [Maori.] Any one of 
several New Zealand trees resembling one 

maple-trees.— Green -striped maple -worm, the 

larva of an American cerat^icanipid moth, Aitinota rubi- 

cunda, occuiTing abundantly in the northern Mississippi 

valley and the eastern I'nited Stat«s, where it feeds on the 

leaves of species of jnaple. See Aninota, with cut 
mapo (mii ' p6), «. [Cuban Sp.] Same as 

sleeper^, 8 (c). 
mappy (map'i), a. lmaiA+ -yS.} Having the 

appearance of a map; in po^Ao?., noting the 

condition called (7CO(/ro;)/ii<Y(; toHoj^. .,„„_i,i„-i j 7 • vi, v, jv • ■», , .^ a 

maquahmtl (mii-kwa-hwe'tl), «._ [Nahuatl ™*nesto"nf ' ^^■'"'"'^^' "" Mussel-baud 


Sections of the coralline cells suggest eyes.— Calico 
marble, a trade-name for the mottled Tnassic marble 
(luarried near the Potomac at the Point of Rocks, 
Maryland : used in th« Capitol at WasliingtoK.— 
Egyptian marble, a black marble veined with yellow. 

— Florentine marble. Same as *landgcape-marble. 

— Mandelato marble, a light-red marble with white 
spots. — Melbury marble, a name for septaria of the 
llelbury district, in west Dorset, England.— Mozam- 
bique marbles, a trade-name for a variety of crude 
india-rubber in small balls, black or brown on the out^ 
side, lighter in color within, the product of several 
speices of Landolphia from Mozambique.— Palomblno 
muble, a compact, fine-grained white marble found in 
ancient monuments.— Peacock marble, a green marble. 

— Stalagmite marble. Same asojii/a: jn/irWe. 

maitl, hand, + qnauitl, stick, tree.] A sword- 
like weapon of wood the edges of which are 
set with sharp flakes of obsidian, 

' man- 

another in foliage, especially ilyrsiiie I'rviUei. 

The name, with a descriptive adjective pre- maauata," «7' ^[wTAft^rcanrj"" Same as *i 

fixed, IS usually applied by the settlers to queta 

other trees, and is frequently corrupted into maqaette (ma-kef), «. [F., < It. macchietta, 

jn<y)?c.-Blackmapau,thetawliiri,Pirf()»por«i«(e«,ri. dim. of macchia, a spot, < L. macula, a spot: 

Athenseum, Jan. 24, 1903, p. 122, 
[It. dial.] A tract of 
land on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
especially in Corsica, characterized by a sili- 
cious soil and occupied by a scleroiihyllous 
vegetation more luxuriant and taller than that 
of the garrigues, but mainly bush, with a few 
trees, in France chiefly Pinus Pinaster and 
Quercus Suber. See *(jarrigtie. 

Only in the Mediterranean countries, in the so-called 
Maquis, do we find anything similar. 

fotCum: so named from the color of the bark. — Ked 
mapaa, the settlers' name for the mapau of the natives, 
Myritinc I'rviUei, on account of the dark-red wood. — 
Wnite mapaa. (a) Carpodelus gerratuK, an ornamental 
glinib or small tree of the saxifrage family, with mottled 
green leaves and large panicles of wliit^j flowers. (6) The 
tarata, Pitlogporum euffenioidett. See ittarata. 
maple^, »■ 3. In New Zealand, a common 
settlers' corruption of ^mnpuu. — 4. In Aus- 
tralia, Chariessa Moorei, the scrub silky oak maqui^ (ma kwe), n 
(which see, under *o«i) — Black maple, (n) Same 
as black su;far-maple, (6) The sugar-maple. — California 
maple, the broad-leaved maple. — Creek maple, the 
silver maple, Acer saccharinum. — Cut-leaved maple, 
(a) Any horticultural fonn of the silver maple, or other 
species of maple with dissected leaves. (6) The box-elder, 
Acer Netjundo. — Drtmimond'S maple, Acer Drummon- 
dii, of the coast region from New ,)ersey to Texas: by some 

regai'ded as a subspecies of ,-i.r«^ri(»(. — European maple 

or field-maple, tbeconnnon European maple, Acercam- 
peifre— Ground maple, Ueuchernmllom, an herb of the 
eastern I'nited States which has hairy stems aiul leaves 
shaped like those of the maple. Also called American 
«anic(c.— Guelder-rose maple, the maple-leaved arrow- 
wood. Viburnum aceri/nfiuut. — Hard maple. ('') The 
black sugar-maple.- Low maple, tlie mountain-maple. — 
Mapleleaf-cutter. See */(".'-iM'(ir.— Moose-maple, 
the mouut^iin-maple. — Northern maple, the dwai-f 
maple.— Oregon maple, the broail-leaved maple.— Red 
Elver maple. («) The silver maple. (Ii) The box-eldei-. 
— River-maple, the silver maple.— Rocky Mountain 
maple, the dwarf maple.— Shoe-peg maple, the red 
maple : so called from the use of its wood for shoe-pegs. — 
Sugar-maple. ('0 A local name in some places for the 
bo.x-elder.-- Swamp-maple, (i) The silver maple, (c) 
The mountain-maple. — Vine-maple. (6) The Canada 
moonseed, Menigpernunn Caiuiaense, — Water-maple, 
(a) See waler-maple. (b) The silver rnaple. (c) The 
mountain-maple.- White maple, (a) Seeiekitel. (b) 
The red maple : so called from its white wood. Compare'j -kmaple, 

maple-aphis (ma'pl-a"fis), n. One of several 
species of plant-lice, as Pemphigus aeerifoUi, 
which infest the leaves of the maple. 

maple-ash (ma'pl-ash), ». The ash-leafed 
maple, Acer Negundo. 

maple-blight, n. See *bliglit. 

maple-borer, n. Besides the species mentioned are 
the following : (a) A cerambycid beetle, Glycobiug spe- 
ciosuit. (6) Any one of several homtail borers of the fam- 
ily Uroceridm, as Xiphydria albicornis and Oryssus gayi, 

(c) The larva of a buprestid beetle, Dicerca dimricata. Tna-ra(.n/.b-i (mar' a V^VI « 

(d) Any one of several scolytid beetles, as Xyloterus maraCOCKt (mar a-Kok), « 

politu^ and Corthylus punctatiggivHtg. (e) A calandrid " 

beetle, fitenogcelig breirig. (/) A ptinid beetle, Xegtobium 
aj^ne. {g) The larva of the leopard-moth, Zemerapyrina. 
—Beautiful maple-borer, an American cerambycid 
beetle, Plac/ionotug gpecinsug, black in color and banded 
with yellow. Its larva) bore in the trunk of the sugar- 

maple-loTise (ma'pl-lous), n. 


marbled, a. 3. Having the lean and fat prop- 
erly blended : applied by butchers to meat. 

Hereford meat, in the technique of the trade, is always 
' beautifully marbled,' or, in other words, its lean and its 
fat are very evenly blended. 

Itep. Kan. State Board Agr., 1901-02, p. 248. 

Marbled luster. See *(iMter2.— Marbled white. 
Same as ifhalf-moxirner. 
marble-fish (mar'bl-fish), n. In Geelong, a 
name of the tupong. E. E. Morris, Austral 

see macula.'] The first sketch, in wax or clay, 
from which a work in sculpture is elaborated. 
Wax maquettes are often employed by paint- 
ers in arranging compositions. - 

M. .T.B. E, Detaillehas, after a long delay, executed marble-flower (mar'bl-flou'er), n. The poppy, 
four maquetteg, each compreheniling three large panels. ■' <'l"l''er SOmniJerum. 

The macchie or maquis of Algeria in no way differs from 
that of Corsica, Sardinia, and other places ; it consists of 
lentisk, arbutus, myrtle, cistus, tree-heath, and other 
Mediterranean shrubs. Smithgonian Hep., 1890, p. 2(iO. 

Mar. An abbreviation (a) of March; (b) [I. c. 
or cap.] of maritime. 

M. Ar. An abbreviation of Master of Architec- 

Mara^ (mar'a), n. [Skt. mara^ death, plague, 
god of love, tempter, as adj. killing, cf. mara, 
death, < ■/ mr, die. See mortal.] In Hind. 
myth., the tempter; the spirit of evil. 

marabotin (ma-rii-ba-ten'), «. [Sp., related 
to morabitino. See maravedi.] 1. A coin 
struck by the Almoravides and Almohades in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. — 2. A 
name given to the Arabic derham, or dinar 

marble-gall (mar'bl-gal), n. A gall made by 

Cynips Kollari. 
marbleization (mar"bl-i-za'shon), n. [mar- 
bleize + -ation.] The state of being marbled 
or marked by veins and cloudings. Also 
called marmoration. 

A secondary cedema, . . . accompanied with a more 
or less distinct marbleization of the superficial veins. 

Buck, Med. Handbook, I. 463. 

marble-paper (mar ' bl - pa "^ p4r), n. Paper 

printed in colors and designs imitating marble. 

Bot. Gazette, XXVU. 14. Marble-rag (raar'bl-rag"), "• In Eng. geol., a 

divi.sion of the Upper Purbeckian or Portland 
Oolites, Ijing at the summit of the Jurassic 
series and consisting of limestone with fresh- 
water fossils (L'nio) overlain by clays and 


marble-seal (mar'bl-sel), n. The seal Phoca 


marble-veal (mar'bl-vel), n. Potted veal in- 
terspersed with lumps of tongue, having a 
mottled surface when cut. X. E. I). 

marblewood, n. 2. In Australia, the whitish, 
mottled heart-wood of the Queensland olive, 
Olea paniculata. It is hard, tough, close- 
grained, and durable, and when newly cut has 
a rose-like fragrance. 

Marc brandy-oil. Same as fusel-oil. 

Tamil marakkal.] A measure of capacity used 
in the Madras Presidency, equal, at Madras, 
to 2.70 gallons. 
Marcan (mar'kan), a. [L. Marc{us), Mark, -(- 
-an.] Of or pertaining to St. Mark or to the 
Gospel attributed to him. 
The Marcan tradition. 

//. B. Swete, in Exposition, June, 1903, 415. 

which circulated in the south of France as late marcal (mar'kal), «. [Also mercal, merkal, < 
as the eleventh and twelfth centuries. ™ •> .,_•.,. 

marabvmta (mar-a-bun'ta), n. [Negro-Eng. 
(in Dutch Guiana,)' marabiinsoe; also cited as 
Pg., marabonda, a social wasp; prob. a native 
W. Ind. or Guiana name.] In British Guiana 
and the West Indies, a common name for va- 
i-ions species of bees and wasps. 
aaracockt (mar'a-kok), «. [Also maricocl-, 

nr^cJ^^ii^^ri^a/S-^flowS ^^ft^^-is^r'Sd- "¥^ "'^'''^"^^^ 

especially of the ; may-pop,' ^^-.^ra ir^ ^Cfo MaVc" ^ iVt ?' "" ''^ ^'^'^""^'^'^ "' 

nnto, native of Virginia, and the granadilla, „ ,,„ ... \ ,/, -s rx^ -, . •, 

/'. quadrangularis, ot Brazil and the West ™*?^'^®H°J™'""'''^''^,'t°^' ^'- "^"'^ ^^^^"^1 
Indies; also the plant itself. N.E.D. coin of Francesco III., Gonzaga, Ihike of 

,,-,.,, i^ - , ., A plant-louse maral (ma-ral'),n. [Pers. mardl.] The red Mantua (lo40-50). 

that infests the maple -woolly maple-louse, deer of Persia and the Caucasus, Cerf««»iarrt^ Marcellus shale. See*s;m?e2. 

an American AXtaiaia, PempMuug acertfotti, occun'ing w.n*.n*v.{ z^.,^ ---r/.^-^ r a -u ■ • i « 

abundantly on the leaves of the maple and secreting marami (ma-ra mi) ». [Aboriginal Austra- 
iian.J A crawfish-like crustacean of the genus 

an abundance of white wool-like wax. 
maple-scale (ma'pl-skal), n. 


The species, 

Astacopsis, found in Australia, 
marantic (ma-ran 'tik), a. [Gr. /iapavTiK6c, 

wasting, withering, < piapalvciv, waste, wither.] 

Wasting: same as »»ara«mic. 

A general marantic condition with chronic pnlmonary 

tuberculosis and chronic nephritis. 

Jour. Exper. Med., Jan. 16, 1901, p. 344. 
marare (ma-ra'ra), n. [Maori.] A labroid fish, 

Coridodax ptdhis, of New Zealand. 
Marasmic thrombus. See ^thrombus. 

marasmolite (ma-raz'mo-lit), n. [Gr. fiapaa/i6^, 
decay, -I- Aido^, stone.] A partially decom- 
posed sphalerite, or zinc-blende, containing 
free sulphur. 

Marasmus Infantilis or lactantlum, the wasting of 
young infants without evident cause : often due to insuf- 
ficient nourishment. 

marattiaceous (ma-rat-i-a'shius), a. Belong- 
ing to or having the characters of the Maratti- 
acese, a family of ferns. 

marble, « — Bird's-eye marble, a name for an oma- 
T>. j„. . . ,.,. , , mental stone, consisting of the fossil coral Acervularia 

l-Ulmnarta mnumeralnllS, commonly known as davidgoni, which in Iowa is carved into small objects. 

Cottony Maple-scale IPu/vinaria innumerabilis). 
Somewhat reduced. 

marcescence (mar-ses'ens), «. The character 
or state of being marcescent. 

marcgraviaceous (mark-gra-vi-a'shius), a. 
Belonging to the plant family Marcgraviaceee. 

march^, n — Approver in the marches, in ^ 

inal law, an approver who had a license to sell and pur- 
chase beasts in the marches. See marchl. — March 
place, in mitiing. the room or drift next the march or 
property line. (Scotch. ]— March Stones, in miJiitig, 
stones set at intervals on the surface to indicate the line 
of march ; boundary stones. [Scotch.] 

march^, r. ?. — Time and marching, in topog., the 

name applied to a method of detennining linear dis- 
tances by observing the time required by a person march- 
ing or walking at a regular rate of speed over the 
distance to be mejisured. 

The position of intermediate points other than points 
of triangulation has been fixed by ''time and marchinn" 
observations. Geog. Jour. (R. G. S.), XV. 620. 

march^, « — Route march, a march of troops in which 
the first consideration is the health and comfort of the 
soldiers. It is the ordinary march of an army when dis- 
tant from the enemy. 

march*t (march), n. The celery plant, Apium 
grarcolens, and parsley, Petroselinum Petroseli- 
num. Also merch. 

March. An abbreviation of Marchioness. 

M. Arch. 

M. Arch. An abbreviation of Master of Archi- 

Marchand's adrenals. See *a(lrenal. 

marchantiaceous (mar-kaii-ti-a'shius),«!. Be- 
lmii;iiit; or related to the family of liverworts, 

Marchantiales (mar-kan-ti-a'lez), [NL. 
(Engler, 1892), < Marchantia + -ales.'\ An 
order of cryptogaraie plants of the class He- 
paticse, characterized by athalloid,dor8iventral 
proembryonal generation, the antheridia and 
archegonia borne in groups on the surface 
of the thallus or on stalked receptacles, 
the sporogonia consisting of a spherical cap- 
sule with or without a short stalk. It embraces 
the two families Marchantiacete and Ricciacex (which 
see), and is coordinat* with the Jungermannialei and 
Anthocerotales. the three orders constituting the chiss 
Hepalic/t, or liverworts. See ■kjungermannialet and 
-k AnthncerfitaUg. 

marchasite, marchesite, «. Same as mar- te. 

marchesa (mar-ka'za), n.; pi. marchese f-za). 
[It.] An Italian marchioness; a lady having 
the rank of marchioness. 

marchese Cmar-ka'ze), Ji. ; pi. marchegi (miir- 
ka'ze). [It.] An Italian nobleman ranking 
between a duke and a count ; a marquis. 

March-fly (march'fli), n. Any member of the 
dipterous family Bibionidee. 

Marchi's tract. See*trac<'. 

marcia (mar'che-a), n. [It., a march. See 
m(irc)fi, »i.] In music, same as march^, 5 : as, 
temi>o di marcia, in march rh\-thm and time ; 
marcia fitnebre, a funeral march, etc. 

marciale (mar-che-a'le), a. [It., < marcia, a 
march.] In music, like a march in rhythm 
and style. 

Marcite (mftr'sit), n. [L. Marcus, Gr. Mdp/cof, 
+ -!te2. ] Same as Marcosian. 

marco (mar'ko), n. [Sp. See marlc^.'\ A Span- 
ish and Spanish-American unit of weight for 
gold and silver, equal to half a libra. It is 
commonly equal to about .507 of a pound 

marconigram (mar-ko'ni-gram), n. [Marconi 
(see def.) + Gr. ypa/ifia, anything written.] 
A message by wireless telegraph sent by tlie 
Marconi system. 

The British battleship Revenge . . . received a num- 
ber of privat* MaTconigrami. 
Ithaca Jour., March 18, 1902, quoted in Dialect Notes, 

ilL vl. 

marconigraph (mar-ko'ni-grftf), n. [ilnrconi 
+ Gr. )i)a(pciv, write.] The wireless telegraph 
of Marconi. 

A school for Marconigraph operators. 

Daily Chron., March 21, 1903. A'. E. D. 

marconigraph (mar-ko'ni-grif), v. [marconi- 
grapli, ».] I. iiitratis. To send messages by 
means of Marconi's system of wireless teleg- 

n. trans. To transmit by wireless teleg- 

marconigraphy (miir-ko'ni-grftf-i), n. [mar- 
conif/ra/ih + -y.] The system of wireless teleg- 
raphy developed by Marconi. 

The history of the series of inventions and discov- 
eries which have culminated in lYansatlantic Marconi- 
graphy. Xature, April 23, 1903, p. b83. 

marconism (mar-ko'nizm), «. IMarcon(i) -(- 
-i,«»i.] The art of wireless telegraphy accord- 
ins to the Marconi system, y. E. I). 

marconistCmar-ko'nist), a. andn. I. a. Of or 
pertaining to the Marconi system of wireless 
telegraphy. Encyc. Diet. 

n. n. A telegraphic operator who uses the 
Marconi system of wireless telegraphy. Encyc. 

marcaccio (mar-ko'che-o), n. [It., aug. of 
marco: see mark'^.'^ A Venetian copper coin 
struck under the Doge Bertuccio Valieri 
( 16.56-58). 

marcylite (mar'si-lit), «. [For R. B. Marcy 
(1.S12-K7).] A name given by C. U. Shepard 
to an impure copper ore of uncertain charac- 
ter, probably in part an impure atacamite, in 
part a decomposed chalcopyrite containing 
oxid of copper and water : from a locality in 

mardling (mSrd'ling), h. Duckweed; espe- 
cially, the lesser duckweed, Lemna minor. 

nUire^, w.— Flying mare, a trick in wrestlinK, consists 
inK in seizing; the opponent's wrist, turning it back, and 
worlting the arm palm down over the shoulder, thus us- 
ing the arm for a lever, throwing him over the shoulder. 

mare^ (ma're), n. ; pi. mana (-ri-A). [L.j a 
eea: see mere^ and marine.'] A sea; specifi- 


cally, in astron., a name for certain dark 
regions on the surface of the moon which 
were supposed by Galileo and other early ob- 
servers to be seas or oceans, and are now 
regarded as plains; also a name for certain 
dark regions on the planet Mars. 

The craters are so different in size from those of the 
earth, many being over a hundred miles in diameter, and 
so numerous, overlapping and irregulai-ly distributed 
that the causes leading to their foi-mation must be very 
diiferent from those of volcanoes upon the earth, and for 
these fonns Shaler proposes the name of vulcanoids. 
The maria, or great plains, evidently belong to a cate- 
gory distinct from the vulcanoids, being characterized 
by their larger size, smoother and darker floors. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., Oct. 1904, p. 314. 
Mare lihemm [L.], a free sea; an open sea: distin- 
guished from mare clausum (which see). 

maregram, maregraph. See *marigram, ma- 


maremma (mil-rem'a), n. ; pi. maremme (-a). 
[It.] A marshy and unhealthy region lying 
along the sea-shore. 

mareograph (ma're-o-graf), n. Same as mari- 

mareometer (ma-re-om'e-ter), n. Same as 

mare-ridden (mar'rid*n), jj. a. Nightmare-rid- 
den ; witch-ridden. 

Between his neck and his collar was a large live shore- 
crab, holding on tight with both hands. 
"Gentles I good Christians ! Save me ! I am mare-rode!" 
Kinggley, Westward Ho ! iL 

mare's-tail, n. 1. (c) The horseweed, LepfiZon 
Canadense. (d) The heath-aster, Aster eri- 

marg. An abbreviation (n) of margin; (b) of 

margarimeter (mar-ga-rim'e-t6r), «. [Irreg. < 
margari(n) -(- Gr. /lerpov, measure.] An 
apparatus for determining, by observation of 
the density at 100° C, the proportion of oleo- 
margarin in adulterated butter. 

margarodid (miir-ga-rod'id), a. and n. Having 
the characters of or belonging to the lepidop- 
terous family Margarodidse; a member of the 

margarous (mar'ga-rus), a. [margar(ic) + 
-oM.s.] Noting an acid, a substance resembling 
mnrsarie acid, now known to be a mixture. 

Margate cha.Ik. See *chalk. 

Margelidse (inar-jel'i-de), 71. pi. [NL., < Mar- 
gelis (-lilt-) + -idee.'] A family of Anthomedusse, 
having 4 or more simple or branched tentacles, 
with 4 or 8 separate manubrial gonads. The 
simple unbranched tentacles may be uniformly 
distributed or grouped in 4 or 8 sets. It eon- 
tains several genera, among which are Mar- 
gelis, Lizzia, Cytmis, Limnorea, and Hippocrene. 

MargeliS (milr-je'lis), n. [NL., < Gr. ftapyr/li;, 
a pearl.] The t\-pical genus of the family 
Margelidee. Sleciistrup, 1849. 

margin, h.— Anal margin. See *<Tnn;.— Margin of 
cultivation. .Sec *(M7ru<i(i(i;i.— Margin of power, 
surplus of power; a margin over and above that required 
under normal conditions.— Margin Of safety. Same as 
it/actor 0/ sa/ely. 

marginal, «.— Marginal anchor, in some Lucer- 
naridje, as Ilaliohjgtcit, a i>eculiiir fonn of marginal Itody. 
—Marginal contrast, eye. ste *c(.n<r«»f.*i',ve'-— Mar- 
ginal funnel, in meiiusoids, one of the conical promi- 
nences i.'n the Hiibumbral surface alxfve the velum, having 
an excrt't4)ry i»ore at the apex. — Marginal moraine, 
plate, tubercle. See ♦morai?ie, etc. — Marginal 
utility. See *\ttility. 

II. n. 1. One of the bones which form the 
border of the carapace in turtles, except in 
the Trionychoidea, in which they are lacking: 
same as marginal *plate. See cut under cara- 
pace, 1. — 2. In the ammonoid cephalopods, or 
ammonites, one of the small inflections which 
sometimes develop on the sides of the anti- 
siphonal lobe of the sutures. — 3. In conch., 
one of the outermost teeth on the radula of 
gastropods; one of theuncini. — 4. In asteroid 
echinoderms, one of the series of thick plates 
round the margin of the arms and disk. 

marginal-pygal (mar"ji-nal-pi'gal), a. Noting 
the posterior median bony plate in the cara- 
pace of a turtle. 

margination (mar-ji-na'shon), «. The act of 
marginating or the condition of having a mar- 
gin ; a marginated appearance. 

No statement in a properly-edited historical source 
ought to appear without its being at once obvious, either 
from the nature of the print or from distinctly-marked 
margiiiation. Archaeol. Inst. Jour., LV. 128. 

marginoplasty (mar'jin-o-plas'ti), n. [L. 
margi) (margin-), edge, margin, + Gr. TrXaordf, 
forined, + -y3.] A surgical operation for re- 
storing an edge or border, as of the lip or 


margin-plate (mar'jin-plat), n. In iron ship- 
building, a longitudinal plate which limits the 
double bottom at the turn of the bilge. The 
lower edge is connected to the outside plating 
by an angle-bar, and the upper edge is flanged 
over horizontally, and the inner-bottom plating 
riveted to it. See cuts at double *bottom and 
*bracket^, 9 (6).— Margin-plate bracket, the tri- 
angular plat« fitted on the niargin-pliito to give a connec- 
tion for the foot of the frame angle-bar above the inner 

margin-stop (mar'jin-stop), n. In a type- 
writer, an adjustable stop-motion which con- 
trols the traverse of the carriage in one or both 
directions. It consistfi of a stop supported by a gradu- 
ated margin-stop bar and fitted with a locking device to 
hold it in any desired position. It is so named because, 
through the limiting of the traverse of the carriage and 
the leaving of a portion of the paper held by the carriage 
outside the feeding distance of the carriage, that part or 
edge is left blank and forms the mai'gin of the printed 

marg. trans. An abbreviation of marginal 

marguerite, n. 3. In decorative design, a 
small flat rosette which resembles the com- 
mon daisy. 

The daisies or marguerites of the outer border had cen- 
tral bosses consisting of convex disks of rock crystal, set 
probably on a blue paste background. 
A. J. Evans, in Annual of Brit School at Athens, 

[VIL 78. 

marguerite-fly (mar'ge-ret-fli*), n. A phy- 
tomyzid fly, Phytomyza chrysanthemi, the larva 
of which mines the leaves of composite plants 
in greenhouses. 

maria, «. pi. See *marc^. 

mariamoUe (ma-re-ii-more), n. [Prop, as in 
Sp., maria mole, Maria mole: Maria, Mary; 
molle, mole, < L. mollis, soft.] A pomacentroid 
fish, Etipomacentrus fuscus, found about coral 
reefs from the West Indies to Brazil. 

marian^ (ma-re-iln'), n. [W. Ind. Sp., given 
as "a negro word meaning tough and lean."] 
Bolocentrusmarinus, a cheetodontoid fish found 
in the West Indies. 

Mariana (ma-ri-a'nii), m. [NL. (Hill, 1762), 
from Carduus Maridn'us, the Linnsean name of 
the milk-thistle, or Virgin Mary's thistle.] A 
genus of dicotyledonous plants of the family 
Asteraccx. See Silybum. 

Marianist (ma'ri-an-ist), M. IMarian'^ + -ist] 
A member of a now extinct religious associa- 
tion of knights, founded in the thirteenth cen- 
tury at Bologna to succor and protect the 
unfortunates who suffered from the strife be- 
tween the Guelfs and Ghibellines. 

maricao (ma-re-ka'6), «. [Porto Rican.] The 
surette, Byrsonima spicata. Also called don- 
cella. See surette. 

maricultural (ma-ri-kul'tur-al), a. Of or re- 
lating to mariculture. 

Such maps would be purely agricultiiral and maricul- 
tural, dependant upon tlie harvests of the land and sea. 
Science, Oct 9, 1903, p. 461, 

mariculture (ma'ri-kul-tur), n. [L. mare, sea, 
-t- eultura, culture.] The development of the 
resources of the sea, especially with respect 
to food-fish : coined in distinction from agricul- 

Marienglas (mil-re'en-glas), n. [G., ' Mary's 
glass.'] A German name applied to plates of 
selenite (gypsum) and also to muscovite. 
Sometimes called Fraueneis (' [Our] Lady's 

Marie's disease. See ^disease. 

marigot (mar'i-got), ». [F.] A branch or 
side channel in a river. [West Africa.] 

Passing up a viarigot or branch channel, worn down by 
porters' feet to a deep wet dit«h, we siwn reached the 
half-way place, a second sandy oasis, the site of the vil- 
lage of Zumgboji. /(. F. Burton, Mission to Uelele, I. 3i). 

marigram (mar'i-gram), n. [Also maregram, 
marcogram; < L. mare, sea, + Gr. ypdfifia, a 
writing, ypafjiiin, a line.] The line traced by 
the marigraph as a record of fluctuations of 

mariguana (ma-re-gwa'na), n. Same as *mari- 

marihuana (mil-re-hwa'na), n. [Mex.] In 
Mexico, any one of several plants having 
narcotic properties; in many localities. Can- 
nabis Indica, and in the state of Sonora, JVico- 
tiana glatica. 

marimba (ma-rim'ba), n. [Also mmmfto ; W. 
African: Kimbundu (Angola) marimba.] 1. 
An African musical instrument formed of a 
number of strips of wood of various sizes 


yielding different notes when struck by a ham- 
mer. The sound is often reinforced by resou- 

772 marl 

is divided; a group of jobbers engaged in a 
particular kind of business. [Eng.] 

Evei-y great murket is organized with a view not merely 
to the purchase and sale of a commodity at once, or "ou 
the spijt," but also with a view to the future requirements 

*.*^.-w , of buyei"8 and sellei-s. A'Hcyc. Brit, XXX. 540. 

!a~a'servicerenderea'ui)on public imvisable waters and market-boat (mar'ket-bot), n. A dinghy or 
having relation to comm«-ce or nuvi^^^^^ Other small boat used bv the Ste' " " ' 

maritime cause, in (air, an action arising from the 
ooinmcrcial relation of persons on navigable waters.— 
Maritime exchange, a meeting-place for ship-brokcre 
and others interested in ships and shipping, wliere busi- 
ness of a marine nature is transacted. —Maritime 
jurisdiction, the jurisdiction of courts of admiralty. - 
Maritime loan. .See •;onKi.— Maritime service, in 


ators formed from calabashes placed under- 

Instrmuents of the bar type are found frequently in 
our orchestras and bands under various names, as xylo- 

Shone ; they are familiar in children's toys and are widely 
Istributed in savage and half-civilized lands under the 
names of marimba, balafong, hannonicon, etc. 

SmithMoiiian Hep. (.\at Mus.), 1900, p. 43a 

2. In the Kongo region and Angola, a name 

of a musical instrument with iron keys ; the 

marimonda (mar-i-mon'da), n. [Amer. Sp.] 

A name applied to various spider-monkeys, 

particularly to the white-bellied species, Ateles 

marina (ma-re'na), n. [It., fem. of marino. 

See marine.] An' esplanade or promenade by 

the sea. N. E. D. 
marine. I. a — Marine band, blue, chorolofty. 

See*lmml^. etc.— Marine interest Same as mantnn<! 

•nfercrf. — Marine laboratory, metal, salt. See 

•ktaboratory. etc. 

II. H.— Dead marine. Same as 7»«rm^, 5. — Mer- 
cantile marine, tlie merchant service; the vessels, 
ofBcei-s. and crews belonging to the merchant-marine.- 
Merchant marine. Same as mtrcanlile -kmaritu. 

mariner, ". 2. A Tasmanian name for the 
bronze-colored shell of any one of several 
species of the marine gastropod Elenchus, es- 
pecially E. belluitis. Also called warrener, 
and pearly necklace shell. E. E. Morris. 

marinist^ (ma-re'nist), «. \_marin(e) + -ist.] 

stewards to bring 
off marketing for the various messes. 
market-gardening mar'ket-gar"dn-ing), 11. 
The occupation of raising vegetables for sale, 
particularly when conducted on such a scale 
as to constitute a business ; truck-gardening, 
market-scales (mar'ket-skalz), n. A counter- 

. -T T I scale adapted to the weighing of meat and fish. 

a French writer of the 18th century.] In (i<., market-wire (mSr'ket-wir), n. Soft steel and 
a style resembling that of Marivaux, whose ]m.ass wire in small sizes, suitable for the re- 
writings were a mixture of subtle metaphysics ^^\i hardware trade. 

and bizarre trivialities, with over-refined senti- markhor, n. Four subspecies are recognized, the ex- 
meuts which were mingled with the most or- tremes being represented by the Astor and tlie Suliman 

mariupolite (mar"i-6-p6'lit), n. ^Mariupol, on 
the Sea of Azov, Russia, + -itc'^.'] In petrog., 
a nephelite-syenite composed of albite, Kgir- 
ite, and nephelite, with a small amount of 
lepidomelane and zircon. It is free from 
potash feldspar. Moroxwicz. 

marivaudage(mar"i-vd-dazh'), n. [Marivaux, 

dinary colloquialisms : the word has come to 
note an affected attempt at refinement. 

Characteristic of sensibility in sense and of martra«- 
dage iu manner. Saintsbury. 

mark^, n- 17. In ordnance (followed by a 
Roman numeral), an expression used to dis- 
tinguish different designs of the same size and 
type of gun or mount : as, 6-inch B. L. R., 
mark II (a 6-inch caliber breech-loading rifle- 
gun of a design indicated as marked two). 
-Black mark, china mark. .See -kblaek, *c/iinai.— By 
the mark i.naut.), the cry of the leadsnum when he ob- 
tains soundings of 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 13, \% 17, or 20 fathoms. 
On the hand lead-line there are 9 marks and 11 deeps, the 
latter being tlie unmarked fathoms of the line, namely, 

the 1, 4, 0, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 19.— Easy mark, 

one who from his simplicity of character or ^ un- 
suspecting nature is easily imposed upon. [Slang,!'. S.] 
— Ciood mark, (a) A mark placed in a sctitwl- or class- 
register against the name of a i)upil for being ' good ' in 
behavior or diligent in study. (6) In Australia, a person, 
conspicuous in the community for his integrity and high 
lousiness standing, who would rather allow himself to be 
imposed upon than seem to impose upon another ; an 
' easy mark ' for the unscrupulous. [Slang.] — Lead-line 
mark {na ut.\ one of the nine markings on the hand lead- 
line, or one of the knots on the deep-sea lead-line, which 
is continued from 20 to 100 fathoms.- Marks and deeps 
(?iau(.), the fathoms of the lead-line from 1 to 20 ; the 9 
marks and 11 deeps of the hand lead-line. See le(td-line,l . 
— Port-'Wine mark. Same as capillary -tcnxvlts. — 
Sharp-up mark. Same as -^rsquare-mark. 

markhor. In the first, named from the village of Agt4ir 
in northwestern Kashmir, the horns are long, massivt-, 
and form an open spiral. In the Suliman variety, found 
iu the Suliman range, the horns are comparatively short 
and straight, with the keel running around them like the 
thread of a screw. 

Oae who attributes various changes on the mark'-^, «. 5. [Finnish markka.] A current 

silver coin of Finland, equal to 100 pennia 
(see *peniii), and equivalent to lOuJ'a cents. — 
6. A silver coin of Schleswig-Holstein, equal 
to 16 skillings, and equivalent to 24 cents. 

mark^, «. Same as marc"^. 

markasol (mar 'ka- sol), n. [Trade-name.] 
Bismuth boroi)hei)ate, an antiseptic powder 
used in surgery for dusting purposes. 

mark-buoy (miirk'boi), ». In submarine-cable 

earth's surface, such as the formation of ter- 
races, planes, etc., to marine action : opposed 
to *!<i(l>aerialist. 

Mariolatrous (ma-ri-ol'a-trus), a. Character- 
ized by Mariolatry ; of the nature of Mariol- 

Mafiology (ma-ri-ol'6-ji), n. [Mary + -ology.] 
The doctrines and opinions of the various 
Christian sects with regard to the Virgin Mary. 
Mariology is exhaustively treated in the four hundred 
and fifty pages which are here devoted to it. The work 
is divided into three parts. 

Dublin lien., Jan., 1903, p. 211. 

Mariotte's spot. Same as blind spot. 
mariposa (mar-i-p6'sil), n. [Sp.] 1. A but- 
terfly.— 2. A beautiful fish, Lampris luua, of 

work, a buoy anchored to mark any desired marking-bowl (miir'king-bol). 

position or point, 

mark-caller (mark'kaF^r), H. In sorting logs, 
one wlio stands at the lower end of the sort 
ing-jaek and calls the different marks so 
the logs may be guided into the proper chan- 
nels or pockets. 

marker,)!, l. <«) in archery, a person stationed near 
the target, especially in clout-shooting, to signal to the 
archers the result of each shot. 

3. (J) Specifically, a counter (an oblong piece 
of bone) used in faro. One marker is placed on a 
player's bet, and another on a card so far removed from 

Markhor ICafira /alconeri). 
Head of Astor Markhor. 
Horns of Suliman .Markhor (larger scale). 

marking, ".— Lapham or Laphamlte markings, a 

peculiar fonn of the Widmainjstattian figures, tlret ob- 
served by I. A. Lapham in the meteoric iron of Trenton, 
Wisconsin, and called Lapham or Laphamite markings by 
.1. Lawrence Smith. In this fonn of the figures there 
■e broad bands of kamacite inclosing areas of plessite. 

A roller 

provided with coloring-matter for marking off 

warps into lengths or sections for the loom. 

Iu"! marking-cross (miir'king-kros), 11. A cross 

tnat p]a^gp^| upon church vestments or fui-niture to 

mark them as exclusively devoted to sacred 

uses. Altar-cloths and corporals usually have 

five, in reference to the wounds of Christ. 

marking-disk (mar'king-disk), H. In a Morse 

ink-WTiter (a machine for taking telegraph 

messages*, the rotating disk which carries the 

_ _ letteis and signs and marks the signals. 

It that he cainuit tak» in both bets by any of the usual marking-hammer (mar'king-ham"er). ?l. A 
ways of placing bets on the lay-out From the fact that ijammer bearing a raised de-vice used to stamp 
the marker is not a cliip, and has no value except to pomt ;„/i;„ofo r,wnBr«»iin Also onWetX 

out the superior value elsewhere, arose the colloquial ex- logs, tO indicate ownersmp. AiSO caue<l 
pression : " he is not a marker to so-and-so." marking-iron. 

7. At poker, any object placed upon the table marking-hatchet (miir'king-hach'et), n. A 
to show that a plaver who has no chips is still hatchet for marking trees. A raised die is cut 
in the pool: sometimes used in table-stakes on the head for stamping the face of the blaze, 
to indicate that the player is supposed to have marking-iron, «. 2. Same as *marking- 
as much money in front of him as any other hammer. 

person at the table.— 8. In railroading, a flag, marking-plate (miir'king-plat), n. A three- 
lamp, or other signal placed upon an engine cornered metal plate with a small spike, used 
or train, or upon an electric car, to indicate to mark an angle of a tennis-court, 
its character, destination, etc. The green marking-plow, n. 2. An ice-plow fitted ■with 

Mariposa (Lamprii luna'i. 
(From lordan's " Guide to the Study of Fishes.") 

large size, found in the open Atlantic and 

Pacific. — 3. Tlie mariposa-lily. 
mariposite (mar-i-po'sit), «. [Mariposa + 

-ite'^.] A micaceous mineral, varying from 

soft green to white, observed with pyrite in 

the gold ore of the Mariposa region, California. 
marisca (ma-ris'ka), n. [NL., < L. marisea, a 

fig, i>\. mariscse, piles.] One of the excrescences 

in hemorrhoids. 
mariscal (ma - ris'kal), 


flag at the end of a train is a marker, as is also 
a red tail-light, or an extra light upon a loco- 
motive.— Deprez marker or signal, a delicate form of 
electromagnetic time-marker, cajiable of recording five- 
hundredths of a second.— Magnetic marker, in phtmnl. 
and exper. pnychol., a time-iiinrkcr I'oiisisting essentially 
of a writing-lever actuated ))y an electromagnet which is 
in circuit with an electric fork. The Deprez and Pfeil 
time-markers are typical mairnetic markers. Scriptvre. 
Exper. Phonet., p. 91.— Pfeil'E marker, in phymnt. and 
exper. psychoL, an electromagnetic time-marker used in 
connection with an electric fork to trace a time-line upon 
the smoked surface of a kymograph drum. See Deprez 
■kmarker. Scripture, Exper. Phonet, p. 91. 

a guKif, used to mark ice for cutting. 
marking-tape (mar'king-tap), n. In tennis, a 

tape used to outline and mark the various di- 

■visions of a tennis-court. 
markland (mark'land), M. [»Kort-2 + toxrfi.] 

A division of land, originally of the annual 

value of a mark. jV. E. D. 
marksman, «. 1. (*) A soldier who makes 

60 per cent, at target practice at ranges up to 

600 vards. 
mark-'Weed (miirk'wed), n. The poison-ivy, 

lihus radicnns. 

a. [marisca + -aP-.l market, n. 7. Onthestopfc-fxcAanf?e,oneof the marU, w.— Chloritic marL See*c*ion(t<-.— Etmria 
classesinto which the business of the exchange marl, a subdivision of the Carboniferous system iu 


England. It is regarded by British geologists as a part 
of the I'pper series of the coal-measures, attains a thick- 
ness of 1. 100 feet, is underlain by the Blackband group 
and overlain by the Newcastle-under-Lynie group. Its 
bottom .-md top are characterized by Spirorbis beds. — 
Oainfalir«n maxli a phase of the Miocene series of 
Austria. It is considered by Austrian geologists as a part 
of the second substage of the Mediterranean or marine 
stage and is characterized by an abundance of lamelli- 
branchs and gastroptKls. — Qargas marl, a subdivision of 
the Cretaceous system in Vaucluse, P'rance. It istlie low- 


tary rocks, and of emptives of several kinds, and is separ- 
ated by an unconformity into three well-marked divisions, 
a lower, a middle, and an upper. GeiHe, Text-book of 
Oeol., p. 628. 

MarQUettian (mar-ket'i-an), a. lu geol., not- 
ing a group of rocks carrying the Marquette 
iron ores : a name given by Alexander Win- 
chell. . . - 


A 'marsh' here is what would in England be called a 
meadow, with this difference, that in our marshes, until 
partially drained, a growth of tea-trees (Leptospermum) 
and rushes in some measme encumbers them ; but, after 
a short time, these die off, and are trampled down, and a 
thick sward of verdant gi-ass covers the whole extent. 

Mrs. Meredith, My Home in Tasmania, I. 163, quoted in 
[E. E. Morris, Austral English. 

trtte Hu^'niaT'^|i:&'A'^'^ 'l^'''" !'' TotS.X '^'"^^^ "• ■ V^'^''^^'^ ^ 

est member of the Aptian or upper division of the Lower marqUlSC, «. d. in gem-cutting, an ellipsoidal gee *ba(Vian. 

merrymaker. Also marshalok. 

Cretaceous. It is also well developed in northwestern 
Germany.— Orlnzlng marl, a phase of the Miocene Ter- 
tiary in Austria- It is considered by Austrian geologists 
to be a part of the secnnd sutistage of the Mediterranean 
or marine stage. — Salt marl, the lowest division of the 
Cambrian rocks in the Salt Kaiige of India. It is 1,.'>00 feet 
thick and without fossils. — Swamp marl, beds of fresh- 
water shells found beneath swamps and left by the Mvl- 
tlt^ea which inhabited the lake or pond which has given 
rise t4.i the swamp. They are sought as a source of lime 
in makin-r hydraulic cement. 
Marlburian (miirl-bu'ri-an), n. [Erroneously 
< Marlborough.'] A graduate of Marlborough 

I will read yoii the last letter received from a nephew 
of mine, aged twenty-one, a Marlburian, who ... is set- 
tled on a Texan ranche. 

T. Hughes, Rugby, Tennessee, III. iii. 

mannairolite (miir-mi'ro-lit), n. [Gr. fiap- 
uaipza: glisten, + -lite.] A mineral from 
Sweden, occurring in tine crystalline needles 
of a pale yellow color : probably a variety of 
the amphibole called richterite. 

marmarize (mar'ma-riz), v. t.; pret. and pp. 
marmarized, ppr. marvmrhing. [Gr. napfia/to^, 
marble, + -ize. See marmarosis.] To convert 
(limestone) into marble by metamorphism ; marral 
subject to marmarosis. 

On the east side of the great intrasive maas of Fair 
Head the chalk is likewise marmaritcetl. Another 
smaller . . . illustration of the same change occui-s at 
Camps Quarry near Edinburgh. 

Qeikie, Text^book of Geol., p. 603. 

marmelos (mar'me-los), n. [NL., < Pg. mar- 
mrlo, t|uinee.] the Bengal quince, .^gle 

marmit (mar •' mit), n. [F. marmite, pot or 
kettle.] A pot fitted with a hook by which it 
maybe hung; a kettle; a soup-kettle. 

marmite (mar-mef), «. [F.] A pot; a ket- 
tle ; specifically, an earthenware pot in which 

soup is made and served La petite marmite, a 

soup made of strong sUtck and vegetables. 

marmoration, «. 3. Same as *marmori:ation. 

marmorization (miir''mo-ri-za'shon). «. \ntar- 
iimrize -)- -iition.] In geol., the process of re- 
crystallization during metamorphism, whereby 
sedimentary limestones become marble. 

Marmt.rization i>t the limestone is abundant in the re- 
gion and by no means confined to the conflict belt, but. as 
Mr. King observes, spreads out over large areas in the 
limestone beds that have no deHuite relation to any known 
outcrop of eruptive rock. 

Ainer. Jour. Sci., Ang., 1903, p. 144. 

double-pointed form of cut which has been marsh-bass (marsh ' bas), «. The large- 
used exteu- mouthfil black-bass, Micrnpterus salmoides: 
sively tor dia- marsh-berry (marsh'ber'i), «. The Old World 
mondsandthe eranheTry, OxycoccusOxycoccus. Also bogberry, 
more brilliant fenberry, and marshwort. 

stones, al- marsh-clover (marsh'kl6"v6r), >i. The bog- 

though many bean, Memjanthes trifoliata. 
ot the common marsh-COW (marsh'kou), n. A name given 
stones, such by Riitimeyer to a race of cattle of small size 
the remains of which were found in Swiss 
lake-villages. Lyell, Antiq. of Man, p. 24. 
marsh-crocodile (marsh 'krok"o-dil), n. A 
common species of southern Asia, Croeodilus 
palustris, somewhat smaller and less dangerous 
than the muggar, or salt-water crocodile, C. 

marsh-deer (marsh'der), n. The larger South 

American deer, Cervus or Odocoilevs palxistris. 

on marsh-fleawort(marsh'fle"w6rt), «. A swamp 

or marsh plant, Senecio palnstris, found in high 

northern latitudes 


as amethysts, 
etc., are now 
cut in this way. 
Also called ii(i- 
vette. — 4. A 
light shelter 
over an en- 
trance door- 
way: usually 

brackets or cautalivers, more rarely on slender 
posts. The roofing itself is often of glass. — 

5. Same as marquee Marquise ring, a flnger- 

ring in which is set a cluster of gems having tTie form of 
a pointed oval. 

See *»iurral. 
marram-grass (mar'am-gras), n. Same as 

marriage, « . — Class-marrlage. See -kclass-mar- 
rM;;.". — Common-law marriage, a marriage not sol- 
emnized by any form or ceremony, but created by an 
actual and consunnnat«d agreement between the parties. 
It may be evidenced by their conduct and reputation. 
.Such a m.irriage is valid in the United States, except 
in those states where statutes have abolished it. See 
marriage, 2.— Detinue Of goods In frank marrlj^. 
See *d«(tni(c.— Marriage officer, a diplomatic or con- 
sular agent, or other duly authorized person, before whom 
marriage between British subjects in a foreign land may 
he solemnized and be valid. 

Under it [the Foreign Marriage Act, 1892 ] a marriage 
between British subject* on land is as valid as a maiTiagc 
duly solemnized in England, ... if celebrated in ac- 
cordance with the local law or in the presence of a "vMr- 
riage oficer." Encyc. Brit., XXX. 548. 

Restraint of marriage, a legal term used with refer- 
ence to coiiditioTis attached to bequests, gifts, etc., in 
which the benetlciary, in order to obtain the bequest or marshmail 
gift, is limited in the free choice of marriage. Conditions 
in restraint of marriage are, if general, usually void.— 
Royal marriage, in such games as penuchle and bezique, 
the king and (|ueen of the trump suit. 

marriageability (mar'aj-a-hil'i-ti), «. The 
state of being marriageable, or the degree to 
which a person may be considered marriage- 


marmorize (mar'mo-riz), t'. <.; pret. and pp. marriage-flight (mar'aj - flit), n. Same as 
marmiinsea, ppr. m(irmori:ing. [L. marmor, ntiiitinl *fli(iht. ' ■ 

luarble, -f- -i:e. Compare ^marmarize.] To marrite "(niar'it), n. [For Dr. John Edward 
change from a sedimentary limestone to crys- M„rr, of Cambridge, England.] A lead-gray 

to steel-gray mineral which occurs very spar- 
ingly in highly modified monoelinie crystals in 
the dolomite of the Binnenthal in Switzer- 

in North America, 
Greenland, Europe, 
and Asia, extending 
southward in the 
western hemisphere 
to Iowa and Wiscon- 
sin. It has spatu- 
late, entire, radical 
leaves, those of the 
stem being few and 
toothed. The heads 
are nuraerous,mostly 
in a terminal cor- 
ymb, the rays pale 
yellow but showy. 
n. [Named after 
C. W. Marsh.] Cu- 
prous iodide (CU2I2) occurring in oil-brown 
tetrahedral crystals at the Broken Hill mines, 
New South Wales. 

(marsh'man), «. ; pi. marshmen 
(-men). A person living in the marshes : used 
in Yorkshire to designate a particular group of 

Apparently the bird was well known to the Yorkshire 
" can--nien " and "fnarsh-men" half a century ago, but no 
examples are known to science save the type and the one 
procured by Mr. Coburn. Nature, Jan. 15, 1903, p. 252. 

marsh-orchis (marsh'6r"kis), n. See *orchis'^. 
Marsh's arsenic apparatus, test. See *ap- 

Marsh-fleawort iStntcio palustris). 
a, lower part of stem with leares ; 
t>, upper part of stem with flowers: 
<-,, floret. (From Britton and 

Brown's " Ulustrated Flora of the 
Northern Slates and Canada.") 

talline marble, more especially under the in- 
fiiience of an intrusive dike or other mass of 
eruptive rock. Geikie, Text-book of Geol., p. 

pariitiix, *tixt'^ 
marsh-treader (marsh'tred"^r), «. Any bug 
of the heteropterous family Hydrometridee 
or Limitobatidse. ' " ' ' ~ 

p. 282. 

L. O. Howard, Insect Book, 

marmorosis (mar-mo-ro'sis), «. [L. marmor, 

iriarhle + -osi.i.] Same as mnrmarosis. 
maro (ma'ro), ». Same as *malo. 
maroon^. I. a.— Maroon Iformation. .see -kfor. 

II. '' — Acid maroon. See ♦atn'tf-maroon.— All- 

marry', v. » — To marry over the broomstick. 


marron^, n — Harrons glacis, French or Italian 
chestnuts noiled in a syrup of sugar and water and fla- 
vored with vanilla anil a few drops of lemon-juice. They 
are softened and sweetened all through, not having a 
glaze of sugar like glac*:' oranges, etc. 

zarfil maroon, a mordant dyestuff derived from antlira- marrOW', n — Oblongate marrow, the medulla 

cene. It is a mixture of a- and 3-amidoalizarin and "''' *" 

amidopurpurin. With a chromium mordant it proiluces a 

maror>n color. It is not as fast as alizarin red. — MarOon 8, 

an impure acid-magenta. 

maror (mii-ror'), n.; pi. merorim (me-ro'rim). 
[Heb. maror, < marar, bitter.] A bitter herb, 
eaten at the seder meal on the first two even- 
ings of Passover. 

marouflage (ma-ro-fljizh'), n. [F., < ma- 
roujl'-r, liack (a painting) with a back lin- 
ing glued on, < maroufle, a tenacious paste.] 
The process or the act of applying a mural 
painting to a wall by coating the back of the 
canvas with a strongly adhesive paste and 
applying it. This device allows mural paint- 
ings to be in oil colors, and also allows the 
work to be done at a distance from the build- 
ing for which it is intended. 

Marq. An abbreviation of Marquis. 

Marquette (miir-ket'), n. In geol., that sec- 
tion of the Huronian system which is found 

land : the chemical composition has not been marsileaceous (mar-sil-e-a'shius), a. Belong- 
■ - ing to the Marsileacese, a family of crj-ptogamie 

marsipobranchian (mar"si - po - brang'ki - an ), 
II. A member of the order Marsipobranchii, a 
group of vertebrates containing the lampreys 
and hagfishes. 

Marsupial plate. See *plate. 
marrubiin (ma-ro'bi-in), n. [Marrubi-um + Marsuplalida (mar-su-pi-al'i-da), «. pi. The 
-in-.] A neutral compound contained in Mar- ' 'i(li(ntii(lus;e. 

rubium vulgare. It crystallizes in large plates marsupialization (mar-su"pi-al-i-za'shon). ti. 
or needles melting at 106° C. [marxupial + -ize + -ation.] The formation 

of a pouch in a membrane, such as the peri- 
See ATo-JoMirtic*. ' toiienm. 

Mars,". 2. The question of the planets climate marSUpialize (mar-Sti'pi-al-Iz), tl. t ; pret. and 

hinges upon its temperature. It is undeniable that tlie 
white caps which alteniately form and disappear about 
its poles behave with respect to the planet's seasons 
exactly as snow caps would. This strongly suggests con- 
ditions of temperature resembling our own, and a corres- 
ponding climate. On the other hand, the rarity of ttie 

pp. mamiipializcd, ppr. morsKpuiUzing. [iiinrgu- 
pial + -i:e.] To render marsupial in char- 
acter; provide with a pouch, 
marsupite (mar-sti'pit), M. [NL. Marsupites.] 
A inemlier of the genus Mnr.iupite.i. 

j;l^Inisr'Zf't"is.^:^e'i£m"rLMr^Sg it: Marsupites (mar^u-prtez),_«. [Gr. p6p.c.o,,__ 
supply of st>\ar heat to less than half of ours) seem to 

require a temperature far below the melting-point of ice, 
and suggest that the white caps may be due to the pre- 
cipitation of some substance with a much lower freezing- 
IMjint than water. Tlie question can hardly be settled 
until our heat-measuring instruments become sensitive 

eriougli ht deteniiine the planet's temi>erature by direct mart^ (mjirt), n 
observation.— Canals of Mars. See*cn«an. [Eng. dial.] 

in the ^Iar(|^ette iron range in the northern Marseilles pottery. See *pottery. martaban (mar'ta-ban), «. [Ar. martahdrn.] 

Old celadon porcelain, popularly supposed to 
have been made at Martaban in Pegu. Some- 

a pouch, -f -ir?/f, E. -ite'^.] The only genus of 
the family Marsupitidse, including flexible 
crinoids of free-swimming habit having no 
column and few and large calyx plates. It oc- 
curs in the Upper Cretaceous of Europe. 

[See nwrtenl.] The marten. 

peninsula of Michigan and west of the city of marsh, «• 2. In Australia, a drained meadow. 
Marquette. It cunsUts of metamorphosed sedimen- See the extract. 


times called green porcelain. Large jars of 
this kind are mentioued by Ibn Batuta, the 
Algerian traveler, in the fourteenth century. 

The Arabs and Persians call this peculiar porcelain 
mnrtabani, and value it very hiphly from its fancied 
property of detecting poisoned UkkI by changing color. 

S. W. Bmhell, Oriental Oeram. Art, p. 148. 

martel6 (mar-te-la'), o. [F., pp. of marteler, 
hammer, strike: see martel, v.'] 1. Ham- 
mered; produced by hammering: applied to 
metal work. — 2. In music, same as martellato. 

martensite (mar'ten-sit), n. [From a personal 
name.] A very hard carbide of iron, approxi- 
mately of the composition Feo4C, formed in the 
reoalesceuce of steel at 850° C. in cooling 
from a temperature of 1,000° C. or over. It 
remains unchanged if the metal is then sud- 
denly cooled, as by plunging it into cold 
water, but on slow cooling is decomposed into 
iron and the carbide Fe^C. On the other 
hand, it appears that this latter compound, 
known as cementite, may split into martensite 
and carbon in the form of graphite. 

martensitic (mar-ten-sit'ik), a. [»(or(e»m(c -t- 
-ic] Pertaining to, or characterized by mar- 
tensite: designating the state of steel when 
its iron and carbon are combined to form 

Martha Washington china. See *china^. 

Martian, «. II. «. An (imaginary or possi- 
ble) inhabitant of Mars. 

These exemplary Martiann wear no clothes but the ex- 
quisite fur with which natnre has endowed them, and 
which constitutes a part of their immense beauty. 

Vu Maiirier, The Martian, viii. 

martin^ (mar'tin), n. A shortened form of 

Purebred steer, spayed or martin heifer, two years 
old and under three. 

Rep. Kan. State Board Agr., 1901-02, p. 211. 

martingale, n. 4. In fencing, a bit of twine, 
fastened to the hilt of a foil, which is caught 
round one finger of the sword hand to prevent 
the foil from falling to the ground in case of 
disarmament — Standing martingale, a long mar- 
tingale connected to the girth and collar of a harness, 
with branclied ends which are attached to the rings of 
the l)ridle-bit. 

martinoe (mar'ti-no), «. [Probably a corrup- 
tion of Martynia.'] The unicorn-plant, Mar- 
tynia Louisiana. 

Martin's albumin negative process. See 

martiology (mar-ti-ol'o-ji), n. [L. Mars 
{Mart-), Mars, + Gr. -loyia, < ?iijeiv, speak.] 
The study of the planet Mars: same as areog- 
raphii, which is the accepted term. [Rare.] 
L. F.Ward, Pure Sociol., p. 69. 

martyrium (mar-tir'i-um), »i.; pi. martyria 
(-ii). [LGr. fiaprvpiov, a martyr's shrine, 
< "/idprvp, martyr : see warti/j'.] A place in 
which the relics of martyrs are preserved, 
usually a crypt or underground chapel like the 
famous one of the church of Saint-Denis, 
France, which still retains much of the 
original Roman construction. 

martjrrolatry (mar-t6-rol'a-tri), «. [martyr + 
-olatry. See idolatry.'] Worship of the Chris- 
tian martyrs. 

The Christianity which he despised — the only Chris- 
tianity which he knew — was mainly associated with a 
superstitious martyrolatry and a grovelling relic- worship. 
Tlie Galileans, he said, " abandon the worship of the gods 
to worsliip the mouldering remains of the dead." 

Farrar, Lives of the Fathers, I. 702. 

manun, n. 2. Same as herh mastic (which see, 
under herh). 

marat (ma-ruf), n. [Skt. marut, wind, wind- 
god.] In. Hindu myth., a wind-god; a storm- 

Marxian (mark'si-an), a. Pertaining to the 
socialistic or the historical views formulated 
by Karl Marx. Kidd, Western Civilization. 

Marxist (marks'ist), n. A socialist of the 
school which accepts the views of Karl Marx, 
or a historian or sociologist who accepts 
Marx's economic interpretation of history. 
Kidd, Western Civilization. 

marzacotto(mart-sa-kot'6),M. [It. marzacotto, 
formerly a sort of ointment, also a potters' 
tool (Florio, 1598).] In ceram., a thin coating 
of transparent glaze, made of oxid of lead, 
potash, and sand : used oy Italian potters on 
their painted stanniferous enamel to increase 
the brilliancy of the colors. See *oopcrtu. 

mas. An abbreviation of masculine. 

M. A. S, An abbreviation of Master of Applied 


masamacush (mas'a-ma-kush"), n. [Prob. 
North Amer. Indian.] A common name of 
the Great Lake trout, Cristivomer namaycush, 
foun<l in the Great Lakes, and widely dis- 
tributed over northern North America. 

masar, «. See *mazar. 

masarid (mas'a-rid), «. and a. I. n. A mem- 
ber of the hymenopterous family Masaridse. 

II. a. Having the characters of or belong- 
ing to the family Masaridx. 

mascagnite (mas-kan'yit), n. [Mascagni + 
-i/r'-.] Same as mascagnin. 

mascaret (mas-ka-ra'), n. [F.mascaret, < Gas- 
eon «!«6caref, of unknown origin.] Atidalbore. 
The tide begins to make itself felt at Poses, 11 miles 
above Elbeuf, and between Caudebec and Villequier the 
mascaret, or bore, has its greatest development. 

Encyc. Brit., XXXII. 60a 

Maschil (mas-kel'), n. [Heb.] An epithet 
prefixed to thirteen psalms (32, 42, 44, 45, 52- 
55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142). It probably means 
' a contemplative composition,' but the true 
significance is not certainly known. 

mascot, n. H. a. Of the nature of a mascot ; 
having luck bringing qualities; lucky: as, 
mascot snakes; a mascot dog or goat. 

mascularity (mas-ku-lar'i-ti), n. [L. mascu- 
l{iis), male, + -ar + -ity.'] Masculinity. 

To some the unmentionables might savor of magcidar- 
ity. Kane, Grinnell Exp., xlvi. 425. S. E. I). 

mash^, n — Sour mash, mash in which fermentation 
is begun by having put back into it some of a mash in 
whicli fennentation lias already been going on. — Sweet 
mash, in brewing, mash in which fermentation has been 
started with yeast.— Thick-mash process, a method of 
preparing wort in brewing, chiefly employed in Bavaria, 
other paits of Gennany, and Bohemia. It involves the 
removal of portions of the malt from the mash-tub to be 
boiled and returned to the mash-tub, so that much of the 
diastase is rendered inactive, while the starch of the 
boiled portion is brought to the condition of starch-paste 
and thus is more readily acted on, the production of 
glucose is regulated, and the amount of malt-extract in 
the wort is increased. — Thin-mash process, the method 
of preparing wort in brewing most common in France 
and England. It involves simple infusion of malt with 
water at 60" to 70° C, with continuous stiiTing in a mash- 
tub with a false bottom, the clear infusion being drawn 
off after a time from beneath this, and more water at the 
same temperature as before run on upon the malt for a 
second mashing. None of the malt is heated to the boil- 
ing-point of water. 

mashed (masht), p. a. In geol., noting rocks 
which are dynamically crushed and granu- 

Also, northwest of Cranberry the gangue minerals and 
even magnetite are developed in tlie mass of the red 
granite along more or less mashed zones. 

Contrib. to Econ. Qeol., V. S. Geol. Surv., 1902, p. 245. 

mashie, n. Same as *mashy^. 

mashing, ». 4. In geol., the granulation of a 
rock in dynamic metamorphism. Van Hise, in 
U. S. Geol. Surv., Monographs, XLVII. 762. 

mashrebeeyah, meshrebeeyah (mash-, mesh- 
re-be'ya), n. [Ar. mashrabiya.] A window 
with openwork of light wooden bars, leaving 
free access to the air, and used as a place 
where a porous water-bottle may be put for 
cooling: usually, in Cairo andother Levantine 
cities, a projecting bay-window or oriole win- 
dow, fitted on three sides with such openwork. 

mashy-, mashie (mash'i), ». in golf, a club 
with an iron head and a more or less lofted face. 
(mash'i-nib'lik), n. 
A golf-club with a 
small, deep iron 
head, lofted: used 
for approaching and 
playing out of haz- 
ards and bad lies. 

mask^, n. 9. In zooL: («) The skin of the 
forehead and upper part of the face of any 
quadruped, taken off at about the level of the 
eyes. — 10. In base-ball, a protection for the 
face worn by the catcher. See*cage, 8.— Brew- 
er's mask, an apparatus used to facilitate inhalation of 
ethyl chlorid in the induction of surgical anaesthesia. — 
Uterine mask, chloasma occurring during pregnancy, 
or in certain cases of disease of the womb. 

maskalonge, " — Chautanqna maskalonge, a great 
pike or maskalonge, Eudx ohiensis, found in Chautauqua 
Lake and in the Ohio Basin. 

masked, p. a. 5. In pathol., same a,s*larval, 2. 

masking, n. 2. In photog., a device adopted 
in printing from an imperfect negative, con- 
sisting in pasting tissue-paper on the reverse 
side of the negative over the portions of 
the picture wliich print too deeply. IVood- 
bury, Encyc. Diet, of Photog., p. 276. 

masochism (maz'ok-izm), n. [From Leopold 
von Sa.cher-Ma.'ioch, an Austrian novelist, 
who described the perversion.] A form of 



sexual perve^-sion in which the victim craves, 
and takes pleasure in, physical abuse from 
one of the other sex : the opposite of sadism. 

masochistic (maz-o-kis'tik), a. Characterized 
by or of the nature of masochism. G. S. Hall, 
Adolescence, II. 127. 

mason-ant (ma'sn-ant), n. Any ant which 
makes habitations of mud, such as Lasiits 
brunneus or Formica fusca of Europe. Kirby 
and Spence, Entomology, p. 271. 

Masonic china. See *'china^. 

masonry, « — Dry masonry, work done without the 
use of mortar of any kind, esjtecially where the stones 
are closely tltted and leave only fine joints between them. 
— Polygonal masonry, ina.sonry which shows on the 
face of a wall many-sided blocks, the face being smi.)Oth, 
but the joints at irregular angles with each other. Thus 
five-sided and six-sided stones, and even more compli- 
cated pieces, are set in a wall by patient fitting of one to 
another, while very small splinters are used to make the 
surface more uniform. — Trapezoidal masonry, ma- 
sonry in which the faces of the outer stones are four- 
sided but not rectangular. They may even have the top 
and bottom beds horizontal and parallel. 

masonwork (ma'sn-wferk), n. Masonry. [Col- 

masopin (mas 'o-pin), n. A colorless com- 
pound, C02H38O, contained in the resin from 
a Mexican tree. It crystallizes in needles 
melting at 155° C. Aiso caWeA masopin resin. 

masrite (mas'rit), n. [See *masrium.'] A 
fibrous alum from Egypt, supposed to eon- 
tain a new element called masrium. 

masrium (mas'ri-um), n. [NL., < Ar. Masr, 
Egypt, -f -ium.'] The name given to a sup- 
posed new chemical element of the same 
family with barium, strontium, and calcium, 
occurring as sulphate in the mineral masrite 
from Egypt. There has been no confirmation 
of its existence. The place to which the ap- 
proximate atomic weight reported would assign 
it in the periodic classification of the elements 
seems to belong to the more recently discovered 

masS^, n —Nuptial mass, a mass celebrated at a 
church wedding, with special prayers and blessings for 
the couple married. 

mass^, n. 8. In phar., a preparation of thick, 
pasty consistency with which is incorporated 
some active medicinal substance : the mass is 
made up into pills of definite size and weight 
for administration. — 9. In the fine arts, any 
large and simple expanse of form, light, 
shade, or color, in which the details of a com- 
position an-ange themselves Achromatic mass. 

See -kachromatic. — Active mass. («) In phyg. chem., 
the amount of the active substance contained in the unit 
volume ; the concentration of the active substance, or the 
number of gram-molecules (or giam-equivalents) con- 
tained in one cubic centimeter or one liter, as the case 
maybe, (b) In etectrochem., the concentration of that 
fraction of the electrolyte which, at the given dilution, is 
dissociated into ions, and is therefore capable of carry- 
ing the electric cunent— Apparent mass, the mass of 
a moving particle due to its electrostatic charge and to 
its velocity. It differs from the ordinary mass dealt with 
in mechanics, which is independent of the velocity.— 
Electromagnetic mass, mass due to the electric charge 
of a moving particle. 

The electrom^ffnetic mass is a vector quantity of the 
nature of a tensor, with the same kind of symmetry as 
ail ellipsoid of roUition. Science Ab8tracts,yi.ySec. A,23S. 
Gravitational mass, mass in the sense in which the 
tenn is used in ordinary mechanics : so called txj distin- 
guish it from the electromagnetic mass of a moving elec- 
tron or charged particle. — 111 mass (jnitit.), in compact 
formation, as a close column.— Lateral masses of the 
sacrum, .'^ee -ksacrian. — Law Of conservation of 
mass. Seeirconnervalion. — Law Of mass action. See 
♦ncfa'oji.— Linear mass of points, a not discrete : 
a temi used by Ilankel— Longitudinal mass, in the 
dyuamics of an electrically cliarged particle, mass which 
opposes accelenition in the line of motion. — Mass re- 
sistivity. See •rfJM.sf I r/f.i/.— Tigroid masses. Same 
as Nissl irboiiiex. — Transverse mass, in the dynamics 
of an electrically charged particle, mass which affects 
acceleration perpendicular to the line of motion. — Val- 
let'S mass, a mixture of ferrous carbonate with sugar 
and honey brought by evaporation of water to a thick, 
pasty condition, used in medicine in the form of Vallet's 
pills. Tlie sugar protects the iron from the action of the 
air tending to form ferric oxid or hydroxid. 

Mass. An abbreviation of Massachusetts. 

massa^ (mas'il), n. A copper coin of Ceylon. 

massage", " Douche massage, massage combined 

with the application of a douche to the same part. — Vi- 
bratory massage, rapid and light percussion of a part, 
for therapeutic purposes, made by means of a special m 

Massaria (ma-sa'ri-a), n. [NL. (De Notaris, 
1844), named for (Jiuseppe Filippo Mas,mra 
(1792-1839), an Italian botanist.] A genus of 
pvrenomycetous fungi haring the peritheeia 
separate and imbedded in the host. The spores 
are large, several-septate, brown, and usually surrounded 
by a conspicuous hyaline envelop. Many species have been 
described. They occur on dead trunks and branches. M. 
inqtiinnns is a common species in Europe and America, 
found on the maple and other trees. 


Massariaces (ma-sa-ri-a'sf-e), n. pi. [NL., < 
Maxtiiirid + -acex.l A family of pyi-enomy- 
cetoiis fungi uamed from the genus Massaria 
ami liaviug tlie same general characters. 

massecuite (mas-kwef), «. [F., 'baked mass.'] 
In the manufacture of sugar and in sugar-re- 
fining, the semi-fluid mixture of separating 
sugar crystals and residual s\Tup, produced by 
completed evaporation, from which, aftercool- 
ms. the s\Tup is to be removed by drainage or 
l)y the use of the centrifugal machine. 

masser^ (mas'er), n. [P. masser.'\ A masseur. 
[Great Britain.] 

A single masser should have strength enough to do the 
work without too obvious exhaustion, which gives the 
patientan unpleasant impression. 

Encyc. Brit., XXX. 573. 

massenr, «. 2. An instrument designed for 
mechanical massage of the tissues. 

massing' (mas'ing), n. [ma««i, r.] The act 
denoted by the verb mass^. 

massing- (mas'ing), n. [mass^, ».] The act 
denoted by the verb vtass^. 

massing^ (mas'ing), n. Same as massage. 

Without going so far as to make masHng a closed pro- 
fes-sioti, it is obviously desirable to have some guarantee 
of competency. Encyc. Brit, XXX. 573. 

massive, «. 6. Imodl.: (6) Notinga compact 
sponge of any kind which grows more or less 
equally in all directions : contrasted with !«- 
cru.'iting, dendritic, flahelJate, etc. — 7. In 
ptithnl., extensive; involving a large mass of 
H. M. Same as massif. 

Mount Cochrane, . . . which rises 12,140 feet above 
sea-level. This powerful mag^ve competes with Momit.s 
San Valentin aud San (.lemente as to which is the hi(;licst 
of Patagonia. (Jeotj. Jour. (R. G. S.), XVI. 2(J«>. 

massive-solid (mas'iv-sol'id), a. Having the 
quality of being both solid and homogeneous. 

.Judging from the heated conditions of the material 
extruded during a mamve-golid eruption at the time it 
rises iwU) the air, and reasoning also from tile known va- 
riations in the pliysical and niineralogiual features of tlie 
igneous rfifks which depend on the conditions umler 
wliich they solidify, we should expect tlie lavas extruded 
in a mattgice-gfdtd condition to present at least three 
leading physical characteristics. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., .April, 1904, p. 203. 

massless (m&s'les), a. [»ia««2 + -less.'] In 
plijlsiis. devoid of mass. 

masson (ma-sou'), «. A silver coin of Lor- 
raine in the eighteenth century. It was 
struck under Leopold I. (1690-17!S)), and was 
named from Masson, the director of the mint. 

Masson's disk. See *disk. 

massotherapeutics (mas'o-ther-a-pii'tiks), n. 
[)H«.s.s((;;/r) -H therapeutic^.'] Treatment of 
disease by means of massage. Also masso- 

massoy (mas'oi), li. [Also mn.tsay, mn.i.toi, 
mii.iMii; Malay masiii.] The bark of an East 
Indian tiee, Cinmimomuni Kianiit. X. E. 1). 

mast', 'I — Bonaventnre mast {nnut.), the after-mast 

of a fi>ur-nia.stfd vessel of tlie Elizabethan periotl, which 
correslKtniied to the jiL.'ger-niast of to-day. — FOre-tiy- 
sall mast, same an */'>re-itpcncer wmK^— Lower- 
mast, tin- tlrst mast al)ove the deck ; the mast tliat steps 
in Ttie k.-tlHon anil passes through the deck. — Mast-atld- 
guy system, a method of pnjviding lottgitudinal 
strength iti wooden river-steamers having shallciw hulls. 
Strong keels^ms in theliottoni support a series of veitical 
poles or masts on each side of tile vessel, which are tied 
and braced t^»gether with iron rods or chains, thus form- 
ing a structure analogous to a bridge-girder. — Hast- 
yard plates, the inm plates of which the yards of sijme 
vessels are constructed. 

mastaba (mas'ta-ba), n. [Ar. mnsUiba or 
mnsliibn, a stone or mud bench.] The earli- 
est form of Egyptian tomb, a building oblong 
or square in plan and having sloping sides and 
a fliit roof. It covers the sepulchral pit. 

mastazed (mas'takst), p. a. Possessing a mas- 
tax, or chitinous gizzard, as rotifers. 

He also describes a new inatttaxcd male. 

Xature, Feb. 5, 1903, p. 327. 

mast-cell (mast'sel), «. A name given to 
certain large wandering cells of the leucocyte 
tvpe, found in the blood and connective tis- 
sues under normal but more especially under 
pathological conditions, such as those of leu- 
I'emia, chronic inflammation, etc. See cut 
under *lymphocyte. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
I. T-'i. 

mast-cloth (mist ' kldth), n. The middle 
breadth of canvas in a square sail, which 
receives the chafing of the mast; also, a cover- 
ing of canvas sometimes laced on the after- 
mast of a steamship, so as to receive the soot 
»nd smoke from the stack when at sea. 


master^. I. «., 9. (e) in medieval musical gilds, 
especially tliose of tile niastersingers, one who liad at- 
tained the highest rank of proficiency. — Master Of 
misrule (naut.), tlie title given by liis messmates to tlie 
elected master of ceremonies during tlie recreation-hour 
obtained from the captain for tlie purpose of indulging 
in all ki"ds of pranks and absurdities. It was a well- 
known cu.. :om on old-time vessels to grant this privilege 
to the crew as a mark of appreciation for some good work 
done by them.— Master of the Crown Office. See 
•crown.— Small master, a painter of small easel- 

The great majority of pieces due to the brush of this 
most exquisite of all 'sinalt masters' [Watteau] were no 
doubt engraved. 

Claiule Phillips, in Burlington Mag., V. 23.'i. 

II. « -Mastercard. See •cnrdi.— Master con- 
troller. See -kcontr'iller. — Master record. See 

• riwrrf. 

master-general (inas'ter-jen"e-ral), n. An 
oflfieer of the British Army fr6'm"l483 to the 
Crimean war, who was charged with the sup- 
ply and transportation of the army and in the 
early days controlled the artillery and engi- 
neers. Also called master-general of ordnance. 

master-keyed (mas't6r-ked), a. Fitted to a 

A series of locks is said to be " master-keyed " when so 
constructed that each lock can be operated by its own 
key, which fits it hut no other lock in the series, and also 
by another key which will operate eveiy lock in the 
series, this latter being designated as a "master-key" 
or "pass-key." 

//. li. Toivne, Locks and Builders' Hardware, p. 121. 

master-mechanic (mas"t^r-me-kan'ik), n. A 
chief mechanic ; one who has charge of the 
machinery, etc., of shops. 

master-song (mas't^r-song), n. The art in 
fieneral, or some accredited composition, of 
the niastersingers or meistersanger. See 

master-strap (m&s'ter- strap), H. A heavy 
steel strap used in wood-bending machines to 
insure smooth bending of the wood. 

master-tap (mas't(>r-tap), n. A tap used to cut 
11 die for any screw, but not used in eutiing 
threads in the nuts, a larger tap being used 
for that purpose to afford a slight clearance. 

Masthead compass. See *compass. 

mast-hinge (mast 'hinj), «. Kant., a kind of 
socket for quickly stepping and unstepping 
the mast of a small sail-boat. 

mast-hole (mast'hol), «. In ship-huilding, the 
hole through the partners of a deck to receive 
the mast. See partner, 3. 

mastic, « - —oil of mastic. See -tion. 

masticator, n. (,l) An attachment to a feed-cutter. 
it crushes, siireds. and mixes hay, com, or other material 
cut in the feed-cutter, and is designed to render the feed 
more digestible and imlatable. 

mastigobranch (mas'ti-go-brangk), n. Same 
as * mfi.ilif/i>hrti nrh ia. Annals and Mag. Xat. 
Hist., Nov., 190;!, p. .'•)36. 

mastigobranchia (mas'ti-go-brang'ki-a), n.\ 
jil. mastigohrunchiie (-e). [J^L., < Gr. '/jd(n-(f 
(fiaart}-), whip, + fifmyx'a, gills.] A bush- 
like or plumose epipodial appendage of the 
throacie limbs of decapod crustaceans, serv- 
ing to clean the gills. 

First maxillipeds with a 2-Iobed mastigobranchia. 
. . . The mnstiyohranchix are extremely rudimentary, 
consisting of a minute tubercle with a mere trace of a 

Trans. Linnean Soc. London, Zool., Feb., 1903, p. 440. 

mastigobranchial (mas"ti-g6-brang'ki-al), a. 
[ma.s-tigohrancliia + -n/i.] t'ertaining to or 
characteristic of a mastigobranchia. 

First niaxillKj2-branched : second pair 3-branched, with 
wide inastit/obranchial plate. 

Trann. Linnean .Soc. London, Zool.. Feb., 1903, p. 440. 

mastigophoran (mas-ti-gof'o-ran), a. and n. 
1. a. Relating or pertaining to the Masti- 

II. «. Any one of the 3/a«/i(7opfcora. 

Mastigopus (mas-tig'o-pus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
Iiiiarii {iiaariy-), a wliip, -f- Troi'f, foot.] The 
final stage in the development from the larval 
to the adult condition of certain decapod 
crustaceans, as the Sergestidx. The external 
changes involved consist largely in modifica- 
tions of the appendages of the antennarj' and 
mouth parts and of the ambulatory limbs. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1896, p. 944. 

mastigosis (mas-ti-go'sis), n. [Gr. /laaTiyaai^, 
< fiaarqoiv, whip, flog, < /iaari^, a whip, a 
scourge.] Whipping; flagellation. 

mastigospore (mas'ti-go-sp6r), M. [Gr. iiacTi^ 
(fiaa-i)-), a whip, + (iTo/)«,seed.] Inphytogeog., 
a plant which distributes itself by means of 
ciliate or flagellate propagative cells, as in 

The body skeleton is 
It occurs in the Triassic 


Protococcus, etc., or by plant-bodies similarly 
motile, as in Bacteriacese and Folvocacex. F. E. 

masting (mast'ing), n. On a sailing-vessel, 
the arrangement of the masts and their sup- 

This method of procedure has long been followed in the 
Royal Navy, where the data as to masting, etc., obtained and 
tabulated long ago for the now obsolete classes of sailing 
ships, have furnished rules for practice up to the present 
time, and have made serious accidents, such as dismast- 
ing, almost unknown. 

White, Manual of Naval Arch., p. 343. 

mastodonic (mas-to-don'ik), a. [mastodon + 
-ic. The regiilar type is »jastod!o»<ic.] Relat- 
ing to cr having the characters of a mastodon ; 
mastodontie; gigantic. Kane, Grinnell Exp., 
xxxi. 269. j\'. E. D. 

mastodonsaurian (mas"to-don-sa'ri-an), a. 
and »i. I. a. Pertaining' to, resembling, or 
having the characters of Ma.stodonsanrns. 

II. «. A member of the labyrinthodont 
genus Mastodonsaurus. 

Mastodonsaurus (mas-'to-don-sa'rus), H. 
[NL., < Gr. iiacToi;, teat, + b6oix (orfoir-), tooth, 
-f- aaipoc, lizard.] A 
genus of very large 
labyrinthodont amphi- 
bia having a skull one 
and one quarter meters 
in length, the outer 
surface of which is 
highly sculptured, the 
premaxillcB pierced for 
the passage of two 
tusks of the lower jaw, 
and the teeth of very 
complicated structure, 
known only in part, 
of Europe and India. 

mastoid. I. a — Mastoid antrum, the m.istoid cells 
taken collectively.— Mastoid disease. Same lis maii- 
toiditix.— Mastoid empyemla. .See *empyemia.— 

Mastoid sinus. See *»/«««. 

II. n. 3. Same as pterotic. Starfcs, Sy- 
nonyrav of the Fish Skeleton, p. .'JIO. 

mastoidale (mas'toi-da'le), n. [NL., neut. of 
'mastoidali.s, < mastoides, mastoid.] In cra- 
nioni., the lowest point of the mastoid process. 
Von Tiiriik. 

mastoidectomy (mas-toi-dek'to-mi), n. [NL. 
mastoides, mastoid, -t- Gr. Urofi^, excision.] 
A surgical operation for the excavation of the 
mastoid process. Lancet, April 4, 1903, p. 957. 

mastoidenm, n. 2. Same as opisthotic. Starks, 
Synonymy of the ITish Skeleton, p. 511. 

mastoiditis, «— sclerosing mastoiditis, chronic 
niast^iiditis in which the walls of the cells become thick- 
ened, almost or quite obliterating the latter. 

mastoidotomy (mas-toi-dot'o-mi), n. [NL. 
mastoidcK, mastoid, + Gr. ro/;?/, a cutting.] A 
surgical opei'ation for opening into the mastoid 
cells in cases of mastoiditis, in order to pro- 
vide for drainage and free exit of the pus. 

mastomenia (mas-to-me'ni-a), n. [NL., < 
fuiarur, breast, + /inve^, menses.] A form of 
vicarious menstruation in which there is bleed- 
ing from the breasts. 

mastoncus (mas-tong'kus), n.; pi. mastonci 
(-ton'si). [Gr. imcrrdi;, breast, + oyKog, mass.] 
A mammary tumor. 

mastopezy (mas'to-pek-si), n. [Gr. fmaroc, 
breast, -I- n-?/f(f, fastening.] A surgical opera- 
tion for raising and supporting pendulous 

mastorrhagia (mas-to-ra'ji-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
Iiaardc, breast, + -payia, < priyvvvai, break.] 
Hemorrhage from the breast. 

mast-partners (mast'part'nerz), n. pi. 
US partners. See partner, 3. 

mast-plate (mast'plat), ». In iron ship-huild- 
ing, one of the plates of which an iron mast is 

mastrous, a. 2. Great ; remarkable. Also 
used adverbially: as, a mastrous large school. 
[Prov. Eng.] 

M. Ast. S. An abbreviation of Member of the 
A.Hlronomical Society. 

mast-step (mast'step), n. In ship-building, a 
support above the keel or on a deck on which 
the neel of the mast rests and by which it is 
prevented from moving sideways. In racing- 
yachts, the step is built up into a structure of 
cross girders to distribute the load over a 
largo area of the lightly constructed bottom. 

mast-tackle (mast'tak"!), n. A purchase for 
hoisting or lowering a mast; a purchase 
secured to the masthead for the purpose of 
handling heavy weights. 




masut (ma-sof), H. [Said to be Russian ; cf. mate*,". 2. Same &s *congonha. 
Russ. maslo, oil, butter.] The Russian name mateceric (ma-te-ser'ik), a. [mate* + L. cera, 

wax, + -ic.J Noting an acid, a colorless com- 
pound, obtained from the wax of yerba-mate. 

mater^, n. 3. The large metallic disk which 
forms the foundation of an astrolabe, and car- 

for crude petroleum from the Caucasus, which 
has lost the more volatile hydrocarbons by 
exposure to the air. The name is also applied, 
but less properly, to the residue from the dis- 
tillation of such petroleum after all illu- 
minating oil has been driven off. This residue 
is properh' called *astatki (which see). 

mat^, «. 9. In /jAy^o^reo^., a mat-like aggrega- 
tion of tufts from basal branches. Compare 

*mat-plant. Pound and Clements Abdominal 

mat. See ^abdammal. — Cliafln|r-mat (tia^d.), a niatr 
like binding wound around a hawser or rope, or laid 
under the end of a plank or spar, to prevent chafing or 
wear.— Chinese mat, a particular style of package in 
which the p<.K>rest grades of cassia-bark are mai-keted. It 
consists of two small rolls sewn into a mat; in the center 
are heavy foreign materials, outside of that cinnamon- 
chips of very inferior quality, and on the extreme outside 
neatly arranged quills of fair size and quality.— Cork-mat 
(tutut.), a bag filled with granulated cork, used to prevent 
chafing ; a cork fender. — Dock-mat, a rope fender used in 
a dock to protect the side of a vessel. 

Matabele (ma-ta-ba'le), n. [From a tribe 
name.] A name given in South Africa to a 
large predatory true ant which is said to cap- 
ture white ants and keep them as slaves in its 
own colonies. 

matador, «. 4. In sVat, every trump in un- 
broken sequence with the highest trump, if in 
the same player's hand or on the same side as 
the highest trump. See *skat^. 

Matagne schists. See *gchist. 

matalan (ma'ta-lan), «. [E. Ind.] A small !!!??„?:* Itl^'J^^Vf^?!!"'',*'^*^*! ?TfJ^"/_*^°^."P^^ 

Hindu flute used with bayadere dances. 
matama (ma-ta'ma), n. [East African.] A 

native name for a feind of millet, Sorghum vul- 

f/are, much cultivated by the natives of 

Africa. ' .. - _ - 

The native food resources are matarrm, maize, manioc, 
and in some parts bananas. Nature, May 7, 1903, p. 15. 

Astrolabe of Re^ioinontanus, showing the Mater. 


mating, the pairing or mating of animals, or of humai» 
beings, with some common distinctive ciiaracteristic, 
considered apart from the question whether the mating 
is due to conscious selection of or preference for this 
characteristic or is unintentional or unconscious ; sexual 
selection in its widest sense. 

We could hardly want stronger evidence of the exist- 
ence of assnrtative matiny in man, i.e. of the actuality 
of sexual selection. Biometrika, Nov., 1903, p. 373. 

Antogamic mating, the pairing or mating of like with 

Pearson adds, "Variations do not occur accidentally, or 
in isolated instances ; autogamic and asaortive mating 
are realities." T. 11. Morgan, Evol. and Adapt., p. 269. 

Endogamlc mating or breeding, mating or breeding 
within the limits of the tribe or family.— Heterogamous 
xna.tlng, the i>aii-ing or mating or marriage of unlike in- 
dividuals, as c<jntrasted with tioinogarnous *mati7u/. — 
Homogamons mating. Same as amortative -kmating. 
^Pangamlc mating, marriage or mating or pairing at 
random within the limits of the race, without conscious 
or unconscious preference or selection.- Preferential 
mating, marriage or pairing or mating with one individ- 
ual of the opposite sex rather than another, as the result 
of preference or selection ; sexual selection as commonly 
understood.- Selective mating, homogamons or assor- 
tative mating with or without conscious preference. 

matipo (ma'te-p6), n. [Maori.] A name for 
several of the New Zealand trees also called 
mapau, particularly for those better known as 
tarata and tawhiri. See *mapau, *tmata, and 

matka (mat'ka), n. [Russ. matka, mother, dim. 
of mati, mother.] A Russian name of the 
mother fur-seal, used on the Pribilof Islands. 

A corruption of French 

which the indications of the alidade or index 
are read. Sci. Amer., Aug. 12, 1905, p. 120. 

Material point, placenta. See *pomt''-, *pla- 

Also called Kafir-corn and durra. materialism, «.— Psychopliysloal materialism, 

the doctrine that the problem of psychology is to deter- 
mine the dependence of immediate experience upon the 
body. W. Wundt (trans.), Outlines of Psychol., p. 17. 
matanza (ma-tan'thii), n. [Sp., < matar, kill ] material-man (ma-te'ri-al-man), n. One who 
1. The act of butchering or slaughter,ng.-2. ^^^^^ f^r gale the materials used in some 

trade, especially those used by builders. 

The place where cattle are slaughtered. 
Matawan formation. See ^formation. 

matchl, H — Three-ball match. See *6a/n. 

match^, V. t. 5. In building, to bring to a 
uniform width or thickness by any process, 

either by sorting^andjirranging^ the materia] matezite (mat'e-zit), m. 1. A carbohydrate 
v.„ „.,4.i,„ j„ „ i ., - J which occurs in crude india-rubber from Mad- 

agascar. It is the mono-methyl ether'of opti- 
cally inactive inosite. — 2. Same as *j>inite. 

materteral (ma-ter'te-ral), a. [L. matertera, 
maternal aunt.] Characteristic of a maternal 
aunt. W. Taylor, Monthly Rev., CII. 447. 
A\ E. D. 

or by cutting down some pieces to correspond 
with others : thus, planks are said to be of 
matched width. — 6. In logging. See *matei, 
V. t., 3. 

match.^, ».— Parlor-match, the trade-name for a fric- 
tion-match made without sulphur, or with so little that 
the disagreeble suffocating smell from its combustion is 

practically avoided.— Settlers' matches, the long pen- rna-f aracc n •? 
dulous strips of bark which hang from eucalypts and "^"■^b'-O'Ob, «. o 
other trees during decortication, and which, when thor- 
oughly dry, are used for torches and kindling. [Aus- 

Match-makers' disease. See *disease. 

match-play (mach'pla). 


matezo-dambose (mat'e-zo-dam'bos), n. A 
name given to d-inosite obtained by treating 
pinite (matezite) with hydriodie acid. 

In Australia, Manisuris com- 
pressa, a grass with creeping or ascending flat- 
tened stems, esteemed for pasturage and said 
to keep green the whole year in dry climates. 
— 4. Same as tussock-grass, 2. Hannan, Textile 
Fibres of Commerce, p. 139. 

ptojl, ».] In golf, play in which the score is math. An abbreviation (c) of mathematician. 
reckoned by counting the holes lost or won Mathematical induction. (6) See induction. 
on either side. mathematicophysical (math-e-mat"i-k6-fiz'i- 

matel, ». 6. In geom., the element that is kal), a. Of or pertaining to mathematical 
paired with a given element in a correlation, pliysies ; noting the study of phy.sics by mathe- 
— Chief mate (i>n»(.), the deck-officer next below the matical methods, 
master in rank ; the one upon whom the command of the . , 

vessel would fall in the event of the death or disability of mathematics, n— Mixed mathematics, mathemat- 
♦1 *„:.. Tj^* — — . — .4 *» t, _■__.._.._ ics into which the consideration of the properties of 

the captain.— Extra second mate. Same as navigating 
•kmate. — Junior mate {naut.), any of the mates lower 
in rank than the chief mate. — Machinist's mate, a chief 
petty officer of a man-of-war, who stands watch in the 
engine- and fire-rooms when the vessel is under way. — 
Mate of the deck (rwm*.), the officer of the watch. 
—Mate of the hold (naut), the officer who has charge of, 
and is responsible for, the condition of the hold. — Mate 

Of the hull ()Mtir), an old-fashioned rating for the oflicer „_4.i,a+:„ /^„ <-i,ot';t\ „ 
specially assigned to the work on tlie hull, spars, and ^«iuuBVlo (.ma-inei iiy, a. 
the standing and running rigging in the fitting out or re- 
pairing of a vessel. This officer was generally the chief 
mate, although a junior mate was sometimes selected. 
—Mate Of the watch (naut), the officer in charge of 
the deck ; the mate on watch who has charge of the ship. 
—Navigating mate (natu.), the mate assigned to duty in 
the chai-t-rmjm. On some steamships a navigating mate 
called an extra second mate is carried, whose specific duty 
it is to lfx>k after the navigation of the ship as an aid to 
the captain. This officer stands no regular bridge watch, 
but is supposed to be on the alert day and night to ascer- 

matter enters.— Pure mathematics, mathematics apart 
from its applications. Compare applied mathematics. — 
Qualitative mathematics, mathematics rigorously 
kept free from every quantitative idea, being neither 
positively nor negatively quantitative : for instance, pure 
projective geometry as founded and expounded by von 
Staudt (1847). 

[Gr. iiadi]Tm6(, re- 
lating to learning. See matliesis.'] Of or per- 
taining to mathesis or learning. Bentham. 
Matico camphor. See *camphor. 

matildite (ma-til'dlt), «. [Matilda (see iief.) + 
-ite^.] A sulphobismutite of silver (AgBiSo), 
occurring in gray prismatic crystals, also 
massive : from the Matilda mine, near Moro- 

cocha, Peru. Also found in Colorado. 

tain the ship's place in latitude and "longitude, to lay out mStinZ fma fo^'N •> FT? T A w,.n«.,i, v^n^j 
the ship's cfHirse, and Uy determine the deviation of the ^atm^ (ma-tan ), «. [1 .] A b ranch breed 
compass by azimuths of the sun, moon, and stars.- Se- ""^ large dogs, somewhat resembling the great 
nlor mate (iMut.), the chief mate. Dane, but rough-coated; also used to some 

matel, v. t. 3. In logging, to place together extent for sheep-dogs. Also mdtin-dog. 
in a raft (logs of simitar size); match. m3.tin-dog, n. See *mdiin^. 

mate^, « — Forced mate, in cAess, a mate at a certain mating, W.—Apolegamlc mating, preferential mat- 
stage of the game, which cannot be avoided even by ing ; conscious aTid intentional sexual selection.— jissor- 
the best possible rejomders. tatlve mating, assertive mating, bomogamous 

matlow (mat'16), n. 
matelot, sailor. 

They get into her an' bale out another young Christmas- 
treeful of small reckonin's— brass mostly. Simultaneous 
it hita the Pusser that 'e 'd better serve out mess pork for 
the poor matlov}. 

B. Kipling, Traffics and Discoveries, p. 54. 

mato (ma'to), n. [Porto Riean.] 1. A hard, 
round seed of any one of several leguminous 
plants, used by children for playing marbles ; 
especially, a seed of Guilandina Crista, G. 
major, Ormosia monosperma, or Sti^olobium 
urens, or one of the plants itself. They are 
usually distinguished from each other, as mato 
azul, mato amarillo, etc. — 2. A game of mar- 
bles played with these seeds. 

Matonia (ma-to'ni-a), n. [NL. (Robert Brown, 
1830), named for Dr. Maton, a London physi- 
cian.] A small genus of peculiar Malaysian 
ferns, the only living representatives of the 
family Matoniacese. The best-known species, M. 
pectinata, which occurs also as a fossil, has rigid fan- 
shaped fronds, from 1 to 2 feet wide and palmately 
divided, the divisions pectinately pinnatifid, and the son, 
which are borne singly at the confluence of several vein- 
letB toward the base of the segment, large, globose, with 
a peltate stipitate superior indusium Inclosing six sessile 
radial sporangia which are laterally connate. A second, 
rare species, M. sarmentosa, is of very different habit 
but of like fructification. 

Matoniacese (ma-to-ni-a'se-e), H. pi [NL., 
< Matonia + -aceee.'] One "of the eight fam- 
ilies of ferns comprising the Eufilicinese, or 
homosporous leptosporangiate Filicales, and 
typified by the genus Matonia. There are, 
besides, some half-dozen genera of fossil 
plants placed in this family. See *Matonia. 

mat-plant (mat'plant), «. A plant of a pros- 
trate radiating habit. 

The mat-plnnt, such as a purslane or carpet-weed, 
adapted to life on a flat plane. 

C. MacMitlan, Minnesota Plant Life, il 

matranee (ma-tra'ne), n. [Also metrahnee ; 
Hiud. mchtardne, fem. of mehtar, a sweeper, 
or scavenger.] A female sweeper or scav- 

matrical (mat'ri-kal), o. [L. matrix (matric-) 
+ -«/!.] In histol., of or pertaining to a matrix, 
like the matrix of a tissue such as cartilage. 

The nutrition of the cartilage is probably effected by 
impenetration of fluids along the fine bundles of fibers, 
which In this way come to stand out clearly amid tlie 
matrical substance. 

Jour. Boy. Micros. Sac, April, 1903, p. 163. 

matrimony, n. 4. it is played with a lay-out on 
which bets are placed, the playei-s winning the counters 
in each division according to the combinations held. 
These are : matrimony, any king and queen ; intrigue, 
any queen and jack ; confederacy, any king and jack ; 
a pair, any two cards of the same denomination, and 
best, the ace of diamonds. Two cards are given to each 

matrine (ma'trin), n. A crystalline dextroro- 
tatory alkaloid, CJ5H04ON2, contained in the 
roots of Sophora angustifolia. It melts at 
80° C. 

matriotism (ma'tri-ot-izm), n. [L. mater, 


mother: on the analogy of patriotism.'} Loy- 
alty to one's mother country. [Kara.] 

I am delijihted with your 7na(rioftjf»i. "Rome, Venice, 
(Cambridge!" I talce it for an ascending scale, Rome 
being the first step and Cambridge the glowing apex. 

Lowell, Letters, I. 270. 

matrix, ".— Rank of a matrix. See *rank2. 

matrix-bar (ma'triks-bar), H. A combination 
of miitrices, usually 12 in number, on one 
plate or bar of metal, as arranged for type- 
making on the monoline machine. 

matrix-gem (ma'triks-jem), n. An opal, tiir- 
quoise, ruby, or other gem intimately mixed 
with the matrix material and cut with it. 

mat-rash (mat'rush), v. The great bulrush, 
,Sc>r])HS lacvstris. 

matsa fma'tsa ), n. ; pi. maisoth (mat-sof). 
[Also ma~za. pi. ma:zotli: Heb. -^/niatsats, suck, 
taste.] Unleavened bread. See Passover. 

matted^ (mat'ed), p. o. Dull; lusterless; cov- 
ered with a mat glaze : as, matted steel ; matted 
glass; matttd ■poX.Xery. 

matter, «.— Bredlchln's matter, matter of which 
comets" tails are fonueil, according to thp hj-pothesis of 

He IBredichinl has found that it is merely necessary to 
m)stulate three kinds of matter, issuing from the nucleus 
with three initial velocities, and subject to repulsion 
from the sim with three sets of forces of repulsion— i.e., 
as compared with onlinary gravitative attraction for the 
whole of the phenomena of all sorts of comets to be very 
completely accounted for. . . . With the comparatively 
slow separation of the atoms of BredUhins matter from 
the nucleus, each one describing its own hyperbola con- 
vex to the sun, the tail at any m(mient represents the 
then position of any number of atoms which left the 
nucleus for some distance back. 

Sat lire, Sept 10, 1903, p. 450. 

Fourth state of matter, a term proposed by Crookes 
for the cotuliticn in whicli gases exist when the pressure 
is so low that the particles have a mean free path greater 
than the dimensions of the containing vessel. A gas 
under such pressures is al«.> calle<l a hiipevfinx or radiant 
matter. See radiant 7iin(f/T.— Gray matter or sub- 
stance. See *./r<7i/.— Law Of conservation Of mat- 
ter. .See *TO)ui.T!<i(i'<;/i.— Matter In pals, in law. in 
tile country ; not in court. 

Matteuccia (ma-tu'chia,), n. [NL. (Todaro, 
18(36), named in honor of Carlo Matteucci, an 
Italian physicist and statesman.] A small 
genus of dimorphous polypodiaoeous ferns, 
having the fronds borne in a close, upright 
crown from an ascending rhizome. In the single 
American species, the ostrich-fern, M. .Strulhiupterig 
{thloeUa Struthiiypterix. .Strathinpteriit Oermariica). 
which occurs also in F.un>pe. the h^igh^green sterile 
fronds are broadly lanceolate an<l bipinnatitld, from 3 to 
« feet high, with the lower pinnic reduced in size. The 
sterile fronils, which appear late in the season, are much 
smaller and usually devoid of leafy tissue, with the 
crowded son wholly concealed beneath the Btnmgly 
revolute margins of the contracted, bead. like piimate 
divisions. There is, besides, an Asiatic species, in most 
respects similar. 

Matthean (ma-the'an), a. [L. Matthee(us) + 
-««.] Of or pertaining to St. Matthew or to 
the Gospel attributed to him. 

matting'-^, «■ 3. In stained glass, color laid 
on to deaden a surface or to render glass less 

mattoid (mat'oid), n. [It. matioide, madman, 
< matU), < ML. matttis, stupid, dull, + -oidr, 
E. -old.} One who exhibits symptoms of men- 
tal degeneration but is not positively insane ; 
a semi-insane person ; a crank : a term used 
by Lorabroso to designate a semi -insane per- 
son whose ideas and aims (often of a literary 
or artistic character), while they may simu- 
late those of talent and even of genius, are 
marked by radical absurdities which the pa- 
tient is unable, through mental weakness, to 

mattowacca (ma-to-wak'a), n. [Appar. an 
Amerindian name.] Same as gizzard-shad. 
mattras, n. Same as matrass. 
Mattress blanket. See *blanket. 
mattress-wire (mat'res-wir), n. Fine steel 
wire used for making wire mattresses, 
mattira (ma-tu'ra), «. Same as tmajo. [Rare.] 

Exception is taken to the use of the words "imago " 
and " imagine," liitroiiuced by I,inna!us, as representing 
the final stage of insect mctamori)tiosi8, and "malura" 
(maturo = to ripen) is suggested and employed as a sub- 
stituU'. conforming conveniently with the accepted 
terms for the earlier stages— larva and pupa. 

..Vature, March :», 1905, p. 621. 

maturation, «. 3. In eytol. and embryo!., the 
final stage in the development of the germ- 
cells (ovum and spermatozoon). This stage is 
characterized by certain changes in the chro- 
mosomes, especially a reduction in their num- 
ber to one half of that of the chromosomes in 


the somatic or body cells. 
well, Zoology, I. 18. 


Parker and Has- Maugrabin, «. Same as Mograbin. 

maul^, >i. Specifically — 2. In well-boring, a 
heavy block of wood used like the ram of a> 
pile-driver to drive pipe into the ground for 
water or preliminary to boring in the rock 
below.— Douhle-headed maul, a large iron hammer 
the two ends of which .ire equal in size, both of them 
steel-faced, and which is used for driving bolts. — Single^ 
headed maul, a large iron hammer having a flat head, 
steel-faced at one end and with a point at the other. 

maul^ (mal), n. Same as mold^, n. [Prov.] — 
Black mauls, a fungous disease of willows, in Ireland, 
attributed to a pyrenomycetous fungus, Physalospora 

maulavi, ». Same as *maulvi. 

maulvi (moul'vi), n. [Also moulvi, maulavi, 
molavee, etc. Hind, maulavi, maulvi, in popu- 
lar speech mulvi, also mauli, maulbi, < Ar. 
maidawi {maulavi. matdvi): see molla.'] In 
Hindu Mohammedan use, a judge ; a doctor 
(of the law) : a common title of learned men, 
professors of the law and literature. 

maungee, n. See*manjee. 

mauve, »■. — Acid mauve. See -kacid-mauve. 

maux (maks), n. [See matck^.'] A slattern ; a 
woman of low character ; a prostitute. [Obs. 
or dial.] 

mauzeliite (mou-za'li-it), n. [Named after K. 
Mauzelius, a Swedish chemist, who analyzed 
it.] A titano-antimonate of lead and calcium 
occurring in dark-brown octahedrons at Ja- 
kobsberg, Sweden. 

; " ' ' ', [Ir. mo, my; 

muirnin. darling, dim. mtiirn, joy, affection.] 
My darling ; darling : an Irish term of endear- 

Kathleen mavoumeen ! the grey dawn is breaking. 

Annie Barry Crawford. 

maw-bound, a. II. n. Same as *firain-sick. 
mature, a. 5. Upl,ys. ,.o,. and geoL, noting MtTTrJnVr'rXi^rier^i^^R^ictrrrr; 

Diagrams showing the essential facts in the maturation of the 
egg. The somatic number of chromosomes is supposed to be 
four. vV, initial phase, two tetrads have been formea in the ger- 
^iiiirial vesicle; £, the two tetrads have been drawn up about the 

spindle to form the equatorial plate of the first polar mitotic ■-.■ ..,_.. 

figure; C, the mitotic figure has rotated into position, leaving the 1113.V0Uni6611 (TDa-VOr Detl), tl 
remains of the germinal vesicle at s'-'^-'- ^' formation of the first - -. •• -. 

polar body, each tetrad divides into two dyads ; £, first polar body 
fonned, two dyads in it and in the egg; F, preparation for the 
second division ; O, second polar body forming and the first divid- 
ing, each dyad divides into two single chromosomes; /J. final 
result, three polar bodies and the egg-nucleus, $,each containing 
two single chromosomes (half the somatic number) ; c, the egg- 
centrosome which now degenerates and is lost. (From Wilson's 
"The Cell.") 

the stage of maximum development ; specif- 
ically, noting a stage in the cycle of erosion 
when the fullest development of variety in 
forms and of activity in processes is attained. 
The usual outlines of a mature lake-shore in conse- 
quence of wave-action. Geog. Jour. (R. G. S.), XV'I. 447. 

bles Mawworm, a character in Biekerstaffe's 
play "The Hypocrite," 1769; a hypocritical 
pretender to sanctity. -Y. E. D. 

A man naturally likes to look forward to liaving the 
best. He would be the very Mawuwrm of bachelors who 
pretended not to expect it. 

George Eliot, Middlemarch, I. ii. 

Mature river, topography. See^ver^,-*ctopoaraphy. Mawwormlsh (ma'w^rm-ish), a. Character 

maturer (ma-tur'tT), «. One who, or that 
wliioh, matures ; whatever serves to ripen or 
bring to maturity ; something added, as to ale, 
to ripen or mature it: as "sorrow is a great 
maturer of judgment," Addison. 

matorescence (mat-u-res'ens), n. [See mat- 
uresceitt.} The process of becoming mature ; 

maturity, ». 4. In phys. geog., that stage in 
the geographical cycle or cycle of erosion 
when the fullest development of variety in 
forms and of activity in processes is attained. 
It lies between the unearved forms of youth 
and the worn-down forms of old age. 

Matuta (ma-tu'ta), n. [NL., < L. Matuta, a 
surname of Ino, a sea-deity.] The typical 
genus of the family Matutidse. It is noted for 
its powers of swimming and burrowing. Fab- 
ririiis, 1798, 

istie of Mawworm. See Mawworm^. 

He [Luther] was no sour Sabbatarian, no mawwormi,^h 
mar-joy. He had music in his soul. 

Karl Blind, in Oentleman's Mag., CCLV. 488. 

max^ (maks), n. [A native name in Yucatan.] 
A Central American curculionid beetle whose 
larva burrows into the sisal plant in Yucatan. 
Next to tire, a large, long-nosed black beetle is the 
greatest enemy of the cultivated sisal. It is known to the 
natives as the "max." 

Set. Amer. Sup., May 9, 1903, p. 22869. 

maxillary. I. a.— Maxillary index. See*index. 
- Maxillary neuralgia. Same us facial -knevral^ia. 

II. n. 2. The posterior of the two bones 
which border the upper jaw in osseous fishes. 
It usually bears teeth in the soft-rayed fishes, 
but in the spiny-rayed fishes the teeth are con- 
fined to the premaxillary — Supplemental max- 
illary, an auxiliary bone found on the njiper or posterior 
ed^e of the niaxillai7 of some species of fishes. 
Matutidse (ma-tii'ti-de),n.p;. [NL., < i/a(Mto maxillitls (mak-si-li'tis), n. [NL., < maxilla 
+ -idee.} A family of oxystomatous brachy- -t- -itis.} Inflammation of the maxilla or jaw. 
urous crustaceans, having much the same maxillolablal (mak-sil-6-la'bi-al), a. [L. 
characters as the Calappidm except that the maxilla, jaw, + labium, lip, + -aV-'."] Pertain- 
third maxillipeds have the three terminal j^g to both the maxilla and the labium. Bucky 
joints concealed beneath the triangular acute jig,) Handbook, I. 435. 

fourth joint. It includes the genera Matuta Maximianist (mak-sim'i-an-ist), «. IMaxim- 
aiid Hepatus. ionus + -ist.'] An adherent of one of the ex- 

matutinary (ma-tu'ti-na-ri), a. [L. matutin- treme sects of the Donatist heresy in the 
(«,s) + -«r_v. ^ee matutinal.} Same as nia(«- fourth century: so called from its leader 
tinal. [Rare.] Maximianus, bishop of Carthage. 

We were aroused at four o'clock this morning; had some Maxlmillanea (mak-si-inil-i-a'ne-a), «. [NL. 
eggs and coffee, and were ready to start between five and ^ Jl^vtius, 1819), named in honor ot Maximilian 

six ; t>eing thus matutinary, in order to get to Terni in 
time to see the falls. 

Hawthorne, Fr. and Ital. Note-books, I. 239. 

maty3 (ma'ti), «. ; pi. maties (-tiz). [Dim. of 
niate^.} 1. A mate; a companion. — 2. A 
dockyard carpenter, shipwright, or artificer. 

man (mou), n. A tsetse-fly. 

maud'-^ (m4d), «. [Origin obscure.] A sal- 
mon-net stretched around four stakes in the 
form of a square. 

matldlinize (mad'lin-iz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
maudlinized, ppr. maudlinizing. To make 
maudlin-drunk. [Rare.] 

Mi. Pledge her, good brother. 
■ Gab. I do — 
Mi. I hope 't will maudlenize him. 

R. Brtrme, Covent-Oarden Weeded, iv. 1. 

Maugrabee (ma'gra-bee), n. Same as Mo- 

I. (1756-1825), King of Bavaria, who supported 
Martins in his earlier botanical exploration of 
Brazil.] A genus of plants of the family 
Co<hlos])ermaceee. They are trees or shrubs, with 
palmately lobed leaves preceded by the conspicuous yel- 
low flowers, which are borne in small racemesor panicles. 
There are about 13 species, widely distributed in the 
tropics, but confined to arid habitats. M. Gomjpium, of 
India, is a small tree which produces kuteera gum, a sub- 
stitute for gum tragacanth. In M. nilotica, an African 
species, the permanent stem from which the flower and 
leaf shoots spring is almost subterranean. The thickened 
un<lerground portion of the West African M. tincloria 
produces a yellow dye. See Cochtospermum. 
maximite (mak'sim-it), n. [Named from its 
inventor, Hudson Maxim.} An explosive, in- 
vented bv Hudson Maxim, consisting largely 
of picric acid : used as a bursting-charge for 
large projectiles. 

Maximite, the new high explosive which has been 
adopted by the United States Government as a bursting 


chaise for shell, is one of the most powerful high explo- 
sive compounds known t<.> science, being about fifty per 
cent more powerful than pure nitro-glycerine. Among 
commercial high explosives, it is equalled only in shatter- 
ing fi>rce by nitnvgelatine anil pure picric acid. . . . The 
experiment* at Sandy Hook which finally resulted in the 
adoption of Maximite were veiy thorough and exhaus- 

II. .Vfltjrtm, in Jour. Mil. Serv. Institution U. S., Nov., 
[1901, pp. 347, 348. 

maximum, if Maxlmam stress. See ♦»(re««i. — 

Principle of maximum work. See -^work. 

maxtle (masU'tle), n. [Mex. Sp., < Nahuatl 
(of Mexico) maxtlatt.'] The popular name in 
Mexico, New Mexico, and Central America for 
the breech-clout. 

inaxwell (maks'wel), n. [Named for J. Clerk 
Maxwell, an eminent mathematician and 
physicist.] The c. g. s. unit of magnetic 
flux ; the flux which, acting upon a unit mag- 
net-pole, will repel it with a force of one dyne; 
the flux per square centimeter of cross-section 
in a lield of unit flux density. 

mayacaceous (ma-ya-ka'shius), a. Belonging 
to the plant family Mayacacese. 

Mayad clover. See Trifolium. 

Mayall's albumin negative process. See 


Mayan (mi'an ormii'yau), a. and ». IMaya + 
-OH.] I. a. Of or pertaining to the Mayas. 

II. II. A linguistic family of North Amer- 
ica including numerous languages spoken in 
southern Mexico and Central America. 

maycock"^ (ma'kok), n. [Also »i acock ; form- 
erly also viacokos; from one or more Indian 
forms correspondingto Virginian (Powhatan ?) 
mahawk, gourd, Delaware (Len^p^) machqachlc, 
pumpkin.] A species of squash or pumpkin. 
Jour. Amer. Folk-lore, Oct.-Dec, 1902, p. 247. 
[Now local in Virginia.] 

May-dewing (ma'du"ing), n. The custom of 
wasliiug tlie face in dew on May-day, or on the 
first Sunday in May, to secure lasting beauty of 
complexion. The custom still exists in some 
places in England. See May-dew, n. 

The quaint old custom of May-dewing, or washing the 
face in dew, on the first Sunday in May . . . was observed 
yesterday by a large number of Blackburn girls and 
women. Standard (London), May 8, 1905. 

Mayepea (ma-ep'e-il), n. [NL. (Aublet, 1775), 
prob. from a native Guiana name of the type 
species, Mayepea Guianensis.'] A genus of 
dicotyledonous trees or shrubs belonging to the 
family Oleacese. See Linociera. 

Majrfield (ma'feld), n. Same &splacitum. 

The frequent popular assemblies, whereof under the 
names of the Mallum, the Placitum, the Mayjield, we hear 
so much under Clovis and Charles were now never sum- 
moned. J. Bryce, Holy Roman Empire, p. 120. 

May-gowan (ma'gou"an), n. The common 
daisy. Also ewe-gowan.' 

May-haw, w. This species has the largest flowers and 
the largest and best-ttavored fruit of the genus. In 
southwestern Louisiana the fruit is largely gathered for 
the market, being utilized for jellies, etc. Also called 
summer hate. 

May Hill sandstone. See *sandstone. 

mayoraP (mii-yo-riir), 11. [Sp., < mayor, 
greater. See major.] A head shepherd ; an 
overseer ; a leader of a pack-train. 

Our mules toiled along slowly and painfully, urged by 
the incessant cries of the mayoral, or conductor, and his 
mozo. As the mayoral'g whip could only reach the second 
span, the business of the latter was to jump down every 
ten minutes, run ahead and belabor the flanks of the fore- 
most mules, uttering at the same time a series of sharp 
howls, which seemed to strike the poor beasts with, quit« 
as much severity as his whip. 

B. Taylor, Lands of the Saracens, p. 406. 
Here our conversation was cut short by the Mayoral of 
the diligence, who came to tell us that the mules were 
waiting ; and before many hours had elapsed, we were 
scrambling through the square of the ancient city of 
Burgos. Lonyfellow, Outre-Mer, p. 173. 

mayorazgo (ma-yo-rath'go), n. [Sp., < mayor, 
< L. initjor, elder. See major.'] In -Sp. law, 
same as majorat, 1. 

maysin (ma'zin), n. [NL. mays, mails, maize, 
+ -(n2.] See *maisin. 

may-star (ma'star), n. Same as star-flower (a). 

Majrtenus (ma'te-nus), n. [NL. (Molina, 1782), 
from maytcn, the Chilean name of Maytenus 
Boaria.] A genus of plants of the family 
CelciStraeex. They are upright trees or shrubs with 
alternate evergreen leaves and small white, yellow, or 
reddish flowers, either single in the axils of the leaves 
or in axillary, often clustered, cymes. There are about 
70 species, natives of tropical and subtropical America. 
One, M. phyllanthoideft, grows wild as far north as south- 
em Florida. M. Boaria, a Chilean species, is planted as 
an ornamental tree in California as far north as San Fran- 
cisco. It has pendulous branches, small ovate-lanceolate, 
glandular-serrate, thin leaves, and inconspicuous flowers 
ioUowed by fruit with scarlet arils. 


May-teirm (ma't^rm), «. The Easter-term at 
the University of Cambridge, England. [Eng. 

May-week (ma'wek), «. The week of the 
May races at Cambridge, England. N. E. D. 

May-wine (ma'win), m. Same as May-drink. 

may- wings (ma'wingz), n. Same as *gay- 

mazagran (ma-za-griin'), n. [Mazagran, a vil- 
lage of Algeria.] Black coffee sweetened and 
served with cracked ice in a long, slender 

mazamorra (mii-tha-mor'a), n. [Sp. mma- 
morra.] 1. In Spanish use, breadcrumbs used 
in a soup or mush. — 2. In Peru, a dish consist- 
ing of a sweet mush made of various fruits ; 
also, a kind of custard. — 3. In Bolivia, a mud- 
flow or mud-slide. Such slides occur frequently in the 
gorges around La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, during the 
i-ainy season, and are very dangerous for inexperienced 
travelere. The mud, however, soon hardens and fonns a 
deep and sterile crust Portions of the once fertile gorge 
of the La Paz river have been completely ruined by mud- 
flows which, iu places, attained a thickness of ten to 
twenty feet 

mazar (mil-zar'), n. [Also masar, < Ar. mazdr, 
a shrine visited by pilgrims, < zar, he visited, 
ziydrah, a visit.] A tomb of a saint regarded 
as a shrine. Also masar. 

Mazeutozeron (maz-u-tok'se-ron), «. [NL. 
(Labillardiere, 1798).] A genus of plants of 
the family Butaceie. They are shrubs or small 
trees, usually clothed with stellate hairs, and have ovate 
or lanceolate opposite entire leaves, and rather large 
pendent white, green, yellow, or red flowers, with the 
four petals connate at the base or nearly to the apex into 
a bell-shaped or tubular corolla, and 8 usually exserted 
stamens. There are 6 or more species, natives of Austra- 
lia. M. gpecioaum \Correa speciosa of Alton), the native 
fuchsia of Australia, and other species are sometimes 
cultivated in greenhouses. 

mazic (ma'zik), a. [Gr. fial^a, a cake (repre- 
senting NL. placenta in its L. sense, a cake),+ 
-!C.] Of or pertaining to the placenta ; pla- 

mazolysis (ma-zol'i-sis), TO. [NL., <Gr. /idfo, 
a cake (representing NL. placenta), + 'Ahai^, a 
loosening.] Separation of the placenta. 

mazopathia (maz-o-path'i-a), II. [NL., < Gr. 
fidCa, a cake (representing NL. placenta), + 
irddoQ, disease.] Any placental disease. 

mazuca (ma-zo'kil), n. [A^so masooka ; appar. 
au aboriginal name.] A scia;noid fish, Leio- 
stomiis xantlnirus, found on the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts of the United States. 

mazun (ma-tson'), n. See the extract. 

Lastly, mention should be made of the " mazun " of the 
Armenians from the milk of the bison or goat, but is also 
prepared from the milk of cows, and possesses a pleasant 
acid taste similar to that of kefir. It serves as acidifying 
material in the case of churning wherewith the butter 
assumes a pleasant aroma. Moreover, it serves as a 
beverage, and also for the production of vai'ious milk 
foods. The preparation is carried on in a way similar to 
that of keflr and koumiss, the lactic acid and alcohol fer- 
mentation probably tjdies place here also in a symbiotic 
manner. Sci. Amer. Sup., Jan. 25, 1908, p. 63. 

M. B. An abbreviation (n) of the Latin Medi- 
ciiiee Baccalaureus, Haohelor of Medicine; (6) 
of the Latin Miisicee Baccalaureus, Bachelor of 
Music; (c) of " mark of the beast," in allusion 
to the popular belief that the garment de- 
scribed below smacked of popery — M.B. waist- 
coat, a kind of waistcoat with no opening in front, worn 
by Anglican clergymen (originally, about 1840, only by 
adherents of the Tractarian party, butafterwardsby many 
belonging to other schools). N. K. D. 

mbalolo (mba'16-16), n. The native name in 
Samoa and Fiji for the palolo worm, Palolo 
viridis. An indication of the relative abun- 
dance of these worms is the fact that October 
is called mbalolo lailai (little), and November, 
mhalolo levu (large). 

mbco. A contraction of marks banco. 

M. B. F. & H. An abbreviation of the Latin 
Magna Britannia, Francia et Hibernia, Great 
Britain, France and Ireland. 

mbira (mbe'ril), M. [S. African.] A South 
African musicalinstrument allied to the zanze. 

M. B. Sc. An abbreviation of Master of Busi- 
ness Science. 

M. 0. An abbreviation (b) of the Latin Magis- 
ter CMrurgise, Master of Surgery ; (c) of Mas- 
ter of Ceremonies. 

M/c. An abbreviation of metallic currency. 

McBurney's point. See *appendicitis. 

McCay's circles. See ■''circle. 

M. C. E. An abbreviation of Master of Civil 

Mch. A contraction of March. 

M. 0. L. An abbreviation of Master of Civil 


M. C. P. An abbreviation of Member of the 
College of Preceptors. 

M. 0. S. An abbreviation of Madras Civil 

M. D. An abbreviation (c) of Middle Dutch ; 
(it) [?. c] of months (after) date. 

Md. A contraction of Maryland. 

m/d. An abbreviation of month's date. 

M. D. £. An abbreviation of Master of Domes- 
tie Economy. 

Mdlle. A contraction of the French Mademoi- 
selle, Miss. 

Mdm. A contraction of Madam. 

M. D. S. An abbreviation of Master of Dental 

M. D. V. Sameas*r. D. M. 

mdse. A contraction of merchandise. 

M. E. An abbreviation (d) of Master of En- 
gineering; (e) of Mechanical Engineer; (/) of 
Military Engineer; (;/) of Most Excellent. 

Me. A contraction of Maine. 

meadow, «.— Mountain meadow, an open grassy val- 
ley-floor or basin among mountains. 

The mountain meadows and deer parks, which consti- 
tute a feature of considemble irnxwi-tance because of their 
area in the mountain regions of lK>th the eastern and 
the westeni portions of the United States. 

Yearbook o/ U. S. Dept. Ayr., 1900, p. 686. 

meadow-bell (med'o-bel), n. The harebell. 

meadow-grass, n — Alkail meadow-grass. See 
■ttalkali-yrass, 2. — Pungent meadow-grass. Same as 

meadow-lily (med'6-lil"i), n. Same as Canada 

meadow-parsnip, n — Oolden meadow-parsnip, 
Zizia aurea, an umbelliferous plant which closely resem- 
bles the meadow-parsnip and has bright yellow flow ei-s ; 
found throughout North America east of the Great Plains. 

meadow-shoe (med'6-sho), n. A flat iron disk 
or sole designed to be attached to a horseshoe 
to prevent the horse from sinking in soft or 
wet ground. 

meadow-wink (med'6-wingk), n. A name 
sometimes given to the bobolink. 

meakin (me'kin), n. The spiked water-milfoU, 
Myriophyllum spicatum, found throughout most 
of the northern hemisphere. 

meaking (me'king), «. Xaut., the act of run- 
ning old oakum out of the deck or bottom 
seams of a vessel, preparatory to recalking. 

meal^, n. — Germ-Oll meal, a trade-name of the 
ground cake left after expressing oil from the germs of 
the keniels of maize or Indian com. It is used as food 
for cattle. — Whole meal, meal or fiour from which the 
bran has not been removed by bolting. 

meal-hour (mel'our), n. The hour or time at 
wliieh a meal is or should be served; specifi- 
cally (naut.), the interval during which the 
meal-pennant is displayed. The term has no 
reference to length of time. 

mealiness,". 3. In jj/iotoi/., a defect in silver- 
printing, in which the surface of the print 
presents a peculiar mottled appearance, due 
generally to a too weak sensitizing-bath. 
Woodbury, Encyc. Diet, of Photog., p. 277. 

mealing (me'ling), a. Pertaining to the re- 
duction of some substance, as a cereal, to meal 
by grinding. 

A very interesting mealing outfit was encountered on 
the hillside above the dwelling and near the margin of 
the mine. Rep. U. S. Nat. Mxu., 1900, p. 169. 

mealing-plate (me'ling-plat), n. A plate hav- 
ing teeth for grinding materials, such as 
acorns, to meal. 

Plates 10 and 11 serve to illustrate two of the first steps 
in the acorn industry, the carrying and hulling of the 
acoms, and the use of the mealing plate in grinding. 

Rep. U. S. Xat. Mut., 1900, p. 172. 

mealing-trough (me'ling-trof), n. A trough 
or box of wood or stones about 2 feet wide, 8 
inches high, and several feet long, separated 
by partitions into several compartments (usu- 
ally three), each of which contains a metati' or 
slab for grinding com : used by the Indians of 
the Southwest and Mexico. 

meal-moth, » Indian meal-motli. See *ii'oih. 

meal-tree (mel'tre), n. The wayfaring-tree, 
Viburnum Lantana. .' 

meal-worm, «. 2. In angling, a worm bred 
in meal or flour, used for bait in fishing. 

The meal-worm, which is perhaps the least troublesome, 
breeds amongst the refuse sweepings of flour mills. 

U. Cholmondeley-Pennell. Mod. Pract Angler, p. 229. 

mealy, a. 6, Starchy; farinaceous. See 

*starchy^. 2. 
mealy-back (me'li-bak), n. A local name for 

a grasshopper. [Australia.] 
mealy-wing (me'U-wing), n. Any member of 

the homopterous family Aleurodida; a, white 


mean 779 meconinic 

mean^. I. « — Mean longltade. (6) The middle measuiing-day (mezh'ur-ing-da), n. In min- specifleally, in pliilos., the mechanical intcr- 

loiis;itude: the point half-way hetween two loiiKitmles ; ,„,;, the day -(vheu the mine foreman or other pretation of the universe, 

the meridian equidistant between two other meridians.— „«;„;„) „iphsiii-p« tliB wnrV rlnno >.v tho o^n i- * ■ ■•»• i » »,, ^ x. . 

Mean point,"f a iH.lvpm or polyhedron, the mass-center omeiai measures tfle work done by tbe con- \ et, admitting what that patient OTecAantcoiiOTt may 

of a system .■( equal i>artii-les situated at the vertexes or tract miners, [heotch.] have done for modern civilization, one must not . . . 

suniriiita— Mean sphere, spheroid. See *sphere, meaSUring-motion (mezh'ur-ine'-m6"shon), «. underestimate the force of personality. 

■k,nh.roid ^ ^ . , ,. , „ A mechanism formeasuring the size or amount ^!A«n^««m, May 6, 1905, p. 668. 

II. II. 10. The abscissa m the center ot ^f the product of a machine: as, for example, mechanicophysical (me kan"i-k6-fiz'i-kal), a. 

gravity of the vanates or ot the frequency the size of a fulllap on a ribbon lap-machine, Pertaining to, or dependent on, both mechanics 

polygon. It IS found by the formula M--(VV2 in cotton-manufacturing. Tliornley, Cotton and physics.-^Mechanloophyslcal theory of evo- 

n Combing Machines, p. 17. lutlon. See*ev»iut,viu 

where V is the magnitude of any class, / its measuring-roller (mezh'iir-ing-ro''l^r), n. mechaniCOtlierapeutlCS (me-kan"i-Vo-ther-a- 

frequencv, and n the number of variates. A roller, or small beam, as part of the warp- P" tiks), «. 1 he treatment of disease by me- 

-Mean of the altitudes, in nav., the average obtained delivering mechanism of a loom for measurine chamcal means, such as gymnastics, massage, 

in a series of altitudes by dividing the aggregate of the thp ntnnnnt nf vnrn wnvon T IF^Vi^Monl, Vibration, etc. 

desrees, minutes, and seconds of an .arc by the figure tHe amount ot jam woven. I. H . tox, Meoh- jnechanicotheraDV fme-kan"i-k6-ther'a-ni1 « 
which rei.icscnt* the number of altitudes taken.-Mean anism of Weaving, p. 443. inecaanicoT,nerapy (me Kan i ko mer a-pi;, n. 
of the latitudes, in nao., the mid.lle latitude (which see, measurlng-spOut (mezh'ur-ing-spout), n. In a '^^"J^ '^? ■"mecimmvotnerapeutics. 
under ;„(,7H./e».--Mean Of Uie tides, the average high- boiler-room where the coal is stored in over- mechanics, «. -Abstract mechanics. Same as ro- 
ot low-water mark.— Weighted mean, the mean value i,_„.i i,„„i,„„_ „ „i ^ <■ j r ^x, i dojini *Hi«t7ia)iics.— Animal mechanics, the science of 
of a series of observations, obtained by assigning to each neau ounKers, a cnute lor aeuvermg tlie coal mechanics as applied to the human body or to the body 
its proper weight or importance, instead of assumingall to to the floor in front of the flre-doors of a bat- of any animal.— Applied mechanics, the statical and 
be of equal significance in the computation of the result, tery of boilers. It consists of a sheet-metal chute dynamical investigation of machines and engineer- 
meander, ". 4. In »/i««. (^eoi/., a self-developed which has gates above and below, and is controlled by a i?8 construction.— Celestial mechanics, that por- 
river-curve suitable to the volume of the locking-rod so that the upper gate cannot be opened to tion of asteonomy which deals w^.tli the motions of the 
=f!.l:,r^ »'"'■»"« »-" '■"'' vu miic c admit the coal to the chute until the lower gate is closed, heavenly-bodies.- Developmental mechanics. See 
stream. ^y,,j.„ ^-^e chute is full and the supply is cut off, the chute *ii<'rc("J"'ieH(a(. --Non-Euclidean mechanics, rational 
The terms "meander" and "shut in," and the like, contains a fixed weight of coal. When the coal is dis- mechanics iii which the geometry interwoven is non- 
have a definite enough geomorphological meaning, as ap- chai-ged below, a counting device registei-s the weight Euclidean.— Pure mecnaiUCS. Same as rational *me- 
pears clearly from ilr. Slarbut's use of them, but we can- delivered. The spout swings about a fixed center to dis- ™<"wct.— Rational mecnanlCS. (n) See rational, (b) 
not help feeling that they sound crude and angular, more tribute the coal to two or more boilei-s. "'"^ science which explains natural phenomena by de- 
confonuable in style to the German language than to our measuruis-weir fmezh'ur-inff-werl n A low picting them with m.athematical precision as dependent 
own Geog. Jour. (R, G. S.), IX. 666. "iedsuiiiig weir vme-iu ui iiig wer;, ii. a tow, ^^^^ „ relations of motion.— Social mechanics, 
, ., , . ,, -vA V HT 1 • small, submerged dam, or obstruction of wood, that part of sociology which treats of social forces and 
meandriiorm (me-an dn-10rm),a. Meandnne: metal, or masonry which aflfords a method of their operation in so far as they act mechanically and 
labyriiitliiiie. measuring water, particularly that used in according to the laws ot motion i /\ HBrt, Dynamic 
meandriniform, n. Same &s mseandrimform. irrieation and in water-Dower Sociol., .Wi-Statlstipal mechanics, that portion of 
_--_Crt.7^ A A ™^o„ ,rj...^InHva or>;^;f in if^aiiuii aiiu m water po«er. mechanics which deals with a great number of systems 
meanness,/'. *. a mean, Vinaicnve spiru- measuring- wheel, «. 2. Same as *C!(n'OTOe<er. of the same nature differing in configuration and veloc- 
[Dialectal, southern U. b.] (i(V<l Jour (R G S ) XVIII 442 ities, not merely inflnitesimally, but also in such a way 
He s=iy he gwine lef he mark on yon, marster, and meaSUrmg-WOrm, H.-Plne measurlng-worm. St,^n'a';;d"'?ef„Ht'ies ™»'='^'"ble combination of conflgu- 
Marse Bruce, an' on dat ole man . . . and de young lady .See pinf *fj,a,fUonn. ™"°" ^"" velocities. 

over dyah. ... Dat man 8 got rnraH »<■»» in him ! meat^ tl 8 1)1 The trade-name for cotton- The laivs of (rfordxdmJ TO«oAanic« apply to conservative 

Tlwrna* yetmii Page, On Newfound River, xvi. j,^„,, i' J-J-.i, i.u„ ,ot„o;„o ,^f fiKp- C K«tn systems of any nu.uber of degrees of freedom, and are 

.seed trom wnich tne remains ot liber ( Imt ) exact J. W. Gibhs, statistical Mech., Pref., p. viii. 

meas. An abbreviation of wfa*Mre. and husk ('hulls') have been removed and Technical mechanics, the mechanics of construction 

measles,". 5. In ^j/ioto*/., a defect m silver- which is ready for crushing. and manufacture.— Theoretical mechanics. Same as 

printing consisting in semi-opaque blotches meat-crusher (met'krush"6r), n. A small ma- rational *mechanics. 

cau.sed by imperfect fixation by the insoluble chine having two corrugated rollers between mechanotherapy (mek"a-no-ther'a-pi), n. 

silver hyposulphite visible when the prints which steaks are passed to make them tend ?r. [Gr. /ir/xni'r/, a machine, -1- (?Epa7re/a, dealing.] 

are held to the light. In time these spots be- meat-flour (met'flour), n. Meat dried at a low Cure by mechanical means ; mechanicothera- 

come yellow.— Bastard measles, rubella.— Black temperature and ground to a powder. Syd. peutics. 

measles, a malignant form of measles fomierly of not Soc. Lex. mechlolc (me-kl6'ik), a. [me(comn) + chlo- 

j.r'.'^n^tn'.'e^l^'adopted.'"'':^'! 'trt.^^toi^&^^i meat-fruit (met'frot), «. The fruit of ^rtocar- (rin) + -ic.] "Noting 'an acid, a coloriess com- 

maasles. M A fonn of measles in which the eruption ;'"■'•• iiid.'<(i. Syd. Soc. Lex. pound, said to be formed by the action of 

is so thick that the separate lesions coalesce. ('0 Same meat-man (met'man), «. A butcher ; a man chlorin on meconin. It crystallizes in quad- 

as ««.ri«(»Vwr.- Hemorrhagic measles. .Same as who sells meat. Dialect Notes, Vil. ni. lU. ratie prisms and melts at 150° C. It does not 

Wrtc* rH*nji(M. — Pork measles, an infection of jKjrk with rj- o t ' t • 1,1 ■ 

the bladder-worm stage (Cwruvrcin (■f((ii^.»wl of T/rnia l'- ■ '^■i contain ctllonn. 

«i/Ki(«i, the ariuHcr tjipewomiof man. Seeal8o*i-i/»(iier- meatOSCOpe (me-a'to-skop), n. [L. wiea<««, meclstocephali (me-sis-to-sef'a-li), n. ^Z. In 

cr«i». — Spanish measles. Same as anthracnoa: meatus, -f Gr. onoirav, view.] A form of specu- anthrop., persons having a cephalic index less 

measure, «. 12 (c) Specifically, m organ-hmld- lu^ employed in examining the anterior ex- than 71. Huxley, Scientific Memoirs, III. 21.'). 

<«</, the proportion of the diameter of flue- tremity of the urethra. mecistocephaUc(me-sis"t6-se-fal'ik), a. Same 

pipes, or ot a .stop ot sucn pipes, to tlieir meatoscopv (me-a-tos'ko-pi), «. [meatoscope as *mecMoccphalous. Jour. Anthrop. Inst., 

length: as, a diapason pipe IS made on a + .,^;, , Yhe inspection.'especiallv by instru- 1872, p. 314. 

-Doiwe m^1^,T/«%!tlLtor^rvt?u?.d- ■"-»-' '-f-'.f -y meatus, such as the mecistocephalous (me-sis-to-sef 'a-lus),... 
Ings on both sides : sJid of a door, a casement-window, a antenor extremity of the urethra or the vesi- [Gr. ^r/wffrof, longest, tallest, greatest, -l-/>f((ia/)?, 
scr.en of joiner's work, and the like. I Eng.i— Measure- cal orifices of the ureters. head, + -ous.'] In oniArop., having a cephalic 

and-a-half, liaviiig moldings and sunken panels on one meatotome (me-a'to-tom), n. [NL. meatus, index less than 71. 

*,'fwc*;L"I„r. TEugl-MTas't^^ uuatus. -f Gr :row, < ra/,f<>, cut.] A knife mecistocephaly (me-sis-to-set'a-li), n. [See 

the angle of two perpendiculaiii to the edge of a dihedral, employed in the operation for enlargement of * mecistocephalous. '\ The character of being 
one ill each face.— Measure Of an arc, the sect con- a meatus. mecistocephalous. 

."rT^tliir'^-ris the "sum ^I'thiJir'tcU^and U '"^i \Z meatotomy (me-a-tot'o-mi) «. Imeatotome + ,vhile A is the widest. B is the narrowest normal skull 
than thechord ot the arc nor, if the arc is minor, greater -.'/•'•] Division of the nm of a meatus, usually I have met with, its index being only 629. It is, there- 
thaii the sum of the sects on the tangents from the ex- of the urethra, in order to enlarge it. fore, an extremely marked example of mecistocephaly. 

treiuiti.-sof the arc to their intersection.- Measure Of _,_,* jngter rmefrok'^r) n A meat mincine £r«x(«/, Scientific .Memoire, III. 2:8. 

S-^h^into Xh'anli!ea11"cu? hi' a,o*giv™ p'rt!'tl!!;r knife wliich has a curved blade and a handle meck (mek), n. [D. mik, a forked stick] A 
Ehe ;,; ,^'.^0? tTe area oPa triang/e iSng half' ll^^l pr": at each end : used with a rocking motion. ""tebed ii.ece of wooa m a whale-boat, upon 

duct of a base and its c-orres,«nding altitude-Measure jj j; Q An abbreviation of ilevther of Execu- J-'i'fh to rest the harpoons 
of length, in teniw of a given unit, the number s|.eci- ,:,.. ,■„,,, -:, •' Meckolectomy (mek-e-lek'to-mi), «. [lfeci-e/('« 

. tying how often the unit is conUiined m the length.— '"^ „„„„/;,„,1 -I- (%r inrnuti fixeiiinn 1 Kxcision 

Measure of time, in aetrol., the meth.Kl ot ascertaining meceulc (me-sen'ik), a. [mec(onic) + -ene + •"?v?"T'„ ^ "^^ yT' ^''®'^'°"--' J^xcision 
the periods. ,f events by convertmg the arc of directij^^^^ .,,. -j Noting an acid, a colorless compound, "' 'V'^'ir' SK'^^g"^"- „ , ,. ^ „ 

^0llmT^u:rJ'n""J^Z"Z^^^^^^^ H0C5H0(C(50H)g, prepared from m'econic Meckelian bar. Same as Meckehan rod. See 

tetraheiira in any given partition, the measure of the vol- acid. It crystallizes in prisms and melts at '"" • 
nine cjf a tetrahedron being one third the prcKluct of the 14G° C. Meckel's diverticulum. See ^diverticulum. 

measure, the system of"meXres"employc.'i hrFnince M. E. Oh. An abbreviation of Methodist Epis- Mecklenburgian epoch. See *epoch. 

' rei ious to the adoption of the metric system. The tenn copal Church, meCOCephallc (me'''k6-se-fal'ik), a. [Gr. fiiJKOC, 

:]::^'^^i::Tt^^:'^:'\Z^P::.:^'::!!{^;::'u^ mechanic, « S a professional card-shuffler length^, head, + -ic.-] Same as doli- 

(lign.). Rlemann's measure of curvature. When usually employed to deal faro in brace games, chocephalic. Huxley. 

th.-iiitliiitenumberof twi>dimcn.sioualordinarymea8ure8 [Slang.] meCOdont (me'ko-dont), a. Pertaining to OV 

me^;;,',"'s"of cu^^itme arany''oS,er Z'int'"ule^e e'xist^ mechanlcal. I. «.~Mechanlcal arithmetic, effect, having the characters of the Mecodonta. 

Xritir-Milnn "df^a nli^oicl of cmiTnt cu^atnre - equivalent Of light, momentum, sense. See ^arith- Mecodonta (me-ko-don'tii), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 

Slngi 3 measure, having no moldings or relief, as a panel '"'-''^ ct<,. «7>oc, length, + mSorf, tooth.] A division of the 

fram 1.. neither side: said of a dwr. f'ompare rf"»W« II. «. 2. pi. The trade-name for common ci;„VM«.,</Wrf^p hnviT^tr the nnlntal teeth sitii- 

*.„-.,,.„,-..and*««.,,r«-«,.rf.a-A„V. [Eng.i-Survey- articles, such as overshoes, of vulcanized ffj^ "^ the itiner sfdes of th^^^^^ 

ors' measure, the system ot denominate multiple units i„,ii„ ., v^er made hv moldine and often of '^*^" on tHe mnei sides ot tne palatal pro- 

for linear measurements in land-surveying, in which the "Jdia-ruDDer, made ny moiumg, anu oiieu 01 gggg^g forming two parallel rows diverging 

primary unit is the surveyors' chain of 4 rods or 60 feet, old reworked material. behind 

divided into ii» smaller uuiu called 'links.' .See chain,i. mechanlcal-esthetlc ( mf-kan'i-kal-es-thet'- nieoonial fme-ko'ni-all a PL mecom(um) + 

measure-bar (mpzh'ur-biir),n in musicahiota. ik), a. In psychol. , notm^T . Uppa's theory ot/^^^^ f'-^^^^- ^^^^^ ^ meconium, in any 
lion, .lame as feari, 11 : used only when it is the geometncal-optical illusions. See law of p 10 

necessary to distinguish an ordinary bar from mrrha,iieMlestlietic*unity.-iiiech!uiical-^Bthetlc meconinic (mek-6-nin'ik), a. ^meconin + -ic] 
a *l,„e.har (which se^e)._ theory. J^e*theon,. , Pertaining to meconinic acid or meconin. 

measure-sign (mezh'ur-sm), n. In m««caJ mechanicalism (me-kan i-kal-izm), «. Ime- _Meconlnlc acid, a hypothetical compound, c,oH,„i)6, 
juitalioii, .same as rhythmical signature (which chanical + -ism.\ The character of being me- known only in the fonn of its salts and of its anhydrid 
see, under r/iy/Am»ca<). chanical; mechanical action or procedure; 


meconism 780 medioseptum 

meconism (mek'o-nizm), n. [Orr. /i^Kuv, -poppy, 3. In eiifom., the median vein of an Insect's state of health or disease of the body and its 
+ -WW.] Chronic opium poisoning in those wing. parts and to the physical condition ; specifi- 

addicted to the nse of that drug. mediaometer (me"di-a-om'e-ter), n. [L. me- cally, noting the examination required of 

meconoisin (me-ko-noi'sin ), n. A neutral din, pi. of medium. + Gr. /lirpov, measure.] recruits in the army and navy, engineers, ap- 
priuciple, C8HioO.>,'contained in opium. An instrument for measuring the amount of plioants for life-insurance, etc. Buck, Med. 

mecopter (me-kop'ter), «. A member of the refractive errors of the various media of the Handbook, VI. 180. 
order J/ecopto-a ; a scorpion-fly. eve. medicopsychological (med'i-ko- 8i"ko-loj'i- 

med. An abbreviation (c) of J/iediera?; (d) of mediastinal, a. U. n. In entom., the sub- kal), o. Of orpertammg tomedicopsychology. 
medicinal marginal vein of the wing of a cockroach. Naiitre, July 6, 1905, p. 227. 

M. E. D. An abbreviation of Master of Me- Amer. Jour. SH., Aug.. 1904, p. 118. medicopsychology (med"i-k6-si-kol'o-ji), n. 

moitari/ Didactics. mediastino-pericarditi8(me"di-as-ti'no-per"i- The science of the mind in relation to the 

medaddy-bush (me-dad'i-bush), n. The kar-di'tis), n. [NL.] Inflammation of the science of medicine; the medical or patho- 
American flv-houeysuckle, Lonicera eiliata. pericardium and of the adjacent mediastinal logical study of mental conditions. 

medal, ». 2. A small metal badge, usually structures. medicotopOgrapMcal (med''i-k6-top-o-graf;i- 

wiHi a rShVinn aff<L/>)inrl TiTPHBTitAd for distill- JAeciiasdno-pencordtftJi seemed not to be so rare as had kal), n. Ot or pertaining to topography in its 
^ Itn =Lrtt« ' P'^*®"^" "' •"*"" been supposed". Since attention had been directed u, it relation to disease or health ; noting the med- 

gUlSDea service. fo„r cases had been discovered by the physicians of the ; i „j-,,,lv of the relation of the tnnooranhv of 

He [Lord Roberta] was created K. C. B., G. C. B., and a Heidelberg medical clinic ; three ot them were operated ^^al Stuay Ot me relation 01 tne topograpny 01 
baronet, received the viedal with four clasps, and the on successfully and one died from influenza. a locality tO nealtn. 

bronze star, and was given the command of the Madi-as /,a;ic«^ July 18, 1903, p. 188. A 7/icdicofop»^rapAicai and general account of Marwar, 

army. £ncyc. Br«., XXXII. 264. jnediastlnotomy (me"di-as-ti-not'o-mi), «. .Sirohi, Jaisalmir. Geor;. Jo«r. (E, G. S.), XV. 192. 

medalary, medallary(med'al-a-ri), H. [medal [NL. mediastinum + Gt. -To/iia, < ra/ifiv. cut.] medicozoologlcal (med"i-k6-zo-o-loj'i-kal), a. 
+ -<iryi.] A collection of medals. [Rare.] Incision into the cavity of the mediastinum. Of or pertaining to the science of zoology in 
These gentlemen (Visconde de Castilhos and Councillor Tlicrdpcitfie Gazette, .Jan., 1903, ip. 59. its relation to the study of medicine ; noting 

A. J, Viale] kindly showed me the medallary struck for Mediastinum cerel)elll Same as fnlx cerebelli.— t)ie study of zoology in its bearing upon the 
the tercentenaiy festival. The collection is remarkable Mediastinum cerebri Same as /ate ccrei/n. otnfl-ir r,f (Uaonaoo H^ moTi «/>i<.«S> Jar, V) 

only for portraying as many men as there are medals. medicS, «.-Toothed medlc, Medicago denticulata. ^atn '^\^^^'^^^^^ ™ ™'^"- ''<^«^«««) dan. ou, 

J{. F. Burton, in Atheliicum, Jan. 28, I8S2, p. 125. s^v-klmr-dmer '^'^°' P- ^^^• 

medalize, medallize (med'al-iz), v. t. ; pret. Medical botany See.*6ote«,/.-Medlcal corps, the medidural (me-di-dii'ral), a [imedj(an) + du- 
ii.H Tin nie,l„li—,l r,nr me/tn'tizinn Tmedal n surgeon othcere of the navy, consistnig of a surgeon-gen- ral.^ Relating to the central part of the dura 
anapp. meaaluul.ppT.meaauZing. \riieaai,n., ^^.^j^ medical directors, medical inspectors, surgeons, .^ntpv 
+ -(>«.] To portray on a medal. passed assistant surgeons, and assistant surgeons. ~»jjft.™+ol / - A- t,. 'tun n «o.„q oa 

Not less remarkable for their technical merit are two medlcamentary (med"i- ka-men ' ta-ri), a. ^y^¥,^^Zl}^'''Jr'" a^^^^ 
medalsinwhichilr.Legros has transformed two of his Unedicament + -ary^.-\ Medicamental ; medic- *""*'?£'"'"'• .,/'"'^'^- ^^ithropologiat, Oet.- 
models hito "personages" of the fifteenth or sixteenth .'- , ■' "■ Uec, 190d, p. bdl. 

century. . . . Mr. Legros has also medallised Mr Con- "' jV ._,-_,.„x. ._ /„„/!//; Vn ttibti tn'«hoTi\ « medilateral (me-di-lat'e-ral), a. [L. medius, 
stantine lomdes. jtfa;;. o/^r(, V. xvii. medicamentation (mea 1-ka-men-ta snon), n. •,,, + jfii,,., (i„ti>r.Vs\i'ie + -aU^ On or 

medalUonist (mf-dal'yon-ist), n. A worker J,:^^j"L^::r' ^ "Z:1J^IZ::^T net tl'emidli: Ke lideThaTf-way^e, ween 
of medallions. A-.£.X) medication, «.-^^^^^^^^^ back and belly. Trans. Linnean Sol London, 

medal-play (med al-pla), ?». In golf, play m ,„,,. „/,,„„„, ,„„ier ,.,„•,/<««»■. Zool., Feb., 1903, p. 409. 

which the score is reckoned by counting the medicator (med'i-ka-tor), n. [medicate + -or''^.'] medio (ma'di-6), n. [Sp. medio, middle. < L. 
total number of strokes taken to complete the i One who medicates; one who prescribes or medius, middle.] A silver coin of Mexico and 
round. prepares medicines. the Spanish American states, equal to one half 

medano(ma'da-n6),n. [Sp.medano,megano,a, ibe art ol a medicator ot poisom. a real, 

heap of sand, = Pg. viedao, a heap (rfe areia, of Scott, Demonol., I. 67. K. E. D. medio-anterior (me'di-o-an-te'ri-or), o. In or 

sand), < Sp. Pg. medii = OF. »ioie = It. meta, 2. An instrument for carrying remedies into toward the anterior and median region of the 
Lombard «!«<?«, a heap, < L. »(eto, a come post, a cavity of the body, as the larynx ; an appli- animal body. a.s*anteromedial. Trans. 
goal-post, also a come hill, etc.] A crescentio ^^^^j. ^y^er. Micros. Soc, Nov., 1903, p. 140. 

sand-dune; a barchan. medicatory (med'i-ka-to-ri), a. [medicat(e)+ mediocarpal (me"di-6-kar'pal), a. \\j. medius. 

The dunes called barchanes usually have their greatest .ortj.'] Medicative; medicinal. middle, -1- NL. ca)pM« + -«?!.] Situated in the 

rn^r'rbi;^'lrSrisi[:i.rPeru(whte^^ medlcin, «. and,,, t. A simplified speUing of middle of the carpus or wrist: as, the medio- 

called medanos), and probably hi other localities also. medicine. carpal articulation. 

Oeoff. Jour. (E. O. s.), IX. 290. medlclne, «.— Bureau Of Medicine and Surgery, mediocenter (me"di-6-sen'ter), n. [L. tnedius, 

Med Dir An abbreviation of Medical Director See •(/ureau.— Compound medicines, nmedies wliicli middle, + centrum, center.] The center of the 

~-jA„;~^ 4.»««<v /■ ^i; ,^5 ' o,- ^n t^m'nn\ colitaiu a mixtuie ot scvend diugs.— PreventiVB msd- ,iiT,p Tioint circle 

medesimo tempo (ma-da Sl-mo tempo), jcme, that branch of medical science which has t.. do '""rP9'"i <^'':*''?-,, ,. . . „ ., „ j- 

Same as *}«teSSO. with the prevention of disease by means of personal and medlOCirCle (me"dl-0-ser kl), n. [U nieaws, 

medial ». 2 in entom., same a.a median vein public hygiene.— Psychological medicine medical middle, + drculus, circle.] The circle de- 

(b") Cwhich see under mcdianl 1 3 In aeom science in its relation to meiitul disoiises.— Rational termined by the mid-points of the sides of a 

(^o; (,wnicn see,unuer7K(,as«n ;. o. i.u. ijmm., ^g^jgijig y,;, practice of the healing art based npon ,.-.„„i„ •' ^ 

same as *mertJanl, 1. actual knowledge, and reasoning from the known t<. the iriailgie. ...... .,.. . „ j- 

medialization (me"di-al-i-za'shon), n. [medi- unknown: opposed to CTnyfWcmn.— Statical medicine, medlOCOllC (me"di-o-kol ik), a. [U. medius, 
alize + -ation "1 The'making of a consonant the treatment ot disease governed by observation of the middle, + NL. colon + -jc] Relating to the 
medial fsonant) varying relations of ingestion, excretion, and body weight, ^j^dle portion of the colon. 

lueuidi ^ftuuaiiu;. — SUETffestive medicine, the treatment of disease by j. ^ *^ x i / -//,• - £ ^a i\ rr 

A similar jjwdiafezatton is found with ch, s, which in meuTTs of (hypnotic) suggestion. mediofrontal (me"di-o-fron tal), a. [L. «ie- 

Abenaki are often heard after vowels as j and z respec- medicine-ball Cmed'i-sin-bal') n A large ball, dins, middle, + frons {front-), front, + -ali.i 
'^.io.J^^J^ZJ.^::^'^^,:^^^^ of considerable weight, usedin exercising. It Situated in the middle line of the frontal 
at all. Amer. Anthropolo'jM, la.n.-yiavAi, imi, \i. n. is thrown from one plaver to another. region. ,. ,. , 

medialize (me'di-a-liz), v.t.; pret. and pp. medicine-bowl (med'i-sin-bol), n. A bowl medlolingTial(me"di-o-lmggwal),«. [L. me- 
mediali:ed, rmv. m'edializing. Imedial + -ize.'\ which contains sacrifices or sacred ob.iects, rt(M.s middle, + /nifirfw, tongue, -I- -a(i. J Ke- 
To render medial used in the religious ceremonials of the North latmg to the median portion of the tongue. 

ItUquite possible that the earlier Abenakis may have American Indians. Amer. Jnthropologist, 1901, &-r,>f«rf,Exper Phonetics, P- 39^. 
only partially medtaitwd their consonants after vowels. p. 215. medlO-OCCipital (me "dl-0-ok-Sip 1-tal), a. [Li. 

Amer. Anthropolo!/ist, 3!in.-M>a:ch, i9Cri, p. '25. medlcine-lodge (med'i-sin-loj), n. A lodge medius, middle, + occiput {occipit-) + -al\'] 

medianl.a. 2. Notingthe middle number of a used for the performance of religious cere- Situated in the middle line of the occipital 
series ; having as many before as behind (or monials among North American Indians. Gid- region. 

above as below) a certain number: distin- diiif/s, Inductive Sociol., p. 207. mediopalatal (me'di-o-pal'S-tal), a. [L. me- 

guished from average: as, the median age of medicine-spOOn (med'i-sin-spon), «. A spoon, dius, middle, + palatum, palate, + -o7i.] 1. 
the population was found to be 21 (that is, usually of porcelain, the bowl of which is par- Relating to the central portion of the palate, 
there were as many persons above 21 as below tially decked over but which has an aperture Scripture, Exper. Phonetics, p. 297. — 2. Same 
it), while the average age was found to be 25. at the tip through which a fluid may be poured, as *mesuranic. Turner. 

—Median line, (d) A straight through a vertex of a without spilling, into the mouth. mpdionontine('me"di-6-Don'tin).a. TL medius, 

triangkand the mid-point of the opposite side. —Median ™-j,VJr,o +i-oo Tmpd'i aiii trS"1 n Snme as mcllloPOntme I me ui " P"" im;, «. l^^ med.wj, 
magnitude. See •..w.^nifudc- Median point. («) medlCine-tree (med i-sm-tre ), n. oame as middle, -t- jjons (pont-) (see def.) + -niel.] 
In jreom.. the cointersection point of a triangles medians; *liorsira<lisli-Trec, ... Situated in the middle portion of the pons 

its centroid. (b) Snch a point on the a:.axis of the fre- medicistcma (me"di-sis-t6r'na), n. [NL., < Varolii 

quency polygon that the ordinate from it bisects the L. mcdius, middle, + CJ.S?enia," cistern.] The „.ji-„„ct.flrinr fmR"(\i o nns te'ri orl a IT, 
polygon of rectangles or the continuous cui-ve. —Median . j i / i,' u „„„ „L;i„., ..^„^n\ mefllopOSteriOr ^me oi-o-pos-te ri-or;, a, LU. 

iertlon. Same Ks ffoldci section (which see, under arachnoid Canal (which see, under canal^). medius, middle, + posterior, hinder.] In or 

ff«'^«)- , ^ ,. K . ^ . medico,". 2 A nanie, among Spamsh-speak- toward the posterior and median region of the 

n. n. 1. In jreom. : (a) A sect whose end- ing people of America, for Te«(Aw ca-j-H /cms animal bod\% Same as *»o««ero?He*a»i. Trans. 
points are the bisection-points of opposite and other species of the same genus, tisnes ^„jg,. ][fjcr„g gog Nov 1903 p. 141. 
sides of a quadrilateral, (b) A sect from a found in warm seas and called siOY/con- and " ., ' '_. '' .,/'. ^ '^ '■i,^\„-i\ „ 

vertex of a triangle to the bisection-point of doctor-fish, in -EngWah. Jordan and Evermann, meOloprepalatai (me "'"""P^^-P''' ?";» ;<• "■ 
the opposite sider-2. The measure or obser- Amer. Food and Game Fishes, p. 486. [L ';'<'^''»«' "J"^'*^^ + g'*'.^^[°^^^ ^/J^:';;/';^"; 

vation which has as many of the separate medicomeclianical(med"i-k6-me-kan'i-kal), a. ^ntprior portion of the Balate Scripture Ex- 
measures or observatior s above as below it. of or pertaining to inechanicotherapy. bud; perf Phonetics p 436 ''<^'P'>"^<', -^ 
This principle may be applied U> other kinds of means Med. Handbook, I. 1, ,*. . /' -*// t - n. \ _i j-« 
besides the arithmetic, in particular the n,edian (that ^„j:' „„,•„„„' ^^i a; %„„'! ,,,-,^1 ,„ rT, me medlOSeptum (me"dl-0-sep'tum), «.; pi. IHedjO- 
point which lias as many of the given observations above meaiCOmmiSSUTe ime-ai-KOin i-sur;, «. !'-'■"'» septa (-ta,). In ornith., a vertical division be- 
as below it). . . . If the observations do not obey the (/((«•'••) + E- commissure.] Ihe middle or soft ^ween tli'e two narial chambers, 
normal law— especially if the extremities are abnonnally commissure of the brain. Wilder and Gaqe. , .. ., • ■ .u .. . „ «. 
divergenl^the precision of the median may be greater „"L ' 'll'^j " , ,1,"ah t;^ fi,'; v»n n Roth Adventitious ossicles occurring in the soft membranous 
than that of the arithmetic mean. medlCOphySlCal (med''i-ko-fiz i-kal), fl. Both ,Md.o-8ep(a of these vertebrates 

£nci/<;. Bri(., XXVIII. 287. medical and physical; relating both to the Proc. Zool. Soc. London, \i9i. y. lu. 


mediostapedial (me'di-6-sta-pe'di-al), n. The 
median portion of the columella in birds and 
reptiles. In birds, its inner end is fused with 
the stapedial plate that fits into the fenestra 
oval is. W. K. Parker. 

Medism (me'dizm), n. [Gr. JAr/Sia/i6;, < Mr/i'iiZetir, 
iltdize.] 1. In Gr. hist., the favoring of the 
principles or the furtherance of the interests 
of the Medes or Persians ; in a rhetorical use, 
an unpatriotic sympathy with or tolerance of 
anv foreigners. 

.-Cii analogy maybe found in the tn/'dism of the Delphic 

oracle, wliich yet, by a species of national seli-deception, 

did ntit. forfeit its claim to Hellenic respect, in spite of 

its failure in the liour of trial. 

W. T. Wuodhouse, in Jour. Hellenic Studies, XVIIL 46. 

2. A Median or Persian idiom. 

medisylvian (me-di-sil'vi-an), a. [L. medius, 
middle, + Sylvius (see def.) + -an.'] Relating 
to or situated in the middle portion of the fis- 
sure of Svlvius. Amer. Anthropologist, Oct.- 
Dec, 1903, p. 621. 

Medit. An abbreviation of Mediterranean. 

meditemporal (me-di-tem'po-ral). a. [L. me- 
diw, middle, + tempii-f (trmpor-), temple, + 
-oA.] Relating to or situated in the middle 
portion of the temporal lobe of the brain. 
Amer. Anthropologist. Oet.-Dec, 1903, p. 627. 

mediterranean, a. 3. [cap.] (b) Same as 

*Iljeri(in^, 3. —Mediterranean class, a (?roup of do- 
mesticated f(»wl8 which ciniiprises breeiis derived from 
southern Europe, incliiiliuLT tlie Ainialiisian. heshum, Mi- 
norcjt, and Spanish breeds.— Mediterranean pass- 
ports, stage. See *><a«»/»r(, *ii(a(/i'.— Mediterranean 
province, see itpromnce. 

medithoracic (me'di-tho-ras'ik), a. Same as 

medithorax (me-di-tho'raks), n. [L. medius, 
miildlf, + NL. thorax.] Same as mesothorax. 

medium, ».— Loffler's medlnm, a nutritive medium 
which is extensively used in the cultivation of tlie diph- 
theria rtnfanism. It is com[K>sed of three parts of calves' 
or lambs' blfxKl. serum, with one partof ordinary t)ouilIon, 
made from veal, ijUis one per cent, of glucose, tlie whole 
being solidified and sterilized.— Passive medium, a 
liquid or dilution in which living cells or tissues, taken 
from the b<jAly. can be examined without undergoing any. 
or but very little, change in their microscopic structure : 
oppftsed to ftrtive nn^dium. 

mediumization (me'di-um-i-za'shon), Ji. The 
process of mediumizing or transforming into 
a spiiitualistie medium. 

Till we can do this, we must feel the effects of the acid, 
ity, as I may call it. which characterizes the crude and 
unsettled spiritual existence reached by our present sys- 
tem of mediuinizaHon. 

W. D. HoiceUn, I'ndiscovered Country, ii. 

mediumlze (me'di-um-iz), r. t.; pret. and pp. 
me(Uuini:i(l, ppr. meiliu)ni:ing. [medium + 
-izi .] To make a spiritualistic medium of; 
render a medium. [Rare.] X. E. I). 

Medize (me'dlz), v. «'.; pret. and pp. Medized, 
ppr. Medizing. [Gr. firjdi!:,eiv,<. MfjiSoi, the Medes.] 
In dr. hist., to be unduly partial to the Medes 
or Persians or to imitate them ; be unpatriot- 
ically or disloyally subservient to the Persians. 
The leading men of Thebes . . . decidedly medised or 
espoused the Persian interest 

Orole, Greece, II. xL T. lOL K. E. D. 

medlar, «.— Rock-medlar. Same as Snpoy mfdlar. 
See *.i //('/'(/i-'/o-r.— Savoymedlar. .see Samyvifdlar. 

Medo-Fersian (me'do-pcr'shan), a. and «. 
I. (/. Pertaining to or including both Medes 
and Persians. 

II. H. One of the Medo-Persian people or 

medow, «. A simplified spelling of meadow. 

medulla, »■ 1. (<7) The semi-fluid endosarc of 
a protozoon. 

The prot^jplaam is differentiated into a firmer super- 
ficial layer, the cortex, . . . and a semi-Jlnid central mass, 
the ififduHa. . . . and is covered supertlcially by a thin 
cuticle. Parker and IlagweU, Zoology, p. 45. 

Medulla dorsalis, the spinal cord. 

Medullary canal. Same as m^dullarii caviti/ (h). — 
Medullary fold, narcosis, nucleus, sheath. See 
*/■../'/!. elc.—Medtlllary streak. Same as infduUury 

medttllate (med'u-lat), r. i.; pret. and jip. 
mrdidldted., ppr. mcdullating. To produce the 
white substance of .Schwann around the axis- 
cylinder of a nerve-fiber ; form a medullated 


The tract which ascends from the Internal geniculate 
iKMly mMnllaUit separately from the other intracerehral 

/■A//.,». Trant. Roy. ,Soc. (London), 1898, ser. B, p. 2. 

medollation (med-u-la'shon), n. [medulla + 
-atioii.] The formation or acquisition of a 
medulla or marrow or pith. Buck, Med. H«nd- 
fcook. II. 319. 

medullic (me-dul'ik), a. [L. medulla, marrow, 
-t- -ir.] Noting an acid, a colorless compound, 
C20H41COOH, found, in combination with 
glycerol, in beef-suet and beef-marrow. 


medullization (med"u-Ii-za'shon), n. [L, 
medulla, marrow, -I- -ize + -ation.] Inflamma- 
tory si.fteniiig of the substance of bone. 

meduUo-encephalic (med'u - 16 - en'se - f al'ik), 
a. Same as ccrel/rospinal. 

medusid (mf-du'sid), n. A jelly-fish of the 
family Medusidse. 

medusome (me-dti'som), 11. [Medusa + -ome.] 
In siphonophores, a modified medusoid person. 

Free-swimming colonies of modified medusoid persons 

J. A. Thomson, Outlines of Zoology, p. 143. N. E. D. 

meet^, r. t — to meet her (nawf.), to put the rudder so 
as to check the swing of the vessel's head. 

meef^, n. 3. In geom. : (n) The straight line 
common to two planes. (6) A point which is 
on each of two straights : also called their 

meeting, n. 5. pi. In mining, the point in a 
mine-shaft where the ascending and descend- 
ing cages meet. When the coal was raised in 
creels or corves the shaft was bulged at the 
meetings. Barrowman, Glossary. 

mefitic, mefitis. Amended spellings of mc- 
phitic, mephitis. 

megabar (meg'a-biir), n. [Gr. fiiya, great, -I- 
^(ip(o(,-), weight.] A proposed unit of atmos- 
pheric pressure ; a gaseous pressure such that 
the force on each centimeter of surface is one 
megadvTie. The megabar is equivalent to the 
pressure exerted by 75.015 centimeters of mer- 
cury. It is 106 0. g, s. units of pressure. 

megabarie (meg-a-bii-re'), V. [Also megahary, 
megabarye ; F. megabarie, < megabar + -ic^, 
-y^.] A unit of atmospheric pressure recom- 
mended by the International Physical Congress 
in Paris (1900). Same as *megabar. 

The mef/abary, equal to 100 C.G.S. units, may, for 
practical purposes, be considered equal to the pressure of 
a column of mercury 75 cm. high at 0°. C. under normal 
conditions of gravity. .Science, Jan. 18, 1901, p. 101. 

megabary (meg'a-bar-i), «. Same as *mega- 


megacaryocyte (meg-a-kar'i-o-sit), «. [Gr. 

//f;n, great, large, -t- ndprni', nut, nucleus, + 
KiTof, a hollow (a cell).] A large cell with 
lobulated nucleus found in the spleen of the 
human embryo and of young animals. 

megacephaly (meg-a-sef'a-li), n. [megaceph- 
aliius.] The condition of being megacephalous, 
either norniHlly or pathologically. 

megacerotine (meg-a-ser'o-tin), n. [Megaceros 
{-cerot-) + -i/ie'.] lielatiug to or having the 
characters of Megaceros or Cervus giganteus, 
the extinct Irish deer. 

megachilous (meg-a-ki'lus), a. [Gr. fiiya^, 
great, + x^''^"C, lip.] 1. In entom., having a 
large lip. — 2. Of or pertaining to the genus 

megaclon (meg'a-klon), n. [Gr. fUya^, large, 
+ A/.UI', twig (see *clon).] In the nomencla- 
ture of the sponge-spicules, a large-sized rhab- 
doelon. See *rhabdoelon. 

megacoulomb (meg'a-ko-lom'), »i. [mega- + 
c'lulomb.] A practical unit of electric charge 
or quantity equal to a million coulombs. 

megacranous (meg-a-kra'nus), a. [Gr. i^iya^, 
great, + Kpaviov, cranium, -I- -out.] In 
craniom., having a skull of large volume — 
2,120-2,270 cubic centimeters in males and 
1,8.50-1.9.^0 cubic centimeters in females. 

megadont, a. 2. In craniom., having a den- 
tal index of more than 44. 

megadjrnamics (meg"a-di-nam'iks), n. [Gr. 
/ic^,ac, great, -I- E. dynamics.] In geol., the 
dynamics of the earth, viewed in their large 
relations, as connested with great upheavals 
or subsidences of the crust. 

Without the postulate of pervasive rigidity, conditioned 

by modirtcations due to moleculiu" change, and to local 

solution-fusion. I am unalilc t<> find agencies competent 

to satisfy the demands of the meyadynamicg of the eartlL 

T. C. Clinmbertin, In Econ. Oe<jl., Oct-Nov., p. 72L 

megafrustule (meg-a-frus'ti'd), n. [Gr. /leya;, 
great, -I- E. frustule.] In biol., a frustule of 
large size. 

megagamete (meg-a-gam'et), «. [Gr. fiiyac, 
great, -I- E. gamete.] A large gamete or germ- 
cell, as distinguished from a mierogamete ; 
a macrogamete. The ovum is a megagamete, 
the spermatozoon a mierogamete; the two 
unite to form a zygote. 

It is obvious that the mcijariamete corresponds with 
the ovum of the higher animals, the mierogamete with 
the spenn. and the zygote with the oosperm or impreg- 
nated egg. Parker and Haewelt, Zoology, I. 72. 

megagnathous (rae-gag'na-thus),a. [Gr. fiiya^, 
great, + yvado^, jaw.] In anthrop., having 
large jaws. 


Megaladapidse ( meg"a-la-dap'i-de ), n. pi. 
[Megaladapis, the type' genus, + -idse.] A 
family of lemurs which contains extinct 
species of comparatively great size : based on 
bones from Pleistocene and cave deposits of 
Madagascar. Megaladapis insignis was as 
large as a donkey, and is surmised by A. S. 
Woodward to have been aquatic in its habits. 
Fors-ytk .Major, 1893. 

megalencephalic ( meg-a-len-se-fal'ik ), a. 
[Gr. /leya^ (/leya?.-), great,' + E. encephalic.] 
Characterized by hypertrophy of the ence- 

megalo-. [Gr. fityalo-, combining form of 
fieya;, great: see meg-, mega-.] A prefix, mean- 
ing 'great' or 'large'; specifically, inphys., a 
prefix sometimes used in place of the shorter 
forms meg- and mega- to denote that a unit is 
multiplied by one million. 

megaloblast (meg'a-lo-blast), n. [Gr. niyag 
(lisyal-), great, -I- 0AaoT6(, germ.] A large 
nucleate cell found in the bone-marrow in the 
embryo: also a megalocyte, or large red blood- 
corpuscle occurring in certain forms of anemia 
in extra-uterine life. B. C. Cabot, Clinical 
Exam, of the Blood, p. 89. 

megaloblastic (meg'a-lo-blas'tik), a. [mega- 
loblast + -«".] Of or pertaining to megalo- 
blasts ; of the nature of a megaloblast. 

The presence of the nucleated erythrocytes of the meff- 
alobtagtic type was evidence of a severe, though not 
necessarily fatal, ansemia. 

Med. Record, Jan. 31, 1903, p. 196. 

megalocardia (meg'a-lo-kar'di-a), V. [NL.,< 
Gr. fie}a<: (fieya'l-), great, large, -f mpSia, heart.] 
The condition of having an abnormally large 

megalocephalia (meg''''a-lo-se-fa'li-a), n. 
Sanit> as *macrocephalia. 

megalocephalic (meg'a-lo-se-fal'ik), a. [Gr. 
fte)a/-uKtifa?.o(, < ^fjof {/leyaX-), great, large, + 
mipa'Ari, head, -I- -ic] Same as megacex>halic. 

megalocephaly (meg"a-16-sef'a-li), n. [mega- 
locephaHic) + -tj^.] Skme a.s'^'macrocejyhaly. 

megalocMroUS (meg"a-l9-ki'rus), a. [Gr. 
fteyac (iiiya/.-), great, -H x^'Pt hand.] Charac- 
terized by large hands or prehensile organs. 

megaloconidium (meg'a-lo-ko-nid'i-um), 11. ; 
pi. megaloconidia(-&). [NL.,< (Jr. //^j-af (/zcya?.-), 
great, large, + NL. conidium.] Same as 

megalocornea (meg''a-lo-k6r'ne-a), n. [NL., 

< Gr. /if'; Of (,uf;-aA-), 'great, large, -I- NL. cor- 
nea.] Abnormally large size of the cornea. 

Megalocottus (meg'''a-lo-kot'us), n. [NL., < 
Or. /if;«f {/icya?.-), great, large, -I- NL. Cottus.] 
A genus of cottoid fishes found in the North 
megalocjrtosis (meg''a-16-si-t6'sis), n. [mega- 
locyte + -osis.] The production or formation of 
megalocytes,or very large red blood -corpuscles. 
megalodactylia (meg"a-lo-dak-tiri-a), «. 
[NIj., < Gr. feya( (iieya'k-), great, large, -t- 
6aKTv'/nr, finger.] Same as * macrodactylia. 
megalodactylism (meg'''a-16-dak'ti-lizm), 11. 
[Gr. jiiya^ (fitya?.-), great, large, -1- rfaxTu/'.of, 
finger, -t- -ism.] Same as *macrodactylism. 
Megalodon (meg'a-lo-don ) , ». [NL. , < Gr. fiyac 
(//£;a/.-), great, large, -I- odoi^ (ixhvT-), tooth.] 
An extinct genus of Peleey- 
poda typifying the family 
Megalodontidee. It is char- 
acterized by ponderous heart- 
shaped shells with amphidetic 
area, opisthodetic ligament, 
and large and heavy cardinal 
teeth. The earliest species are 
Devonian, but the shells are 
most abundant in the Triassie 
rooks. Properly Megalodus. 
megalodont (meg'a-lo-dont), 
a. [Gr. fi^yaA66ov^ {-odovr-'), < 
fih/ag (ue-jal-), great, large, -1- 
orfoi'f {'oSovT-), tooth.] Having 
large teeth ; megadont. 
megalodontO'QS (meg'a-lo-don'tus), a. [Gr. 
//t;af (//f }•«/.-), great, -f- odotf {bSovr-), tooth.] 
Characterized by large teeth. 
megalogastria (meg"a-lo-gas'tri-a), n. [NL., 

< Gr. ni:ya(; (/leya'A-), great, large, + yaari/p, 
stomach. ] The condition in which the stomach 
is abnormally large. 

megaloglossia (m6g"a-lo-glos'i-a), n. [Gr. 

/leyac (/leya?.-), great, large, -I- y/uocra, tongue.] 

Same as macroglo.'isia. 
megalomaniac (meg'a-lo-ma'ni-ak), a. and n. 

atodon'\ cuctd- 

latM. Goldf. Dc- 
Tontan ; I'atfralh. 
near Cologne. One 
half natural size. 
(From Zitlcl's "Pa. 


[megalomania + -iic] I. «. Pertaining to or 
characterized by megalomania. 

But in that courteous, cultured thlx>ng I doubt whether 
otle-fifth felt synipatliy with the vieyalonianiac ideids 
paraded before their eyes. Sation, May 11, 1899. 

H. 71. One who suffers from megalomania. 
megalomaniacal (meg'a-lo-ma-ni'a-kal), «. 
Relating to or suffering from megalomania. 
G. S. Hall, Adolescence, U. 536. 
megalomartyr (meg'a-lo-mar'tfer), n. [Gr. 
fiiya; (ufva/-), great, -(- udprvp, witness.] A 
great or eminent martyr. 

Amoug those holy martyrs whom the Greeks honour 
with the title of .Vc<;nio»n<irfyr«(i.i>. = Great Martyrs) as 
St George, St. Pantideon, *c. four are distinguished by 
them above the rest as principal patrons. 

Butler, Lives of the Primitive Fathers, II. 93. 
It was the Chief of the "Megalmnartyrs," or Dii Select!, 
who had convoked this crowd of christian people. 

Is. Taylor Anc. Chr., II. 186. 

Megalonychidse ( me-gal-o-nik'i-de ), K. pi 
[iNL.,< Mcgaloiij/xi-onych ) + -ifUe.'i The great 
ground-sloths of the genus Megalonyx con- 
sidered as sufficiently distinct from those rep- 
resented by Megatherium to warrant their 
separation as a distinct family. Zittel, 1892. 

megalopa, n. 2. Same as *megalopa stage. 
— Hecraiopa sta^e, in the development of crabs, an ad- 
vanced larval st.ige in which the animal has large eyes, 
an extended abdomen, and well-developed pleopods. 

It is therefore interesting to find that in the zoea and 
through the larval and post-larval {meffalopa) stnges, the 
ahore-crab possesses a primary and a secondary chromato- 
pbore system of a very clearly defined character. 

PhUos. Traits. Roy. Soc. (London), 1902, ser. B, p. 318. 

megalophonic (meg"a-lo-fon'ik), a. Same as 


megalophthalmns (meg^a-lof-thal'mus), n. 
[NL., < Gr. //£>a/o^o?,/iof,' large-eyed, < /iiyac 
(/icyo/U), great, large, + b^alno^, eye.] A 
condition in which the eyes are of abnormally 
great size. Bucl;, Med. Handbook, II. 9. 
megalopia (meg-a-16'pi-a), n. [NIj , < Gr. 
fieyaf (fieyaX-), great, large, + aip (uJr-), eye.] 
Same as megalopsia. 
megalopod (meg'a-lo-pod), a. and n. [Gr. 
uiyoj- (/ityn?.-), great, large, + Troiif (jzod-), foot.] 
Having large feet ; megalopodous; maeropod. 
megalopodous (meg-a-lop'o-dus), a. [Gr. 
/leyai (ueya%-), great, + Trofcf (Trod-), foot.] 
Characterized by large feet. 
megalopore (meg' a-lo-por), n [Gr. l^eya^ 
(iuyaX-), great, large, -I- -n-dpo^, pore.] A large 
pit or pore in the shell of a chitinoid moUusk, 
containing a sense-organ : opposed to *micro- 

megaloscope (meg'a-lo-skop), n. [Gr. iiiyaq 
(fieyal-), great, large, + OKOTrelv, view.] A 
form of endoscope in which the part brought 
into view is magnified. 
megalosphere (meg'a-lo-sfer), n. [Gr. /jiya; 
(fieya/.-), great, large, ' + E. sphere.'^ The 
large original or central chamber of a megalo- 
spherie foraminifer. Compare ^microsphere. 
Nature, April 6, 1905, p. 550. 
megalospheric (meg'^a-lo-sfer'ik), a. [niegalo- 

spher(e) + -ic.] 
Having a single 
large nucleus 
tral chamber, 
as certain fo- 
raminifers in 
which the spe- 
cies consists of 
two kinds of 
Compare *mi- 
crosp heri c. 
Knowledge and 
Sci. News, 
March, 1904, p. 

wel), n. A unit 
of magnetic 
flux equal to 
1,000,000 max- 

(meg 'a-mer), 
«. [Gr. fdya^, 
great, large, 4- 
liipoQ, part.] 
One of the 
large blasto- 
meres of the 

Megalospheric Foraminifer. 
Polytttnntlla crispa. A, the meealo- 
spheric, B, the microspheric forms, decalci- 
fied, tf, communication between the cham- 
bers ; *, retral processes ; ,r, the central 
chambers of the microspheric fonns more 
highly magnified. The canal system is 
oniittcd in these figures for the sake of 
clearness. (From Lankester's "Zoology.") 


ovum in certain animals, as opposed to the 
micromeres. See viacromere. 

megameter (meg'a-me-tfer), n. [mega- + 
meter.'] A unit ot" length equal to one mil- 
lion meters. 

megamho (meg'a-mo), n. [mega- + mho."] A 
practical unit 6t electric conductance equal 
to 1,000,000 mhos or 1 x 10—3 c. g. s. units. 

megamii (meg'a-mil), n. [mega- + mil.~i A 
proposed practical unit of length, equal to one 
million mils or one thousand inches. [Kare.] 

megampere (meg-am-pSr'), n. [mega- + am- 
pere.] A practical unit of electric current 
equal to a million amperes. 

meganephric (meg-a-nef'rik), a. [Gr. ;icya^, 
large, + ve(pp6c, kidney, + -ic.~\ Characterized 
by the possession of large nephridia : as, a 
meganephric worm — Meganephric nephridia. 
See -knephridiwrn: 

meganiicleus (meg-a-nii'kle-us), n. ; pi. mega- 
nuclei (-i). [NL.,"<Gr. piya^, great, + E. 
nucleus.] Same as niacromtcletis. 

megaphone, «. 2. A large speaking-trumpet 
of a conical form. 

megaphonic (meg-a-fon'ik), a. [megaphon{e) 
+ -ic] Of or pertaining to a megaphone ; of 
the nature of a megaphone ; transmitted by 
means of a megaphone : as, a megaphonic 

Several individuals can be examined at once by dupli- 
cating the ear tubes or by substituting a meijaphonie 
horn for the tubes. Science, June 24, 1904, p. 980. 

megaphotographic (meg"a-f6-to-graf 'ik), a. 
Pertaining to or produced by megaphotog- 

megaphotography (meg"a-fo-tog'ra-fi}, n. 
[Gr. /ifj'Of , great, + E. photography.] The pho- 
tography of the heavenly bodies and of celes- 
tial phenomena. Nature, May 24, 1900, p. 79. 

megaphyllous (meg-a-fil'us), a. [Gr. i^tyaq, 
largo, + ipvAlov, leaf, + -ous.] In hot., large- 

It is natural to look to the pteridophytes for guidance 
as to the origin of foliar development in the sporophyte, 
for they are the most primitive plants with leafy sporo- 
phytes. They may be disposed according to the prevalent 
size of their leaves in a series, leading from microphyllous 
to megaphyllmis types. Science, Oct. 21, 1904, p. 629. 

megaprosopous (meg-a-pro-so'pus), a. [Gr. 
fieya^, great, large, + vpdacmov, face, + -ous.] 
In craniom., said of a skull having a large 
face, the volume of which is 720-780 cubic 
centimeters in males and 580-625 cubic centi- 
meters in females. 

megapul (meg'a-pul), n. [mega- + pul.] In 
physics, a proposed unit of measurement of 
the time-integral of forces ; one million dynes 
acting for one second. 

megarrhine, megarhine (meg'a-rin), a. [Gr. 

pieyag, great, + pjf (/)"'-), nose.] Characterized 

by a large nose, as Rhinoceros megarhinus, an 

extinct species of rhinoceros. 
megascleric (meg-a-skle'rik), a. [megasclere 

+ -ic] Pertaining to or characteristic of a 

megascleron (meg-a-skle'ron), n. ; pi. mega- 

sclera (-ra). [NL.] In sponge-spicules, a 

megasclerom (meg-a-skle'mm), n. ; pi. mega- 

sclera (-rii). [NL.] Same as megasclere. 
megasphere (meg'a-sfer), «. [Gr. /icyaf, great, 

large, + aij)aipa, sphere.] The large primordial 

chamber in the shells of some Foraminifera: 

contrasted with '^'microsphere. See *megalo- 

megasporophyl, megasporophyll ( meg-a- 

spo'ro-fil), ft. [Gr. feyag, great, large, + (tto/jo, 
seed (spore), + i/irA?,oi>, leaf.] 1. In the <Sper- 
matophyta, a carpel. — 2. In the Fteridophyta, 
a sporophyl which bears megaspores (macros- 

megastome (meg'a-stom), «. [Gr. iieyaq, great, 
large, + ardiia, mouth.] A univalve shell 
having a large aperture or mouth. 

megatherial (meg-a-the'ri-al), a. [NL. mega- 
therium + -al^.] Pertaining to or resembling 
the megatherium ; huge ; unwieldy. 

Beautiful problems of the past of our island and the 
evolution of life were defaced by the disorderly olfspring 
of a quite msf/atberial wit — if one may coin such an an- 
tithesis to " etheriaL' Nature. July 26, 1894, p. 301. 

megathermic (meg-a-ther'mik), a. [mega- 
therm + -ic] Having the character of a meg- 
atherm; composed of or characterized by 

Yet in these latter extensions [Southern Florida and 
Southern Brazil] the megathermic flora is already per- 
ceptibly impoverished. 

A. F. W. Schimper (trans.). Plant Geog., p. 226. 


megatorCLUe (meg'a-tork), n. Imega- + torque.] 
A proposed practical unit for the measure- 
ment of the moments of forces; one million 
torques or one million times the moment of 
a dyne acting with a lever-arm of one centi- 

megatypy (meg'a-ti-pi), n. [>negatyp(e) + 
-yK] In photog., the process of making meg- 
atypes or enlargements. 

megawatt (meg'a-wot), n. [mega- + natt.] 
A unit of power or activity equal to 1,000,000 

megazooid (meg-a-z6'oid), n. [Gr. lityaq, great, 
large, -I- E. zoiiidT] A large zooid, or animal, 
as opposed to a small individual, or micro- 

Colony of Megazooids. 

a, nutritiTe zo6id : d, reproductive zot^id ; c, axial fiber. 

tl-rom Parker's " Biology." after SaTille Kent.) 

(From Lankester's "Zoology.") 

zooid, of the same species. Such mega- and 
microzooids occur, for example, in the bell- 
animalcule, Vorticella. In this animal the mi- 
crozooids are formed as free-swimming buds 
by the large, pedunculate, and sessile mega- 

megillah (me-gil'a), Ji. ; pi. megilloth (-6t). 
[Heb., < gdlal, roll.] One of five books in 
the Old Testament (namely, Canticles, Euth, 
Lamentations, Eeclesiastes, and Esther) 
which are recited in the synagogue in the fol- 
lowing order : Canticles on Passover, Kuth 
on the feast of Weeks, Eeclesiastes on the feast 
of Tabernacles, and Esther on Purim ; Lam- 
entations is given on the fast of the ninth of Ab. 
They derive their name from the fact that they 
are written on parchment rolls or scrolls. 

megilloth, «. Plural of *me(7i?/a7f. 

megistocephalous (me-gis-to-sef'a-lus), a. 
[Gr. iieyiaToi;, superl. of jityai;, great, large, + 
iie(^Ail, head.] Having a very large bead. 

megohmmeter (me-gom'e-ter), n. An in- 
strument similar in tj-pe to an ohmmeter but 
suitable for the measurement of very high 
electric resistances. 

megosmatic (meg-os-mat'ik), «. [Gr. ptya^, 
great, + E. osmatic] Same as *macrosmatic. 

megoxycyte (me-gok'si-sit), n. [Gr. fieya^, 
great, + of I'f, sharp, + kitoc, hollow (cell).] A 
coarsely granular oxyphil or eosinophil Ijlood- 
corpuscle, or leucocyte. Durham, 1897. 

mehari (ma-ha're), n. One of a race of swift 
Arabian camels taking name from Mehara, a 
region in Arabia where it is raised, and of 
great value in campaigning and in exploring 

His little troop was mounted on meharis, used by the 
Touaregs — rapid camels, which are to the ordinary camels 
of the caravan what race- horses are to cart horses. Thanks 
to the mobility of his caravan, M. Foureau could perform 
long raids without being attacked by the Touaregs. 

A'at. Geog. Mag., Feb., 1905, p. 77. 

meharist (ma-hii'rist), n. [F. mehariste, < 
mehari + -ist.] A trooper mounted on a me- 

A new and decisive operation was undertaken. At the 
commencement of February, 1904, Major Laperrine, quit- 
ting In-Sala at the head of a troop of " mfharietes" and 
taking his route south, succeeded in traversing the Sa- 
hara and meeting a second troop of *'m€hariitei" which 
had setout from Timbuctoo. 

Nat. Geog. Mag., Feb., 1905, p. 79. 

mehmandar (ma'man-dar), n. [Pers.] In 
Persia and India, an official appointed to act 
as courier to a travelerof distinction. N. E. D. 

mehtar (ma'tar), ?i. [Also mater; < Hind. 
mehtar, a sweeper (ironically a 'prince'); < 
Pers. mihtar, a great personage, a prince.] 
A sweeper ; a scavenger. 

Among the more minute of his elaborate recommenda- 
tions is one that in campaigns in warm countries where 
dust storms and flies are always prevalent &" mehxar ' 
establishment from India should be attached to each unit 
with the duty to cover up the excreta immediately after 
the latrine has been used. Lancet, Aug. 29, 1903, p. 627. 

Meibomia (mi-bo'mi-a), n. [NL. (jjroposed 
by Heister, established by Adanson in 1763),. 


named after B. ileibom (1678-1740), a German 
botanist.] A genus of dicotyledonous plants 
of the family Fabacese. See Desmodium. 

Meibomian cyst. Same as chalazion. 

meiler ime'li-r), «. [G. metier, MHG.viiler; 
origin obscure. The corresponding Bohem. 
miler, Pol. millerz, are from the G.] A pile 
of wood to be burned into charcoal, irrespective 
of the shape ; also, specifically, a rectangular 
pile about 25-30 feet in length, 8 feet wide, 
and sloping from a heiglit of 2 feet at one 
end to 7 or 8 feet at the other, this upward 
slope tending to develop a draft in the direc- 
tion of the length of the pile and so to secure 
uniform progress in the burning. Groves and 
Thorp. Chem. Teebnol., I. 105. 

meiobar (mi'o-bar), n. [Gr. /jeiuv, less, + 
jidpoi, weight.] An area of low barometric 
pressure on the daily weather-map : a term in- 
troduced by Prestel in 1870. 

meiotic, a. See *miotic. Nature, Sept. 26, 
1907. p. 556. 

Meissner's bodies. Same as Meissner's cor- 


Meister (mis'ter), «. [G.] Master. 

Mejidieh, «. Same as Medjidie. 

Mekong yellow. See *yellow G and B. 

M. E. L. An abbreviation of Master (or Mis- 
trvs.'t) of English Literature. 

Helaena hoonatonim, hemorrhat'e from the stomach or 
bowels in the new-lMirn infant, di-ncted by the passage of 
ulteieil lp|»oJ in the 8t.x>ls.—Melsena spuria, simulation 
of meliena neonatorum, in which the blood comes from a 
Assured nipple of the nurse, not originally from the intes- 
tinal ti-act of the child. 

melsenic (me-le'nik), a. Imelsena + -ic] Be- 
latiiif; to or marked by melsena. 

melalgia (mel-al'ji-a), n. [NL., < Gr. /Jt^oc, 
limb, + oXyoc, pain.] Neuralgic pain in one 
or more of the limbs. 

melam (mel'am), n. [Gr. ui?.i, honey, + E. am- 
(moniu).] A colorless granular, pulverulent, 
indifferent compound, CgHgXj^, formed by 
the rapid heating of ammonium thiocyanate 
at 300° C. 

melamdim, n. Plural of *melammad. 

melamine (mel'am-in), n. \_mekim + -i»ic2.] 

A colorless compound, H2NC "^v'-pf kjj^)'* ^' 
formed, together with melam, by heating 
ammonium cyanate. It crystallizes in mono- 
clinic prisms. Also called cyanuramide, tri- 
guanide, and triurethriamidin. 

melammad (me-lam'ad), «.; pi. melamdim 
(-dem). [Heb. (Yiddish m'lamed), < lamad, 
learn, teach.] A teacher in a rabbinical 
school : especially, the teacher of a heder, or 
elementary Jewish school. 

Melampsora (mel-amp-s6' ra), n. [NL. 
(Castagne, 1843), < Gr. nl'/.aQ ('iut.av-), black, 
+ ij/u/m, scab, scale.] A genus of uredineous 
fungi having 4 spore forms (spermagonia, 
fficidia, uredo- and teleutospores), all pro- 
duced on the same host. The secidia are 
without peridia and paraphyses, and the 
teleutospores form a dark crust on the surface 
of the host. The species are numerous and 
common, causing rusts of various plants. M. 
farinosa is usually abundant on the leaves of 
various willows. 

Melampsoracex (mel'amp-so-ra'se-e), ». pi. 
[.Vlj., < Melampsora + -acex.'\ A family of 
uredineous fungi named from the genus Me- 
lampsora. The teleutospores are sessile and 
usually form flattened masses in the tissue of 
the hosl. 

melancholia, « — InTOlntlon melancboUa, melan- 
cholia fwcurring in advance*! life, during the perio<i of 
senile involution. Jour. I'Uitnx. rjnichot. and .S'ci. Methodg, 
Dec. 5, 1907, p. 698.— Melancholia attonita, a lonn of 
melancholia in which the sulferer shows absolute in- 
dilference to all his sun-oundings. 

melanconiaces (mel-an-ko-ni-a'se-e), n. pi. 
|.VL., < Melanconium + -acem.'] A family of 
I'ltngi Imperfecti named from the genus Me- 
lanconium. Also written Melanconieie. 

melanconiaceoUS (mel-an-ko-ni-a'shius), a. 
Pertaining to or belonging to the fungous 
family Melanconiaccte. 

Melanconiales (mel-an-ko-ni-a'lez), n. pi. 
[Nlj., < Melanconium + -ales.'\ An order of 
Fungi Imperfecti containing the single family 
Melanconiaceee. The spores are usually borne 
in superficial cavities without the formation 
of a special wall or pycnidium. See *Glteo- 
sporium and Melanconium. 

Melanconidaces (mel-an-ko-ni-da'se-e), 
[XL.,< Melanconis (Melanconid-) + -acex.'] A 


family of pyrenomycetous fungi named from 
the genus JfeteHconJs and containing 9 genera. 

Melanconis (mel' an -ko -nis), n. [NL. 
(Tulasne, 1863), referring to the black spores, 
< Gr. fit?.aq (^£/.ai'-), black, -I- Koviq {kovi6-), 
dust.] A genus of pyrenomycetous fungi, 
type of the family Melanconidaceie. It has the 
perithecia arranged in a valgoid stroma and producing 
elongate necks which break through the surface of the 
bark. The spores are ellipsoid or elongate and tmiseptate. 
M. modGrnia is a common species occiuring on dead 
branches of chestnut, 

melanephidrosis(mel-a-nef-i-dr6'sis), n. [Gr. 
lii'/.ai; Qn/iii'-), black, ■¥■ NL. ephidrosis.'] A 
form o£ sweating-sickness marked by dark 

m^langenr (me-lon-zhir'), n. [F. *melangeur, 
m., melangeusc, [., < melanger, mis, < melange, 
a mixture.] In candy-making, a mill for grind- 
ing and mixing cocoa. One type consists of a gran- 
ite roller (sometimes two) traveling in a pan or metal 
bed. In another the bed revolves, and the rollers, held 
in one position, revolve by friction with the bed. It is 
used in mixing cocoa and sugar in making chocolate. 

melanian- (me-la'ni-an), a. [F. melanien, < Gr. 
fii'Aa^ {fit'Aav-), black.'] In anthropol., used as 
the equivalent of * Negrito and also of Negroid. 

melanidrosis (meKan-i-dro'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fie/Mi {fieXav-), black, -I- Mp(<jf), sweat, + 
-osis.'\ The sweating of a dark-colored fiuid. 

melanize (mel'a-niz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. vicl- 
ani:ed, ppr. melanizing. [Gr.; {fi£?.av-), 
black, -I- -ize.2 To render melanistie ; pro- 
duce melanism in. 

melano (mel'a-no), n. [Gr. /ilTiac {fuXav-), 
black.] An abnormally black or melanistie 
animal ; a black animal that would normally 
be colored. 

The small specimen is a melano, but shows indications 
of the normal spotted condition. 

Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1902, p. 69. 

melanocancroid (mel'a-no-kang'kroid), n. 
[Gr. ^/of {/ie?.av-), black, -I- "E. cancroid.} An 
epithelial tumor containing much pigment 

melanocerite (meKa-no-se'rit), n. [Gr. fii^ac 
(ue'/Mv-), b'.ack, + ll. cer(ium) + -I'te^.] A 
nuosilicate of the cerium and yttrium metals, 
calcium, and other elements. It occurs in 
brown to black rhombohedral crystals, and is 
found sparingly in southern Norway. 

melanochalcite (meHa-no-kal'sit), ». [Gr. 
fii'/M( (jic>.av-), black, -I- x'''^-k6^, copper, + -»(<■.] 
A pitch-black massive mineral substance form- 
ing a thin zone about a kernel of cuprite in 
nodules the exterior zones of which are made 
up of malachite and chrysocoUa. In compo- 
sition it is a silicocarbonate of copper with 
copper hydroxid. It is found near Bisbee, 

melanochlorous (mel'a-no-klo'rus), a. [Gr. 
fie'/M( (fi['/.av.), black, + 'xhjp6^, yellow.] Varie- 
gated with black and yellow. Mayne. 

melanochroid (mel"a-no-kr6'id), a. [melano- 
chro{ic) + -id^.] sta melanochroic. Keane, 
Ethnology, p. 167. 

melanocratic (mel'a-no-krat'ik), a. [Gr. fti?.ac 
(uf'/av-), black, + "Kpartlv, rule, -t- -ic] In 
petrog., noting igneous rocks characterized by 
a preponderance of dark-colored minerals, or 
rather of minerals, chiefly ferromagnesian. 
that are normally dark-colored: contrasted 
with *leucocratic rocks. Brogger, 1896. 

melanocyte (mel'a-no-sit), n. [Gr. fie?.a( 
{fu/.av-), black, + /(vrof,'a hollow (a cell).] In 
palhol., a lymphocyte, or wandering amoeboid 
cell, containing dark pigment-granules. 

melanoderma (mel'a-no-der'ma), n. [Gr. /if /.«£■ 
{/i€/.av-), black, -*- 'icpiia, skin.] Dark dis- 
coloration of the skin ; melasma. 

melanodermic (mel*a-n6-d^r'mik), a. [mela- 
noderma) + -ic] "Having a dark-colored 
skin. Jliwk, Med. Handbook, I. 110. 

melanogallic (meKa-no-garik), a. [Gr. fiilac 
(fir'/.av-), black, -I- E. gallie^.'] Noting an 
acid, an amorphous, odorless, tasteless com- 
pound, C6H4O2, formed by heating gallic or 
tannic acid. Also called gallhuminic acid 
and metagallic acid. 

melanogen (me-lan'o-jen), n. [Gr. ftBa( 
(lii'/jiv-), black, + -gen, -producing.] The color- 
less mother substance, or chromogen, of uri- 
nary melanin. 

Melanogrammus (mel 'a -no -gram 'us), n. 
[NL., < Gr. iit'Aa^ (fiehiv-), black, + ypaiJfii;, 
line.] A genus of gadoid fishes, known as 
haddock, found on both coasts of the North 


melanoid, a. II. n. A pigment resembling 
or belonging to the melanins. 

melanoidin (mel-a-noi'din), «. [melanoid + 
-in'^.} A melanin derived from the albumins: 
a term introduced by Schmiedeberg. 

Melano-Fapuan (meFa-no-pap'u-an), a. Con- 
nected with the black races and the Papuan 
race (which is itself one of the black races of 
Melanesia). Keane, Ethnology, p. 288. 

melanophore (mel'a-no-fdr)^ n. [Gr. /leAag 
{/xe'Aav-), black, -1- -<l>opo(, beanng,< (pcpciv, bear.] 
1. A large cell which contains dark pig- 
ment-granules. Typical examples occur in the 
common fence-lizard, Anolis, which turns 
from green to brown. Nature, Jan. 28, 1904, 
p. 304. — 2. The dark-brown chromatophore 
of the algas. 

melanopnyl, melanophyll (mel'a-no-fil), n. 

[Gr. pe?.a( (iitAxiv-), black, + (l>vU.ov, leaf.] 
The yellow-brown coloring-matter of the di- 
atoms, composed of diatomin and chlorophyl, 
and supposed to be similar to the phffiophyl of 
the brown algae. 

melanoplakia (mel"a-n9-pla'ki-a), n. [NL., < 
Gr. pehic (i^^'amv-), black, + n'Ad^ (tt/Iok-), ailat 
thing.] The formation of dark patches on 
the tongue. 

melanose''^ (mel'a-nos), a. [melanosis.'] Char- 
acteristic of or affected with melanosis. 

melanosed (mel'a-nost), ^. a. Affected with 

melanostibian (mel"a-no-stib'i-an), «. [Gr. 
pl?.a( (UfAMv-), black, -f- NL. sUl)i{itm) + -an.] 
An antimonate of iron and manganese oc- 
curring in black foliated masses: found in 

Melanostigma (meFa-no-stig'ma), re. [NL., 
< Gr. /if/.Qf {fiEAav-), black, + ariypa, point.] 


Metanostigma patnntetas. 
(From Bulletin 47, U. S. Nat. Museum.) 

A genus of fishes, belonging to the fsBnily 
Zoarcidie, found in the deep sea off both coasts 
of North America. 

melanotrichous (mel-a-not'ri-kus), a. [Gr. 
p0.av<Spi^ (Tpix-,) black-haired, < Gr. //tXaf 
{pc7.av-), black, 4- Sp/'f (rpix-), hair.] Having 
black hair; black-haired. 

melanotype, «. 2. A glass negative mounted 
on black and used as a positive. — 3. A black 

Melanthiacese (me-lan-thi-a'se-e), [NL. 
(Lindley, 1830), earlier Melanthacese (Robert 
Brown, 1810), < Melanthium + -acess.] A fam- 
ily of monocotyledonous plants of the order 
Liliales, the bunch-flower family, typified by 
the genxm Melanthium (which see). It is in- 
cluded by many authors in the Liliacese,\mt is 
distinguished from it mainly by the septicidal 
capsule and the absence of bulbs. The family 
includes the hellebore, the bellwort, the bog- 
asphodel, and the blazing-star or devil's-bit. 

melanthiaceoUS (me-lan-thi-ii'shius), a. Be- 
longing to the plant family Melanthiaceee. 

melanthin ( mel ' an - thin ), re. [Gr. piehic 
(ficAMv-), black, + avdoc, flower, -f -in'-'.] A 
glucoside, 02063307(1), contained in the seeds 
of Nigella sativa. 

melannre (mera-nflr), n. [NL. melanura (see 
def.), < Gr. p'cMvovpoc, black-tailed, < piAag 
(fuAav-), black, -I- ovpd, tail.] A sparoid fish, 
Oblada melnnura, found in the Mediterranean. 

melanurenic (mel'a-nu-ren'ik), a. [melanur- 
{ic) + -en- + -ic] Noting an acid, the same 
as *ammelide. 

melanuresis (mel'a-nu-re'sis), M. [NL., < Gr. 
fiiAag (fte'Aiav-), black, -1- o!)pr/aic, urination.] 
The passage of dark-colored urine, usually 
containing melanin. 

melaphyre, ». it is proposed, in the field classifica- 
tion accompanying the quantitative system of classification 
of igneous rocks (see *rocA:l), to restore the tenn mela. 
phyre to its early significance and apply it to all dark- 
colored porphyries, of any composition. 

Melasma gravidarum, discoloration of the skin oc- 
curring in pregnant women. — Melasma universale, a 
discoloration of almost the entire surface of the body, 
occurring in the aged. 

Melasmia (me-las'mi-ii), n. [NL. (L6veill6, 
1846), < Gr. /leAaafia, a black spot, black color.] 
A genus of Fungi Imperfecti, of the family 
Leptostromatacex, having dimidiate pycnidia 
in a black scutellate stroma. The species are 
mostly stages in the development of Rhytisma. 



the family 

Jf. acer»"n<i is the pyenidial condition of iJAy- typical genns of 
tisma acerinum. See *E1iytisma. Schraid-, 1803. 

melassic, «. 2. Notingr an acid, a colorless Melicertidse (mel-i-s6r'ti-de), ?i 

compound, CgHeOs (f), formed by the action 
of alkali on glucose. 
melassigenic (me-las-i-jen'ik), a. Imelasses 
(F. iiii'lasse). molasses, + -genie.'] Producing 
molasses, or tending to increase the pro- 
portion of molasses to crystallized sugar 
obtained in sugar-making. A large amount of min- 
eral salts in beet-juice or caue-juice and the 'inpernion' 
of nnu'li of the sucrose present are melassigenic in effect. 

Melbourn rock. See *rofAi. 
Melbury marble. See *marble. 
Melchizedekian (mel-kiz-e-dek'i-an),r!. [LL. 
"Mtirliisideciiiniis, MGr. M.eAxice(ieKiami, < 
Me/.x'deSeK, Melchizedek.] One of a sect which 
was founded about 210 a.d. as a branch of 
the Theodotians. The sect afi&rmed that Mel- 
chizedek was not a man, but a divine power, 
without father or mother, the true priest, who ~piji,V 
was intercessor not only for men but for angels "^^"'f°'t 
and thus superior to Christ. 
MelcMzedekite (*mel-kiz'e-dek-it), n. [MGr. 
M£>.xiai''ittcirai, pi.] Same as *Melehize<lelcian. 
meld (meld), ('. t. [G. melden, mention, 
announce.] In penuchlc, to announce (any 
counting combination in the hand), such as 
sequence in trumps, 150; in card-games in 
general, to declare. 

When a player yiiHdit any combination, he must lay 
down the cards of wliicli his meld consists face upwards 
on the table I)esit!e liini ; lie can make use of any of these 
exposed cards to play to a trick, but the remainder (if any) 
must remain exposed until the talon is exiiausted. 

Amer. Uoyle, p. 204. 

meld (meld), «. {meld, i;.] In penuchle, the 


Melicertklae. impetigo.-Kemaera. florescens, eczema of the face 
with yellow, honeycomb-like crusts. iJunuiimm. ' 

pi. {Meli- melitagria (mel-i-tag'ri-a), n. Same as *mell- 

certa + -idse.] A family of social rotifers, of '".'/'". 

the order Rhizota, having a corona without melitagrous (mel-i-tag'rus), a. [rnelitagia + 

setigerous lobes, the mouth lateral, the -o"*.] Pertaining to, of the nature of, or guf. 

velum in the form of a continuous marginal fering from, melitagra or impetigo. 

band bent upon itself at the dorsal surface in melltis (me-li'tis), n. [NL., < Gt. li^h 

such a manner as to encircle the corona twice, + -Hix.'] Inflammation of the cheek, 
and the trophi malleoramate. It includes the Melitodes (mel-i- to ' dez), n. [NL. 

oi', cheek. 

genera Melicerta, LacinuUiria, Megalotrnchn, 

TrochospJisera, Conochilm, lAmnias, Cephalo- 

siphon, and (Ecistes. 
melicha, «. See *meUha. 
melichroous (me-lik'ro-us), a. [Gr. fielixpoo(, 

honey-colored, < /li'/.t,' honey, 4- xpod, color.] 

Having the color of honey. 
Melichthys (me-lik'this), k. [Gr. tit?.(a^), 

black, -f ixBvg, a fish.] A genus of balistoid 

fishes found in tropical seas. 
]" melicha (meri-chii), n. [Heb., < 

malah, v.. salt, melah, n., salt.] The Jewish Dielitriose (me-lit'ri-6s), n. 

process of salting meat in preparing it for OT*ruffinosc. 

kosher food. See *kasher)i. 
melilite-basalt (mel ' i- lit - ba - salt'), n. See 


< Gr. 

lit/iTliitK, like honey, < ii17.i(t-), honey, + 
ddoc, form. ] The typical genus of the family 
Melitodidie. Verrill, 1864. 
Melitodidae (mel-i-to'di-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Melifudcs + -idse.'] A family of gorgona- 
cean Alcyonaria, having the axis jointed and 
consisting of alternate portions of calcareous 
and soft homy substance, and without an 
epithelial layer around the central rod. It 
contains several genera, among them being 
Melitodefi, Mopselki, Clafhraria, and J'arisis. 
Same as melitose, 

announcement of any counting combination in "1 • "Vi'r2 / , "™ -: ' 
the hand: as, a meld ot 60 queens; in card- melliute2 (mel i-mt). 

u, ".—Blue melilot, the Swiss melilot or old sow, 
Triijimella cmrulea. It is a native of southeastern 
Europe and has blue flowers collected into heads. 
melilotic (mel-i-lot'ik), a. [Melilotus + -»c.] 
Noting an acid, a colorless 

HO.C6H4CH2CH2COOH. found in yellow meli- 
lot, MelUotus officinalis, and prepared by the 
reduction of coumarin. It forms long trimet- 
ric crystals and melts at 83° C. Also called 
orthohydroxxjcoumaric acid. 

, , 11. [Gr. ftiiXivo^, of the 
apple or quince, of a quince color (< //r/P.oi-, 
apple, quince), + -itc^.] A yellow clay-like 
mineral obtained from Amberg, Bavaria. 

mgl6e, «. 2. ThaTpartTf The glme of halma ^f^^JP^ A™?^''""^^ f^h ^ Gr. p//l..of, 

■ ■■■ ■ ieces of thfi t.wn ^lBv».« o<..„„„ of quince color See */«e?»»fc2.] In chem., 

an early name for the metal cadmium. 
Meliola (mel- 
i-o'la), n. 
[NL. "(Fries, 
1825), in allu- 
sion to the 
shape of the 
dim. < Gr. 
/lijlov, apple.] 
A genus of 
fungi of some 
what doubtful 
placed by 
some authors 
in the order 
The mycelium MtUoia Pmzi^. 

forms a SOOtv ."• l^^'s^^owing the fungus : *,peritheciuni 
I0W0,. r. fVi ^'*" portions of the mycelium, magnified: c. 
layer on tne ascus containing spores : rf. three ascospores. 
surface of the '>'B'?ly"'»S:'ii'ii:<i. (FromSaccarado's"Hun)ji 
1 rm_ Italici. •) 

leaves. The 

perithecia are black and without a regular 
opening. About 130 species have been de- 
scribed, and they occur chiefly in the warmer 
regions of the earth. M. Fenzigi causes the 

Island of Melos-(one of the Cyclades) or to '°?|y f«ii°'/'-5?"" ^^"/.^^C 
luctions meliorative (me lyo-ra-tiv). 

games in general, a declaration. Amer. Hoyle, 
p. 202. 
Meldola's blue. Same as new blue. 

in which the pieces of the two players occupy 
the same part of the board. 

melem (mel'em), n. [niel{am) + -em (a mere 
substitution).] A white amorphous compound, 
C6HgN]o(f), left undissolved when melam is 
digested with potassium hydroxid. 

melene (mel'en), «. [Gr. uiVi, honey, + -ene.~\ 
A colorless, crystalline, olefinie hydrocarbon, 
CsoHgo, prepared by the distillation of bees- 
wax. It melts at 62° C. 

meletin (mel'e-tin), n. lmel{in) + -et + -ij|2.] 
A decomposition-product of meUn, probably 
identical with quereitin. 

melezibiose (mel-e-zib'i-6s), n. \melezi{tose) 
+ biosc.] A disallowed form for *melezitose. 

melezitose (me-lez'i-tos), n. [F. milezitnse ; 
cf. *mclizitose.i A colorless dextrorotatory car- 
bohydrate, Ci8H320ie+2H20, obtained in 
southern France from the sweet exudation of 
the young twigs and needles of the larch, 
Abies Larix, and from Alhagi Camelorum from 
.Asia. It forms small, lustrous, hard, mono- 
elinie crystals, and melts at 140° C. In 
France it is sometimes used in pl&<!e of sugar. 
In India it is employed as an aperient. Also 
called nwlezitriose. 

melezitriose (mel-e-zit'ri-6s), n. Same as 

llelian (me'li-an), a. Of or pertaining to the 

its productions 

Of the last kind is the most of the Bhodian ware, and 
that which lay thickly just below the surface at Phylakopi, 
and is not of Melian manufacture. 

Encyc. Brit., XXXI. 67. 

mellanthaceous (mel"i-an-tha'shius), a. Be- 
loii(,'iiig to the plant family Melianthacese. 

melibiase (me-lib'i-as), «. [Gr. fti7.i, honey, 
+ Imuie (?).] Same as *raffinase. 

melibiose (me-lib'i-6s), »." [Gr. fiili, honey, 
+ E. biosg.} A colorless pulverulent dextroro- 
tatory carbohydrate, Ci2H220ii, prepared by 
the acMon of dilute acids'on melitriose (raf- 

melic^ (mel'ik), n. [L. melic(a).2 A plant 
of the genus Melica. 

melicera (mel-i-se'ra), n. [NL., < Gr. litXi, 
honey, + KijpoQ, wax.] Same as meliceris ; 
also, same a,a porrigo, and favus, 2. 

meliceria (mel-i-se'ri-a), n. Sa,me aa*melicera. 

meliceroma (me-lis-e-ro'ma), n. ; pi. meli- 
ceromato (-ma-ta). [NL., &amelicer(is)+-oma.'i 
Same as meliceris. 

Melicerta (mel-i-Bir'ta,), ». [NL., < L. Meli- 
certa, Gr. MeXiKipTvc, name of a sea-god.] The 

melizitase (mel-i-zi'tas), «. [melizit(ose) -(- 
-«.se.] A ferment which causes the inversion 
of melizitose (a higher polysaccharide). 

melizitose (mel-i-zi'tos), n. [Varied from 
melezitose. Cf. melitose.'] A carbohydrate, of 
the composition CisHggOxg, found in various 
kinds of manna, 
compound, mellaginous (me-laj'i-nus), a. [NL. meUogo 
{melkigin-), a substance like honey, + -ous.] 
Of the nature of or resembling honey. 

Melletes (me-le'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. lul^rrrii^, 
loiterer. The fish remains in shallow pools as 
the tide recedes.] A genus of eottoid fishes 
known from Alaska. 

melligenous (me-lij'e-nus), a. [L. mel (viell-), 
honey, + -jfi-;??, -producing.] Honey-produc- 
ing ; that yields honey. [Bare.] 

mellogen (mel'o-jen), n. [L. mel (tnell-), 
honey, -t- -gen, -producing.] A black, brittle, 
amorphous compound, CiiH204.1^H20, pre- 
pared by the electrolysis of" acidified water 
with gas-carbon electrodes. It does not melt. 

Mellone hydrid. Same as *cyamellone. 

mellonide (mel'o-nid), n. [mellone t- -irfel.] 
The general name, in organic chemistry, of 
salts of mellone. 

mellophanic (mel-o-fan'ik) a. [L. mel (mell-), 
honey, + Gr. -<j>av?/c, <?>a!Vf 060;, appear.] Noting 

an acid, a colorless compound, C6H2(C00H)4, 
prepared by the oxidation of the corresponding 
tetramethyl-benzeiie. It forms small, ill-de- 
fined crystals and melts at 238° C. Also 1, 2, 
3, 6-bcnzenc-tetra-cnrboxylic acid. 

melodial (me-16'di-al), o. [melody + -al'^.] 
Pertaining to melody ; melodic. 

melodramatize (mel-o-dram'a-tiz), V. t; pret. 
and pp. melodramatiz'ed, ppr. "melodramatizing. 
[melodrama (t-) + -ize.] To make a melodrama 
of; render melodramatic. 

melody, « — Melody curve, in phoneiict, a curve or 
graphic tracing which represents the melodic course 
(changes of tonal pitch) of a spoken word or sentence. 
.Scripture, Exper. Phonetics, p. 479. 

melody-organ (mero-di-6r"gan), «. An organ 
so constructed that the highest tone of chords 
can be made louder or more emphatic than the 
other tones. 

melody-string (mel'o-di-string'), n. Same as 
chanterelle, 1. 

., , ything 

written.] A genus of pyrenomycetous fungi 
of the family Melogrammataccse. It has the 
perithecia more or less buried in a black 
somewhat cushion-shaped or elevated stroma. 
The spores are elongate, brown, and several- 
septate. M. ragans is a common species on 
dead branches of Carpinus in Eui-ope and 
Melogrammatacese (mel"o-gram-a-ta'se-e), V. 
pi. [NL., < Mclogramma {Melogramm'at-) + 
-aceie.] A family of pyrenomycetous fungi 
named from the genus Melogramma and con- 
taining 8 genera. 
melolonthin (mel-o-lon'thin), w. [Melo- 
lontli(a) -f- -in-.] A colorless compound, 
C5H12O3N2S, contained in the cockchafer, 
Melolontlia vulgaris. It crystallizes in silky, 
lustrous plates, and decomposes without 


(me-lis'i-len), n. [Gr. /iihaaa, melonl, w.—Bacterloslsof the melon. !^ee*bacteri. 
+ -ene.] Same as *melene. osi'n.— Indian melon, tlie barrel-cactus, Echinoracttu. 

— Jour. Amer. Folk-lure, April-June, 1902, p. 109. [Col- 

orado.]— Melon vlne-borer. Same as tgutuh itvitu- 

serving"" m^ke 'better"; Vhat"'tendT*to"ward ^!i?P?'^™* (mel-6-gram'a), n. [NL. (F; 
betterment. 1^49), < Gr. /leAac, black, + -jpauua, anyt] 

Here would come the so-called meliorative and pejora- 
tive developments in word-meaning, whereby, e.g., 
steward, " the sty-ward," becomes the title of a great 
officer of the realm and the name of a line of kings; or, 
on the other side, sou (Lat solldus) passes from the name 
of agold coin to that of one of proverbially insignificant 
value. Encyc. Brit., iXXI. 678. 

melis(meris), ». [G., < Gr. |UtA;, honey.] A 
kind of lump-sugar made in Germany bv 
warming up the ' massecuite ' from the vacuum- 
pan until most of the small crystals which 
have begun to form are redissolved, filling 
into molds and allowing the whole to solidify. 

melissic (me-lis'ik), a. [Gr. ntliaoa, honey, 

+ -ic] Of' or pertaining to honey.— Melissic 
acid, a colorless compound, C^gir.-.uCOOH, prepared by 
heating melissyl alcohol with calcium and potassium 
hydroxids at 220° C. It crystallizes in silky, lustrous 
plates and melts at 90* C. It is the highest known mem- 
ber of the series of normal aliphatic acids. 
Melissyl alcohol, a substance found in beeswax. 


honey, + -y 
melitagra (mel-i-tag'ra), ?i. [NL., < Gr. /lili, 
(jie'/.i--), honey, + &ypa, a catching.] Same as 



melon-beetle (mel'on-be tl), n. Any one of 
several beetles infesting melon plants, notably 
the ehrysomelids DiabroUca rittata, D. duo- 
decimpttnctata, and, in the western United 
States, n. trhittata. See *cucumber-beetle. 

meloncns (me-long'kus), ».; pi. melonci (-lon'- 
8i). [Gr. fifi'Mv, cheek, -I- SyKo^, a mass.] Tu- 
mor of the cheek. 

melon-fly (mel'on-fli), 71. A trypetid fly, Da- 
cus i-ucitrbitee, whose larvce bore into melons, 
cucumbers, and other cueurbitaceous fruit in 

melon-fruit (mel'on - frot), «. The papaw. 

melongena(rael-on-je'na), ». [Also melinzane, 
meUuKjeno: < It. melanzana.'] The egg-plant, 
Solamtm Meloiigena. 

melon-hood (mel'on-hud), H. A kind of fungus, 
Bi/i/ritpluinis pratensu. -V. E. l>. 

melonist (mel'on-ist), n. [melou^ + -ist.'] One 
who eultivates'melons. N. E. D. 

melonite (mel'o-nit), n. [Named from the Me- 
lonesemine, in Calaveras county, California.] A 
nickel telluride (perhaps Ni2Te3), which occurs 
in reddish-white granular forms with metallic 
luster: found in California and also in Colo- 

melon-louse (mel'on-lous), n. An American 
plant-louse, Aphis f/ossypii, which damages the 


to the second chamber, heating the metal in part and es- 
caping at the top. The illustiutioii shows two chambers 
at this point of the operation. The gas is then turned off, 
tlie cover of tlie flret chamber is removed, and tlie chamber 
is turned over until the liquid metal pours out into the 

ladle on the fl<x>r The chamber is turned back and re- Membranip0ridaB(mem"bra-ni-p6'ri-de), n. pi 
charged, the top being left open. The top of the second r TTT.. 7."" .^," .,"s i 7 J_ " " " c" A'. J' " A^^ 


Membranipora (mem-bra-nip'o-ra), )!. [NL., 
< L. membrana, membrane, 4- Gr. vdpo^, pore.] 
The typical genus of the family Mcmbrani- 
poridx. Blainville. 


chamber is then closed and the gas is turned on at that 
end, when the whole process is reversed and, by thus al- 
ternating the two chambers, the work of the furnace be- 
comes pi-actically continuous. 

melting-hole (mel'ting-hol), n. A furnace 
for melting steel in the crucible process. 
Phillips and liauerman, Elements of Metal- 
lurgy, p. 348. 

mem (mam), n. [Heb. mem (mdyim, waters), 
Samaritan viem, Syr. Ar. mim, etc. ; in Gr. /li), 
later fiv. See If.] The thirteenth letter (D) 
in the Hebrew alphabet, corresponding to the 
English m. Its numerical value is XL. 

mem. An abbreviation (6) [cap.'] of member; 
(c) of the Latin memento, remember; (rf) of 

member, ". 4. </) in the classlflcation of the sedi- 
mentary rocks adopted by the Vnited States Geological 
Smrey, one of the component elements of a fonnation. 

5. In Etig. law, a place where a custom-house 
has been kept of old time, with officers or 
deputies in attendance. Such localities were 
lawful places of exportation or importation. 
Bouricr, Law Diet. 

eaves and young shoots of melons, as well as jnemberment (mem'ber-ment), n. [^member -t- 

of cotton, orange, and many other trees and 
plants. See cut under *cotton-aphis. 

melon-moth (mel'pn-moth), H. The adult of 
the melon-caterpillar (which see). 

melonry (merou-ri), n. Imelon^ + -ry.] A 
place where melons are grown. 

melon-ware (mel'on-war), w. Pottery made 
in the form and coloring of a small melon. 
Melon-ware was made extensively in the 
eighteenth century by Whieldon, Wedgwood, 
and other English potters. 

melon-wood (mel'pn-wud), »!. A yellow Mexi- 
can wood resembling sandalwood, used for 
furniture. Treas. Jiot. 

melophare (mel'6-far), n. [6r. fie?.oc, song, + 
i^pof, lighthouse.^ A lantern fitted with oiled 
paper on which music is written, so that it 
can be read at night, as in serenading. 

melo-tragedy(iuel-o-traj'e-di), n. [Or. ft0.o{i:), 
song, + E. tragedy.] A musical or operatic 

He I Alflere) composed a lort of drama, altoeether new, 
which he called a melo-trafjedy. His object here was to 
unit* the music . . . with the grandeur and pathos of 
tragedy. J. Uobhause, Hist. lUustr. Ch. Har., p. 402. 

melotype (mero-tip), n. [Appar. irreg. < Gr. 
/jf/ar, black, -I- fiToc, type. The name would 
allude confusedly to the dark room that is not 
required.] 1. In jjAotoj., a photograjihic pro- 
cess which permits development at any time 
and does not require a dark room. — 2. A pic- 
ture made by this process. 

melting-furnace, ». 2. A gas-fumaee used 
to melt gold, silver, copper, nickel, or other 
hard metals placed within it in a crucible. For 
melting lead, type-metal, and other soft metals 
an iron pot is used instead of a crucible.— 
Rotary melting- furnace, an oil. or gas-furnace having 
two cylindriLjil Hteel chambers lined with flre-clay and 
placeil end Ut end on rollers for cNjnvenience in rotating 
one or the other, independently, in charging and pouring 
out the melted roetaL The cut shows a lengthwise section 

ment.] The manner of arrangement of parts 
in a complex body. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
VII. 313. 

membrana (mem-bra'na), ». ; pi. membranm 
(-ne). [L.] Same as »ie»i6raHe.— Membrana 
flacclda. the tympanic membrane where it passes over 
the notch of Kivini.— Membrana gremulosa, a layer 
of yellow granules lining the Graatian follicle. — Mem- 
brana propria, one of various membranes which cover 
or line organs or cavities, such as the pia mater, the 
membrane covering the cartilage of the Eustachian tube, 
a fibrous ad<lition to the periosteum of the sternum, etc. 
— Membrana putamlnls, the membrane lining the in- 
ner snrfjice of the shell of a bird's egg. — Membrana 
reticulata, a finely reticulate membrane which covers 
the organ of Corti in the ear. — Membrana serosa^ (n) 
.Same as XTdif^ ineinbrani', (fj) Same as/a/^e aj/uuV)?!. — 
Membrana tympanl .Same as tympanic viembrane 
(which see, under membrane). 

membranate (mem' bra-nat), a. [NL. mem^ 
braiiatus, < membrana. 'See membrane.] Hav- 
ing a membrane or membranes ; covered with 
membranes. Robson, Brit. Flora, iii. 7. 

membranated (mem'bra-na-ted), a. Same as 

membrane, n. — Acherson's membrane, a shoath of 
casein « hich incloses the milk-glohnlis, preventing their 
coalescence.— Alar membrane. See *ii/(ir.— Basilar 
membrane of the eye. .See *(«i«iVnr.— Bowman's 
membrane. .Same as Bouinaun *iai/i?r.— Carglle 

[Membranipor(a) + -ids.] A family of chilo- 
stomatous ectoproctous polyzoans, having the 
zoarium calcareous or membranocalcareous, 
the zoooeia forming an irregular continuous ex- 
pansion, or in linear series with raised mar- 
gins, and more or less membranous in front. 
It contains the genera Membranipora, Electra, 
Biflustra, Amphiblestrum, Megapora, and Fove- 

membranoid (mem'brS-noid), a. \rnemhran{e) 
+ -old.] Resembling a membrane; mem- 

membrette (mem-bref), II. [F., < memhre, 
member.] An alette; also, less accurately, 
any small shallow pilaster. 

Memorandum clause. See ■^'clause. 

memory, «.— Affective memory. See -kaffectire.— 
Associative memory, in physUd., that capacity of the 
t)rgunisni in virtue of which a given stinmlus produces not 
only the etfects to which it is adequate, but also the 
effects of other stimuli which formerly affected the organ- 
ism ooincidentally with the given stimulus ; sometimes 
regarded as a criterion of the existence of mind in the 
organism stimulated.— Emotional memory, affective 
memory.— Functional memory, in I'f^t/rbut., a memory 
connected always with the exercise of some bodily func- 
tion and not meditated by free ideas. See the extract. 

The second category contains those animals possessing 
primitive instincta . . . and functional -memory, i. e., 
memory connected always with some bodily function. 
The animal perceives, in the external world, the con- 
ditions of satisfying the primary instincts ; but this 
consciousness is strictly connected with the return of 
functional need, and leaves no independent image in the 
nervous organism. Ainer. Jour. J*tfychol., XII. 204. 

Intellectual memory, in 7»n/cAo^, memory of sensations 
and of their derivatives: opposed Ui *afective memory. 
T. Ribot (trans.), Psychol, of Emotions, p. ItU'i.- Kines- 
thetic memory, in i^sf/cAo?. : (a) Memoryof bodily move- 
ment. Such memory may be mediated by images of 
sight, hearing, ete., or by kinesthetic images. Jlaldxcin, 
Diet of Philos. and Psychol., I. 509. (b) llemory as medi- 
ated by kinesthetic images in the narrower sense.— Medi- 
ate memory. Same as mediate kasgociaiion, H'. 
lI'iimK (trans.). Outlines of Psychol., p. 24:i.— Memory 
apparatus, in ptycfiol., an apparatus for the study (»f 
memory and association which consists, in principle, of a 
screen with a window, behind which pass at regular in- 
tervals series of words, pictures, nonsense-syllables, etc. 
— Memory-consciousness, in pnychol,, mind as it is 
when we are remembering something; the disposition or 
arrangement of mind during an act or process of recall. 
Ji. B. Tilchener, Exper. Psychol., I. i. 1.— Motor mem- 
ory, in paychol.. memory l)y means or in terms of motor 
or "kinesthetic images. Avier. Jour. Psychol., XI. 7. — 
Muscular memory. &fime HRyni'tiir-kmemory. F. Gal- 
ton, Uunnm Faculty, p. IIW.— Pitch memory, in p«i/cA()(., 
memory of t^mal pitch ; speciffcally, the ability accurately 
to recall the pitch of a tone or clang, or the key of a 
melody. Amer. Jour. Pgychol., XII. 4t)9. 

membrane; a thin animal membrane, such as gold-beat- memorT-Cell (mem ' 6 -ri-sel), n. A special 
ers' skin, employed to prevent adhesions of opposeil ™«™?/J ^^jj supposei to be the Seat of the 

memoi'y-image of a sensation : opposed to 
sensory cell. 

We assume, therefore, that the sensation of the rose is 
produced in certain ganglion-cells, and that these nu- 
merous sensory cells transmit their excitation further to 
one other panglion-cell, a vwinnrifcHl. 

T. Ziehen (trans.). Introd. to I'hysiol. Psychol., p. 156. 
. of the inenihr'ane around" the rectum memory-idea (niem'6-ri-i-de'''ii), 7i. In psifchol.. 
n'VMm;i"'";iru"''r:;«,-,:J';i;; a reproduced idea; an idea of a remembered 

raw surfaces after an operation. .)/(•</. Jtecnrd, March 7. 
ISKB, p. :«*-.— Dermal membrane, in sponges, the outer 
iiorous skin.— Deacemet's membrane. Same as jiicm- 
Irnne o/Z)ewi""r».— Drum membrane. Siiine as (;/m- 
panic membranf. —Muxley'a membrane or layer, a 
jiortion of the inner n"it-slieath of the mammaiian hair 
which consists of polyunriiil cells with clearly defined 
nuclei.— Membrane Of Duddell. Same as membrane of 
/J?inour«.- Osborne membrane, in lepidopterous lar- 
viE, the stretche«l part of t' 
and in the anal legs. V 

in the transformation ... ,,..,-... ....... ^......« .- ^ i,- '4. f 

in«n(iro<i/!.— Pertpodal membrane, in enttmi., that por- Object or event. 

tion of the hyrMMierniis of bolonietatx^lic insects which Memory-ideas are aroused by sense-perceptions, and 
lines the perip*Klal cavity.— Peritoneal membrane, in again inteirupted by new impressions, 
tracheate arthrcj|")ds, the epithelial 1h\ er of the tracheffi. )(. fymidt (trans.), Human and Animjll Psychol., p. 282. 

Also called ectotrnrhea.— teTitTO-phic membrane, a •_,.„- 

chitinous tube within the alimentiiry canal of many in- memOry-image 
sects which eat solid indigestible fooii : probably a secre- 
tion of the chyliflc st<jmach.— Reissner'a membrane. 
See membrane 0/ TinMiier.— Retaining membrane. 
Same as (Mborne *membrane.— Reticulate membrane, 
the net-like membrane covering the oigaii of 1 "rti in the 
ear.— Shrapnell's membrane. Same as *niembrana 
/!nc<rirf<i. Tympanlform membrane, the membrana 
tympaniforniis, uiiirh takes part in the formation of the 
syrinx in birds and is stretched between the lower bron- 

Section of Rotary Meldng-fumace. 
a, furnace: *, fire-clay lining: f, ga» or oi) and air inlet; rf, 
<rame supporting furnace ; e, rollers on wtiicti furnace rotates ; y, 
hand-wheel for rotating furnace : r. ^. outleu for products of com. 
tiustion, one dosed, one open : A. A, controls of fuel and air supply, 
one open, one closed ; 1, ladle ready to receive liquid metal when 
furnace is turned over. 

through the furnace. The pipes at the ends are for the oil 
and the airbUst. and the hand-wheels are used to rotate 
each chamber. The furnace-chambers are divided into 
halves for convenience In putting In the lining, and in 
operation are closed airtight. Each chamber has an 
opening at the top, one being shown open and the other 
closed, and there is an opening from one chamber to the 
other for the passage of the flames. In ojwration each 
chamber is charged with metal, and oil or |?as turned on 
at one end. The flame of the burning gas melts the metal 
In the flrit chamber, and the waste heat passes through 
S.— 50 

(mem 'o-ri-ira " aj), n. In 

jifychoJ., the reproduction in kind of a sensa- 
tion or sense-perception; the sensation or 
sense-perception as it is pictured in memory. 

Memory-imagen, it is true, cannot be directly aroused 
through external sense impressions, but follow them after 
a longer or shorter interval. 

ir. Wundt (trans.). Outlines of Psychol., p. 22. 

Mempbite, n. 2. The language now spoken 
in the neighborhood of ancient Memphis, and 
forming one of the main divisions of Coptic ; 
also, formerly, the adjacent Coptic dialect 
,, - - . T t . now called Bohairic. 
membrane-pipe (mem bran-pip), n. In phonet., jiemphitic empire, theancient empire or earliest period 
a pipe with nicrabranous reeds ; a tube across of Egyptian liist.>ry, from the first to the tentli dynasties 

the end of which membranes are stretched: ' ' ' ' "'" ' ' ■'""■ 

used to illustrate the action of the vocal cords. 
Membrane pipes . . . form convenient instruments for 
illustrating the effect of tension on the pitch of the mem. 
brane. but are decidedly liable to mislead In implying 
that the vix'al bands vibrate like membranes and that the 
tension is obtained wholly by bringing the points of sup- 
port further apart. Scripture, Exper. Phonetics, p. 267. 

membranin (mem'bra-nin), n. [membrane -t- 

chial half-rings. It is described as membrana interna 
and membrana e.rterna, according Vi its position on the 
Internal or external side of the bronchus. — Virginal 
membrane. Same as /i,7?nea2.— Vitreous membrane. 
Same as membrane of Bruch. 

inclusive : characterized, especially in the fourth and 
fifth dynasties, by the realism and dignity of its sculpture 
and the importance of its monuments, such as the Great 
Sphinx and the great pyramids of Gizeh. 
menachite (men'a-kit), «. lAlenachan, prop. 
Mcnacean, a locality in Cornwall, + -ite"^.] 
An imperfectly examined ingredient in black 
magnetic sand, later identified by Klaproth 

^^^^ _^ with the metal titanium which he discovered. 

-in2.] Ahyalogen (possibiy a glueoalbumin) menagerlst (me-naj ' e -rist), »(. One who 
found in Descemet's membrane and the cap- forms, owns, or exhibits a menagerie, or col- 
Bule of the crystalline lens. lection of wild animals. 


Menandrian irae-nandri-an), H. A member 
of oue of the most aucieiit branches of the 
Gnostics, so called from the leader, Menander, 
thought to have been a disciple of Simon 
Magus. He asserted that he was the Messiah, 
offering salvation through baptism in his 
name, and promising immortality to his fol- 

mend, ^^ ^ — To mend the furl. Same as to m^nd 

mendee (men'de). u. [Also mindy, niendy ; 
Hind, mendhi.'] The plant Laicsotiia alba, a 
variety of henna. It affords the henna dye 
extensively used in Mohammedan countries 
for dyeing the hands and the hair. Yule and 

Mendelian (men-de'li-an), a. [Mendel (see 
def.) + -ian.'] Of or" pertaining to Gregor 
Johann Mendel (1822-84), an Austrian natural- 
ist and ecclesiastic, or to the theoretical in- 
terpretations of his experiments in heredity or 
of others of like character: as, the Mendelian 
law of heredity. See ancestral ■''inheritance. 

With the discovery of the Mendelian principle the prob- 
lem of evolution passes into a new phase. 

Batetunand Saunders, Rep. Evol. Com. Roy. Soo., 1902, 

[L 126. 
Mendelian hybrid. See *hybrid. 
SSendelianism (men-de'li-an-izm), n. Same as 

The " purity of the germ "idea applies quite as well to 
the law of ancestral inheritance as to Mendelianism and 
is in harmony with it. Scieiice, Feb. 5, 1904, p. 214. 

Mendelisin(mon'del-izm), ». \_Mendel + -ism.1 
The theory of hybridity and heredity proposed 
by Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-84) and re- 
vived in later yeare by De Vries, Bateson, and 
others. See ancestral "^inheritance. 

The breeder wants to preser\'e the desirable characters 
or traits and eliminate the undesirable ones, but under 
the strict interpretation of Mendeli»m this is difficult. 

Science, March 20, 1903, p. 451. 

Mendelize (men'del-iz), v.i.; pret. and pp. 
.)Iriiilcli:ed, ppr. Mendelizing. To confoi-m to 
Mendel's law of ancestral inheritance. See 
ancestral "^inheritance. 

We do not know what plants will Mendelize until we 
try. L. II. Baileij, Plant Breeding, p. 171. 

Mendelssohnian (men-del-s6'ni-an), a. In 
music, pertaining to or in the style of the Ger- 
man composer Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

mendole (man-dol'), n. [F. mendole. It. men- 
dole.} A small Mediterranean fish. Smarts 
ga^arella, or some similar species : formerly 
called caclierel. 

meneclinoid (men-e-klin'oid), M. [Gr. f';vr!, 
the moon, + n/Jvew, bend, -I- -oid.'] In math., 
a catenary. 

Menelaion (men-e-la'yon), n. [Gr. Meve?Mlov, 
iUne'/.driov, < Mevi/Mof, Menelaus.] A temenos 
or shrine in honor of Menelaus, the Homeric 
hero. The Menelaion at Sparta was excavated 
in 1889-90. 

menelcosis (men-el-ko'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fif/vei;, menses, + iXKuniQ, ulceration.] Bleeding 
from an ulcer as a form of vicarious menstrua- 

Menevian (me-ne'vi-an), a. [Menevla, the 
medieval Latin name of St. David's.] Of 

or pertaining to St. David's, in Wales Hene- 

Vlan group. See *groupl. 

M. Eng. An abbreviation of Master of En- 

menhidrosis (men-hi-dro'sis), n. Same as 

Meaidia (mf-nid'i-a), «. [NL., < Gr. /^r/v, 
moon, -i- dim. -idiov.] A genus of atherinoid 
fishes, of numerous species, all American, some 
of them entering or inhabiting fresh water: 
known as silversides. 

menidrosis (men-i-dr6'sis),n. [NL.,<6r./i^i'«'f, 
menses, + 'liipuc,, sweat.] Sweating of blood 
as a form of vicarious menstruation. 

meningic (me-nin'jik), o. Same as meningeal. 

meilingina(raen-in-ji'na), n. [NL.,<Gr.,u?}»'i7f, 
membrane, pia mater.] The pia mater and 
cerebral layer of the arachnoid regarded as 
one membrane. 

meninginitis (me-nin-ji-ni'tis), n. [NL., < 
mtningina + -itis.] Inflammation of the men- 
iiigina; leptomeningitie. 

meningism (me-nin'jizm), n. [Gr. /lyviy^, 
membrane, -t- -ism.} A morbid condition 
marked by the symptoms of meningitis, but 
without the actual presence of that disease ; 



Henlngltlc streaks. 

see under tacltri. 

Same as tachei cerebrates, which menO (ma'no), adv. [It., < L. minvg, less : 
see minus.} In music, less : as, meno allegro, 
meningitis, «.- Basilar meningitis, inflammation iggg quick : meno forte, less loud; meno mosso, 

of the membranes cuvermg the base of the bi-am: usually . ^ - ^ ' ' 

of tuberculous origin.— Cerebral meningitis, inlliim 
mation * . . ■ .,._... 


»eeepi(li'tnic , .... 

^soni/i;/.— Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. 

slower ; etc. 

lof the membranes of the brain. — Cerebrospinal Menognatha (me-nog'na-tha), n. pi. [NL., 
IgltlS. (a) Hve cerebngliinal AUii meitinyitit. nliM irreg. <.0t. /Jevecv'. remain, +' Vfd&Of, jaw. ] In 

tr!!^;;':;;3'r'c:^.irolitaa/'''^^nti'S;5[:: Brauer's classification of insects, _a group of 

See mf/uivjitin. It was first described in 180.^, since which 
time several severe epidemics of the disease have oc- 
curred in various parts of the world. The disease is 
caused by a micro-organism, Diplococcus intracellularis 
liuningitidis, or Weichselbaum's diplococcus, present in 
the cerebrospinal fluid. Tile death-rate from the disease 
is high, and even if recovery takes place incurable deaf- 
ness, blindness, paralysis, or mental feebleness may be 
left behind. The treatment that has given the best re- 
sults is by means of hot baths and the administration of 
large doses of sodium salicylate. Goo<l results have 
been obtained by the injection of an antitoxic serum. 
Benefit often follows the withdrawal of a portion of the 
cerebrospinal fluid throUKh a puncture in the lumbar 
region of the spine.— Otitic meningitis, involvement of 
the membranes of the brain in an inflammatory process 
arising in the middle ear. — Spinal meningitis, inflam- 
mation of the membranes of the spinal cord. 

meningocephalitis (me-ning"go-sef-a-li'tis), 
n. [NL., < Gr. iiTJviy^, membrane, + Kecpa/J/, 
head, -t- -itis.} Inflammation of the cerebral 
membranes and adjacent portion of the brain. 

meningocerebritis (me-ning"go-ser-e-bri'tis), 
n. [NL., < Gr. /i^vi/f," membrane, -I- L. cere- 
brum, brain, + -itis,} Same as "^meningo- 

meningOCOCC'" (me-nlng"g6-kok'sik), a. [NL. 
meningococc(us) + -ic.} Pertaining to or de- 
rived from meningococci. 

In the foregoing table there are given the results of the 
tests with seven different antigonococcic serums and a 
meninffococcic serum in conjunction with the various 
homologous extracts and two control extracts. 

Juur. Med. liesearcti, Dec, 1907, p. 229. 

meningococcus, »». See *diplococcus intracel- 
Inlaris meiiiiigitiilis (with cut). 

meningo-encephalitis (me-ning^go-en-sef-a- 
li'tis), n. Same as "^meningocephalitis. Jour. 
Trap. Med., July, 1903, p. 202. 

meningo-encephalocele (m§-ning"go-eTi-8ef'- 
a-16-sel), n. [Gr. fiijviy^, membrane, -H (-/Kf(pa'/-o(, 
brain, + k>//i, tumor.] Hernia of the brain 
with its membranes. 

meningo-encephalomyelitis (me-ning*go-en- 
sef'a-lo-mi-e-li'tis), n. [NL., < Gr. iiijviy^, 
membrane, -I- eyKi(pa?Mc, brain, -I- fiveydc, mar- 
row, -t- -Ms.} Inflammation of the brain and 
spinal cord with their membranes. 

meningomalacia (me-ning"go-ma-la'si-a), n. 
[NL., < Gr. /Jf/vr,^, membrane, -H /ia/lasia, soft- 
ness.] Softening of any membrane. 

meningomyelitis (me-ning"go-mi-e-n'tis), n. 
[NL., < Gr. /iijvt}^, membrane, -(- five?.6;, mar- 
row, ■+■ -itis.} Inflammation of the spinal 
membranes and more or less of the sub- 
stance of the spinal cord. 

meningomyelocele (me-ning-go-mi'e-lo-sel), 
n. [Gr. /i^cfjf, membrane, -P /ii>e/.6i, marrow. 

superordinal rank which includes those forms 
which feed by means of jaws both as young 
and as adults. 

menognathoUS (me-nog'na-thus), a. Pertain- 
ing to, or having tte characters of, the Menog- 

Menominee (me-nom'i-ne), n. [From a local 
name, one of many derived from the name of 
the Menominee Indians of the region men- 
tioned.] 1. That section of the Huronian 
system which constitutes the Menominee iron 
range along the river of this name and on 
the border of Michigan and Wisconsin. It 
consists of metamorphosed sedimentary and 
eruptive rocks, and is separable into a lower 
and an upper portion. — 2. Coregoniis qnadri- 
Interalis, one of the whitefishes found in the 
Great Lakes and north to Alaska. 

Other important items [of fishes taken from Lake 
Michigan] were '^Menominee " worth $14,a07, and bluefin 
worth $12,794, all other protlucts being represented by 
lower values. Hep. U. S. Fish Com., 1902, p. 597. 

menophania (men-o-fa'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
^^ff, menses, -i- -ipavia, i <paivta6ai, appear.] 
The appearance of menstruation at puberty. 
menoran (me-no'ra), n. [Heb. menorah, "< 
«!(r, light.] A candlestick : specially applied 
to the seven- 
branched candle- 
stick in the syna- 
gogue .- Menorath 
na-zabab, tlie golden 
candlestick in the Tab- 
ernacle (Ex. XXV. :^1). 

Menor hyncha. 

(men - o - ring'ka), [NL.. irreg. 
< Gr. f/iven; re- 
main, + piyxoCy 
snout, bill.] In 
Brauer's classifica- 
tion of insects, a 
group of superor- 
dinal rank which 
includes those 

forms which take 
food by suction 
both as young and 
as adults. 

menorhynchoUS (men-o-ring'kus), a. Of or 
pertaining to the Menorhyncha. 
menoschesis (me-nos'ke-sis), n. Same as 

menosepsis (men-o-sep'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
Iif/ve^, menses, -I- ofj^iic, putrefaction.] De- 
composition of retained menstrual discharges ^ 
also, blood-poisoning resulting therefrom. 

■¥ Kr/Tirj, tumor.] Spina bifida in which the menoseptic (nien-6-sep'tik), a. Pertaining to 

tumor consists of both membranes and nervous 

meningorrliagia (me-ning-go-ra'ji-a), n. [NL., 

< Gr. fii/viyi, membrane, -I- -payia, < priyvivat, 

break.] Hemorrhage from the membranes of 

the brain or spinal cord, 
meningorrhea (me-ning-go-re'S), «. [NL. 

mcningorrhoea, < Gr. fif/vtyi, membrane, ■¥ poia, 

a flow.] Same as "^meningorrliagia. 
menischesis (mf-nis'ke-sis), «. [NL., < Gr. 

fif/vEf, menses, -I- cxii'i, retention.] Fail- 

or affected with menosepsis. 

Menospora (me-nos'po-ra), n. [NL., < Gr. 
li'/i'V, moon, -1- oTTopd, seed (spore).] The 
typical genus of the family Menosporidx. 
Leger, 1892. 

Menosporidae (men-o-spor'i-de), n. pi. [NL., 
< MciioKjiora -f -idx.} A family of gregarines 
which consists of solitary forms ha\ing the 
epimerite on a long neck and crescent-shaped, 
spores. It contains the genera Menospora 
and Hoplorhynchus. 

■ ■ ■- [NL.] Same 

ure of menstraation to 'establish itself at menostasia (men-os-ta'si-a), n 
puberty. '^^ menostasis. 

Meniscium (me-nis'i-um), n. [NL. (Sehreber, 
1791), < Gr. fiTjviaKoQ, a crescent, alluding to 
the arcuate connecting veins.] A genus of 
coarse polypodiaceous ferns resembling va- 
rious species of Goniopteris and Dryopteris 
and having fronds 1-7 feet high, usually 
once pinnate. The primary pinnate veins of the 
pinme are nnifomdy connected by opposing veinlets 
arcuately joined in pau-s, each with an excurrent free 
veiulet, the elliptical or somewhat curved son being 
borne at the point of union. The species, about 10 in 
number, are mostly tropical, one (.V. reticulatum) occur- 
ring in subtropical Florida. 

Meniscotheriidae (me-nis"ko-the-ri'i-de), n. 
pi. [Meniscntherium, the type genus, -t- -idse.} 
A family of ungulate mammals, belonging to 
the suborder Condylarthra, which comprises 
species of small size with lophodont molars. 
All are extinct, and their remains are found 
in the Lower Eocene. Cope, 1882. 

menostatic (men-os-tat'ik), a. [menostasis.'i 
Pertaining to or marked by menostasis, or re- 
tention of the menses. 
mensur. An abbreviation of mensuration. 
mensuralist (men'sii-ral-ist), n. [mensural -i- 
-ist.} A composer of measurable music. 
The figures adoj)ted by eailier mcnsuralit^s. 

Waodbridr/e, t)xf. Hist., I. 132. X. E. D. 

mental^, «.— Law of mental growth, in Wundts 

psychology, one of the three laws of mental development, 

coordinate with the laws of heterogony of ends and of 

development toward opposites. 

The lau' of mental growth is an application, to more, 
comprehensive mental syntheses, of the law of psychical 
resultants, which declares that everj- psychical compound 
shows attributes which, while intelligible from the attri- 
butes of its elements, are by no means the mere sum of 
the attributes of these elements. 

ir. irii>irf( (trans.), Outlines of Psychol., p. 369. 

Mental physiology, physiological psychology ; psy- 
chology approached by way of physiology, or developed 
in coimection with physiological facts and laws. W. B.. 


Carpenter wrote a " Principles of Mental Physiology, with 
their applications to the training and discipline of the 
mind, and the study of it« morbid conditions," which 
reached its sixth edition in lh88. The phrase has now- 
fallen into disuse.— Mental science. See -^science. 
mentalism (men'tal-izm), H. [menUiU +-ism.'] 

1. Mental activity or process. 

Deranged nervous function — a deranged mentaligm, 
if I may be pemiitted to coin such a word — of an epilep- 
tic or allied nature. 

Maudstey, Mental Dis., vii. 243. A'. E. D. 

2. The metaphysical opinion that matter is 
a mode of mind or consciousness ; the opposite 
of materialism. 

It may be held broadly that ' matter in ultimate analy- 
sis is a mode of mind or consciousness,' without raising 
the question of a conscious self or subject. . . . .Such 
view I think is often called Idealism. I propose Ut label 
it 'Mentahgm' in broad antithesis to 'Materialism.' If, 
again, the Mentalist's ontology expressly excludes the 
notion of self or subject . . . then perhaps we may des- 
ignate him as an atomistic Mentaliitl. 

Sidywick, in Mind, Jan., 1900, p. 20. N. E. D. 

Mentbacese (men-tha'se-e), n. jtl. [NL. 
(Ward. 190.1), < Mentha '+ -acese.'] A preat 
family of dicotyledonous sympetalous plants 
of the order Folemoniales. the mint family, 
typified by the genus Meiitia, the mint genus. 
It is characterized primarily by a labiate corolla, whence 
it was called Lahiatx by Bernard Jussieu in laying out 
the garden of the Trianon —a name which has been 
generally adopted and is still widely used, although not 
based on that of any genus of the family. See Labiatx. 

menthenol (men'the-nol), n. Same as *ter- 

menthenone (men'the-non), n. [Mentha + 
-en + -one.] A colorless ketonic compound, 
CioHieO, contained in peppermint-oil and 
prepared by the aftion of dilute hydrochloric 
acid on nitrosoraenthene. It boils at 206.3° 
C. and has a well-marked odor of peppermint. 

menthiodol fmen-thi'o-dol), n. [menth(ol) + 
lorlnl.] lodol containing one per cent, of 

mentbophenol (men-tho-fe'nol), n. (nienth(ol) 
+ fihenol.] An antiseptic and anesthetic fluid 
made by melting together 3 parts of menthol 
and 1 part of phenol : generally used very 
much diluted with water. 

menticultlire (men'ti-kul-tur), H. [L. mens 
intent-), mind, + fuZ/Hro, culture, ^e culture.'] 
The cultivation or training of the mind. 

mento-anterior (men"t6-an-te'ri-or), a. [L. 
men f Kin. chin, + anterior, before.] Noting a 
position of the fetus, during labor, in which 
its chin points anteriorly in relation to the 
body of the mother. 

mento-iliac (men-to-il'i-ak), a. [L. mentum, 
chin, + E. idac] Noting a position of the 
fetus, during labor, in which its chin points 
to one or the other iliac fossa of the mother. 

mentolabial (men-to-la'bi-al), a. [L. mentum, 
chin, -1- /«/ii«»w, lip, -1- -fl^.] Relating to both 
the chin and the lips.— Mentolabial furro'w, the 
hollow just above the cnin. 

mentopos'terior (men''t6-pos-te'ri-or), a. [L. 
mentum, chin, + posterior, behind.] Noting 
a position of the fetus, during labor, in which 
its chin is directed posteriorly in relation to 
the body of the mother. 

menyanthaceo'as (men'i-an-tha'sliius), a. 
Belonging to the plant family Menyanthaccee. 

menyanthol(men-i-an'thol), n. [menyanth(in) 
-\- -oL] A colorless volatile oily compound, 
f'gHjjO, prepared by the hydrolysis of the 
glucoside menyanthin. It has an odor like 
that of oil of bitter almonds. 

M. E. P. An abbreviation of mean effective 

Mephistophelic (mef-'is-to-ferik), a. Same 
US M' /ihixtojihelian. 

Mephiticair. See*n)>i. 

mer. An abbreviation of meridian. 

meral^a (me-ral'jiii), n. [NL., < Gr. mpic, 
the thigh, + a/.jof, pain.] Pain in the thigh. 
- Meralkla paraathetlca, various disagreeable and 
It:uiiful senflatioiiH in the skin of the thigh. 

Meramec (mer'a-mek), n. A name suggested 
by E. (). Ulrich, from the Meramec river in 
Missouri, where these strata outcrop, for a 
group of Lower Carboniferous limestones of 
the upper Mississippi valley, embracing the 
St. Louis, Spergen Hill, and Warsaw of earlier 

mere. An abbreviation (a) of mercurial; (6) 
of mercury. 


mercantil, n. A simplified spelling of mercan- 

Mercantile agency. See ■'•agency. 

mercaptal (mtr-kap'tal), n. [mercapHan) + 
al((lehyde) .] The name of a class of com- 
pounds containing the group TT>C(SAlk)2, 

where R is any hydrocarbon radical and Alk 
is an alkyl-group such as methyl or ethyl. 
The compounds are oils with a highly offen- 
sive smell, and are also called ihioacetals. 
They are related to mercaptan in the same 
way that the acetals are to alcohol. 
mercapto-. A combining form used in organic 
chemistry to denote a derivative of a mercap- 
tan, that is, a compound containing the group 
R S, where E is an alkyl radical such as methyl 
or ethyl. 

mercaptol (mfer-kap'tol), n. lmercapt(an) + 
-o/.] The name in organic chemistry of a 
class of compounds containing the group 

jj > C(SAlk)2, where R is any hydrocarbon rad- 
ical and Alk is an alkyl-group such as methyl 
or ethyl. The compounds are prepared by the action 
of ketones on mercaptans and are related to the mercap- 
tols in the same way that acetals are to acetoles or as 
aldehydes are to ketones. 

mercapturic(mer-kap-tii'rik), a. [mercajytian) 
-I- -uric] L'sed only in the following phrase. — 
MercaptUriC acid, a name (introduced by Baumann) 
of certain complex substances which appear in the urine 
of dogs after they are fed with hyalogen substitution- 
products of benzol, the aromatic radical appearing in 
combination with a sulphur-group of the nature of 

mercatorial'^ (m^r-ka-to'ri-al), a. [L. merca- 
torius, mercantile.] Mercantile ; of or pertain- 
ing to merchants or commerce. [Now rare.] 

Mercatorial^ (mer-ka-to'ri-al), a. [From 
Mercator (Lat. for Gerhard Kremer, 1512-1594), 
a Flemish geograplier, and the inventor of a 
system of map-projection extensively used oy 
navigators.] Of or pertaining to Mereator's 
projection (which see, vmAer projection) or to 
Mereator's chart (which see, under chart). 

The Mfreatoriat bearing between two stations is the 
mean of their reciprocal true bearings. 

Encyc. Brit, XXXIII. 99. 

Merced series. See *series. 

mercenaria (mer-se-na'ri-a), «. The specific 
name of the quahog, or hard-shell clam, 
adopted to some extent as a book-name. 

mercerization, n. The most valuable application of 
mercerizjition at the present time is the lustering of 
cotton yam, which is accomplished by subjecting the yam 
under tension to the action of caustic-soila solution and 
then thoroughly removing the caustic soda by washing 
before the tension is relieved. Egyptian or sea-island 
cotton is best suited for the purpose, and with yams 
of these cottons a high silky luster may be obtained. 
Two-ply yarn is conmionly used, and the nature of the 
twist of the yam has been found V) have more or less in- 
fluence upon the result. 

merch (merch), n. Same as *march*. 

merchandizable (mtr'chan-diz-a-bl), a. 

Suited for being classed as merchandise ; 


Merchant mill. See *mill^. 
Merchantable volume. See *vohme. 
merchanteer (mer-chan-ter'), «. A merchant 

vessel : a merchantman. [Rare.] 
mercbantert (m6r'chan-t6r), H. A merchant- 
merchet, «. Same as marchet. 
Mercurean, «. and «. Same as Mercurian. 
Mercurian, a. II. ». 1. In astro}., one bom 

under the influence of the planet Mercury. 

X E. J). — 2. An (imaginary) inhabitant of 

the planet Mercury. 

Mercuric iodide. .See *i'(irfidc— Mercuric oxid, red 

oxid of mercury {\\^>). the substance, early known as calx 
of mei-cury, fntni which Priestley, in 1774, (Irst obtained 
oxygen in separate fonn. 

mercurius (m6r-kii'ri-us), ". [ML. See Mcr- 
run/.] The metal merem-y.- Merourlngphiloso- 
plidnun (Mercury of the philosophere, that is alclieniista), 
a name used in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to 
denote the essence of metallic character, or that which 
should have the ixjwer of imparting metallic character 
in the highest degree to base metals. 

Mercury, ". — Black mercury, the poison-ivy, 7?Ai« 
/■<oiicii;i«. -Black oxid of mercury, mercurous oxid, 
llgoO— Green Iodide of mercury. .See *iodide.— 
Inc*h of mercury, see *t/(<'Ai.— Maiden's mercury, 

the girls inercurv. — Mercury arc. .See electric *arc. 
— Mercury-arc rectifier, same as mercurn-mpnr *rec- 
ft/icr.— Mercury lamp, a lamp the light of which is de- 
rived from an electric (lischarge through mercury vapor 



iti vacuo. In its original form the mercury lamp was 
devised by Professor >voiisof 
Berlin (1892). The Arons lamp 
consists of a vacuum-tube with 
mercury terminals, of the form 
shown in Fig. 1. When the 
tube is cju-efully pumped out 
and an arc is established in the 
vacuum between the terminals 
a and b, a strong light of char- 
acteristic greenish color is 
emitted. To establish the arc 
the lamp is tipped until the 
mercury flows through the 
bend of the tube from one leg 
to the other, thus forming a 
temporary bridge for the path 
of the current, which is im- 
mediately broken upon restor- 
ing the lamp to its vertical 
position. Much heat is de- 
veloped by the electric arc in 
such lamps, particularly at the 
cathode, the surface of which 
emits more light than any 
other poi-tion of the arc, and 
on this account it is difficult to maintain such lamps in 
long-continued operation without breaking the glass. To 
overcome this difficulty, and to render the mercury lamp 
more suitable for certain spectroscopic work requiring 
great intensity of light, Lummer modified the form of the 
tube as shown in Fig. 2 and surrounded the entire tube, 
with the exception of the flattened ends, u\ ivf, which 
serve aa wiadows, with a metallic case through which a 
flow of cold water ia maintained. Another mercm-y lamp 
■ was devised by Abbe of Jena, for 
the special purpose of testing len- 
ses, the form being such aa to 
throw the light of the arc verti- 
cally upwards. An intei esting 
and useful modification is that of 
Fabry and Perot^ Fig. 3. in which 
the cathode consists of niercuiy 
contained in an inner tube, c. 
The mercury of the anode fills the 
annular space between thia tube 
and the exterior of the lamp. 
The Cooper-Hewitt lamp, a form 
of mercury arc-lamp for com- 
mercial lighting, consists essentially of a straight tube 
of gliiss about 5 centimeters in diameter and 40 centi- 
meters lung. One terminal is formed by mercury con- 
tained in the bottom of the tube and the other terminal, 
in the top of the tube, is of iron. Tlie arc is established 
by tipping the lamp, until the mercury flows from the 
bulb in a tliin stream the entire length of the tube, and 
then restoring it to its vertical position. The light, which 
fills the entire tube, is greenish in color, as in all mercui-y 
lamps, but possesses an actinic 
intenaity of great value fur photo- 
graphic purposes. In some com- 
mercial mercury lamps an attempt 
lias been made to remedy the lack 
of red in the light of the mercury 
arc by placing in the same circuit 
incandescent lamps with carbon 
filaments. The light of all mercury 
arc-lamps ditfers from that com- 
monly used for purposes of illu- 
mination in having a bright-line 
spectrum, that of mercury vapor. 
The sti-ungest line in this spectrum 
is the green line of wave-length 
5461, to which the characteristic 
color of the light is due. The only 
other visible lines are a yellow pair 
at .^770-90 and violet lines of wave-lengths 4358 and 4047. 
(See Fig. 4.) There is also a strong ultra-violet triplet, 
3CoO-55-63, and to this, together with the violet lines, the 
extraordinary actinic intensity of the mercury lamp is 
due. The infra-red spectrum of the mercuiy arc consiata 
of a group of lines lying between 1 ^ and 2 y. and another 
group between 4 m- and 6^. The intensity of this region 
as compared with that of the visible spectrum is, how- 
ever, much smaller than in the case of the continuous 
spectra of sources of light usually employed for illumin- 
ation and the r.diant efficiency of the mercury lamp 
ia therefore comjiaratively high, pn^bably about 20 per 

Lummer Lamp. 

Fiy^. 3. Lamp of 
Tabry and Perot. 

I-'ig. 4. Siiectrum of the Mercury Arc. 

cent. By substituting for the glass vr.cuum-tube a tube 
(if fused quartz, Hereaus has succeeded in producing a 
mercury lamp capable of sustaining very high tempera- 
tures and of funiishing light the intrinsic brightness of 
which far exceeds that of the other fonus. This lamp, 
on account of the greater transparency for ultra-violet 
rays of the quartz tube, is especially valuable in certain 
lines of work in which an intense ultra-violet .spectrum 
is demanded.— Mercury perchlorld. Same as curr<mm 
«j(/*;.wrt/^.— Mercury-vapor rectifier. St-e *r>rtificr. 
— Scotch mercury, the foxglove.— Siemens mercury 

unit. Sei; -kiniit. 

mercury-break (raer'ku-ri-brak'''')) »• An in- 
terrupter for iuduotion-coils, in which mercury 
is uwed. 8ee interrupter (a). 

mercury-spark (mer'ku-ri-spilrk'''')* "■ See 
*,s7*c/ /■/»■• . 

mercury-switch (mer'ku-ri-swich-^), n. See 

mercury-trough (iner'ku-ri-trof'Oj «. Inehem.f 
a trough (generally of porcelain, cast-iron, or 
wood) used to hold mercury over which, in 
glass jars or tubes, gases are collected which, 
on account of their solubility, can not well be 

mercnry-trongh 788 merozoite 

collected over water: essentially, a pneumatic meridian-passage (me-rid'i-an-pas"aj), n. merogony (me-rog'o-ni), n. [Gr. /liim;, part, 

trough containing mercury instead of water. The crossing of a heavenly body over the + -yovia, < -yovo^, -born.] The development, 

mercury-tube (mtr'ku-ri-tub'), n. See *tube. meridian of the observer. partial or perfect, of an organism from part of 

mercury-valve (m6r'ku-ri-valv''), «. A valve meridional, «. II. n. One who dwells in the an egg or part of an embryo. If the two 

in which mercury is used as a seal between south ; specifically, an inhabitant of the south blastomeres of the two-celled stage of the 

the parts. of France. segmenting egg of a ctenophore are isolated, 

mercury-weed (m^r'ku-ri-wed), «. The three- Daudet was able to paint a real sober picture of the each forms a half-embryo. In Amjihiuxus 

s(^eAei meicMrv, AcalyphaVirgimca. 3/«rid.ononii Nunm Koumestan . ^„ „ „ „ eachformsaperfect embryo of half the normal 

fc. T ■ - I 1 i- 1 • M. V, Crawford, Stud. J? or. Lit. p. 50. N, E. D. ■ "^ 

mercy,". 5. In criTOtnaMoir, partial remis- . , ■ / . '"';""• ^"'' "'^•i'- -^^ •"••^•i'- gi^e. 

sion of a punishment to which a convict is meriedriC (mer-i-e dnk), a. Same as men- meroliedric (mer-o-he ' drik), a. Same as 

subject, as distinguished from pardon, or total iicark. . , -,j ,s a ^ mcrihedric. 

remission.-To be in mercy, said of a convict who is menhedral (mer-i-he dral), a. 8ameas*mm- merology (me-rol'o-ji), «• [Gr. mc/mc, part, -t- 

liable to punishment at the discretion of the judge. Iirartc. .'/Myia, < //} fa, speak.] Sa,me a,s histolony. 

merdurinoust, a. [L. mcrda, dung, + E. merihedric, n. 2. In <7roM;)-f;(eon/, designating meromorph, a. II. n. A change in one or 

iirinous.~] Consisting of both dung and urine, isomorphism in which two groups are multi- more of a number of jiarts in series such as 

B. ,loi,s-o>i. ply isomorphic— 3. In crystal., same as hemi- the change of the appendages of the anten- 

mere^ (mer), n. [Gr. uepoc, a share, part.] In licdral. _ . , , , nary somite of a crustacean into eves. 

the reticulum or supporting skeleton of the merinednsm (mer-i-he drizm), n. [meri- meromorphosis (mer-o-mor'fo-sis), n. [Gr. 

extinct silicious sponges of the family />i«(.(/o- he<ir{ic) + -«.«;«.] Merihedric isomorphism, fiipo^, part. -I- /iop^xja/f, form'ing.]' In hioL 

spoiijiidx, one of the divisions or meshes pro- See ^merihedric, 2. the incomplete replacement of a lost part! 

duced by the intersection of the primary menmba (me-rera'ba), n. See *marimha. gee *lwlmiiorphosis. 

vertical and horizontal spicular bundles. It merino, «.— Para merinos, in Australia, and espe- meront (mer'ont) n TGr uipoc part + uv 

is subdivided by the spicules of subordinate ciallyini<ewS,mth Wales, theveryfirsttamilies(8ocially): , j being.] In certain SDo'rozoans as 

1 ■ 4 1 ,„ ^„ „„ „„„,i„„„„loo ,li from tlie fact that the pure mennos are the most valua- )i;, ,'' "f'"B'J iii <-ej uam Bpuiu^uaiis, as 

rank into lesser areas or quadrangles — di- ble sheep. iSlaiiK.) T/idoAonia, a form of trophozoite which mul- 

meres, tetrameres, hexameros. The pure merinot . . . pride themselves on being of tiplies by simple schizogony, a second division 

mere'' (mer'e), n. [Maori.] A Maori war- tlie purest blood in the colony. sometimes taking place before the first is 
club ; a easse-Ute, or war-ax, from 12 to 18 P. Cumiit^havi, Two Yeare in New South Wale^ 11. finished, so that three or four individuals may 
inches in length, made of any suitable hard . . rr- n a i • j * i. be connected in a group or chain, 
material, as stone, hard wood, or whalebone, meriset (me-res'), n. [F.] A kind of ^'^'^^^ raeTOvlmiikton imiv-o-pUng).'U,n),n. [NL., < 
Outside of New Zealand the word is only DiacK cneriy. i\. t.. jj. Gr. //tpof, part, + 'Nh. planktoti.~\ The organ- 
known as the name of a little trinket of green- merism (mer izm), « [Gr. M^'^f^k, division ^ ^ ^onsiderid collectively, that pass part of 
stone made in imitation of the New Zealand mto parts, <Mfp:C«vdivide into parts, < ,upog, ^.^ j. y- P J 
weaponin miniature, mounted in gold or silver, apart.] The repetition of parts in an organ- at or near the surface 

and used as a brooch, locket, ear-ring, or other jsm in such a way as to form a regular pat- meroplanktonlc (mer' " 6 -plangk - ton ' ik), a. 

article of jewelry. ^. ^. ^orH., Austral er., as n d d [Gr ^,.po, part, .^ E.^^o«,|] Swimi^ ng 

i^nglish. . ^ ,„ VQ,.iati^„ ^ 9^ m the ocean at one stage of hfe and passing 

Merevale shales. aee*shale^. J„t^™,°j^ V ":' ;<.',r,^;/i', „ rp. ,/„,„„„ the rest of life vagrant or sessile on the sea-bot- 

merganser, ».-WWte mergaiuier, the smew, M.r- merismoid (me-ris moid) a. [Gr M^pm^a, a ^ ^^ ^ ^g ^i ^ Oscellaria, the 

?r'^s:f;S(*l;nhTr '^"^"'"""°' '"^■"'"""'- ir^^'iittr:^: ^^rolZ^t^^es^'' plankto^ic fucoids, the metagenetic medisa., 

mergence (m.r;jens),n The act of merging Merismopeja (mer"is?mo-i;e'di-p ,. [NL. -^ IrhTiro^d^ ^nd cTal J'and man^^ h?.- 
or sinking into something else, with conse- (Meyen 1839), < Gr. ^fP'^^a a part, -t- 7rfd,o., ^.^^^ echinoderms, Jcalei>ha, and gastro- 
quent loss of original identity or form; the a plain (takeu in the sense of ttcc, foot).] 1. ^^ 'jj j^^ (trans.), Planktonie Studies, p. 
state of being merged. A genus of unicellular fresh-water blue-green ggg i,ua.i.o.;, x .»uai.uun. «i,uuico, p. 

A gradation between a "bird-Iilce canoe-charm," through algae, characterized by spherical cells which „,/ ., , . . ^, ,_ 

a " Kuraan-headed bird canoe-charm," to a "canoe fetich." divide regularly in two directions, thus having ^ ,"! the meropionMomc stage, which we may assume 
the latter having a very prognathous human head. The ,hl "pi JS J" jpfi ;„ „roiins of fours —2 H cl ""'*'*'' ',? ''"' ancestors of iulgur and Sycotypus, was 
mergence of a frigate-bird'? into a human head may be the cells arranged in groups ot tours.— .i. [(. C.J apparently suppressed even in the earliest species of 
due to one dralgu acting upon the other. In oac(cr?0(., a name applied to COCCI arranged Julgur, as otherwise the distribution would he more 

Uaddmi, Evolution in Art, 206. in large rectangular plates. world-wide. Atner. Nat., Aug., 1903, p. 616. 

merger^, n. 3. A merging of the interests and merist (mer'ist), n. [Gr. t^epiar^g, < fiepiCew, merorachischisis (mer ^ o - ra - kis ' ki - sis), n. 
control of two or more corporations, engaged divide.] One who divides. [Bare.] [Gr. ^tepoc, part, + paxig, spine, -I- oxiai(, 

in the same line, or in allied lines, of business. The administrators of the three great divisions of law cleaving.] Partial fissure of the spinal cord. 
lnt« a oinCTln cnrnorntion wliir-h fixphnnp-ps its "^ severally Archons, Merjsts, and Dicasts. . . . The Also merorrhachischisis . 

into a ^ingie corporation wnicn exenanges us j,j„.g,g ^^.^ properly the Domini, or Lords of houses and mprostbPTiio CmS ros thPTi'ik"! n fOr „T,„nr 
stock for that of the merging corporations, nations, ifusKn, Munei-a Pulveris, p. in. note, merostnenic (me-rob-tnen Ik), a. [t^r. /ir/poc, 

which however preserve, nominally at least, ^eristic (me-ris'tik), «. [Gr. ,.p,.™,5c, < ;..p,a- he^h{;rdefmrtf"'hfvhWthT hinder pixts 
their separate identity. r<if, divided, < /zep/C"", divide. See */«cr(*w.] "^,.„ ilJli^S a',,,! Jfl.lL;^^ 

So t<», who shall doubt but that the present monopo- pp^tainine- to or exhibiting merism W "°^^ developed and stronger than the fore 
listic inJvements, the tru.,ts and the mergers, when Ve „^^,^to» ftiidv of Variation p 99 ^,rt„!: Paits : opposed to prosthenic. 
shall have learned toguardthat which is good and pre- ^ateson, sUKly ot variation, p. --.-Merlstio merosvmmetrical (mer " 6-si -met'ri-kal). a. 
vent that which is bad, will result in greater benefits to 110inol9gy, variation. See *, *mnah,m. r„™ ^f^X^ f W« f + ^ca / Y In erusial eJl ibitl 

mankind and a higher civilization? meristically (me-ns'ti-kal-i), orfi). By means imcrosymmertiy) -^ uai.] in Liyst(il.,e\lnt>it- 

Science, July 31, 1903, p. 129. of merism, or in a meristic manner. W. Bate- ™S partial symmetry. See *symmetry, 6. 
meridian. I. n.- Meridian furrow. See *.A(rr(>w.— sow, study of Variation, p. 26. merosymmetry (mer-o-sim ' e-tri), «. [Gr. 

Meridian zenith distance, the complement of the merit, ".-Certificate of merit. See -kcermcate.- Mtpoc,pa.Tt, + K symmetry. "[ In crystal., partial 
meridian altitude, or what that altitude lacks of 90 OC order Of merit. >iei; border. symmetry; a lower grade of s>-mnietry than 

''"^TT a T t„ !,„_„„„ „ „„ot„ „-,..« merle ^, «. 2. A West Indian name for orioles that exhibited in holosymmetrical forms. See 

H. n. 6, In ctenophorans, a costa or me- c A /-<„•„.„ * ^ <- 

.TT" , t • • 1 f „ of the genus Cassieus. *symmetrii, 6. 

"nZesTelgL^wrnSol^'onridescent pad- merluce.(m^r'liis), ». i^J.. meHu^us,merluc. morotomy (me-rot'o-mi), ». [Gr. ,^por, part, 

dies ill constant vibration, which run from near one pole cj"«-" Said to be formed (irregularly) trom f . + -Tofiia, < raiitlv, cut.] In histology, a divid- 

towards the other. Encyc. Brit., XXVIL 300. mer, L. mare, sea, 4- L. lucms, pike.] The ing into several parts or segments. 

Astronomic meridian, on the celestial sphere, a great European hake, Merlneius merhiceius, belong- ^he experiments of "merotrnnv,- that is to say of am- 

circle which passes thn.UKh the poles of the earth's axis ing to the family J/eWMCiirfa". putation, tried by Waller on iieries, on infusoria by 

and the zenith of the spectator. —Brass meridian, p"^ mprt\(Taa.'ro\ n fSv Ps mcro^ The spotted Brandt, etc., teach us the necessity of the presence of the 

TiKrMifdio/agrioke.- Celestlalmeridlans.honr-circles; "f^fYS, p,w„/.„;,«;„c /,„/,-./, fni,n^ r.ff the ceUular body aud the nucleus. 

great circles of the celestial sphere which pass through jewhsh, KpmepheluS gua^a, tound ott the ' Smithsonian Jtep 1902 p 4M 

its poles and coiTespoiid exactly to the meridians on the coasts of southern Europe and western Africa. . , . ., rr' i -+ 

earth.- Onomonlc meridian, a meridian in gnomonic merocaroal (mer-o-kar'pal), a. [meriiS + merotropy (me-rot ro-pi), «. [Gr. //tpof, part, 

projection.-Natlonal meridian, the meridian which ..„,,,,„ J; „n -i P'prtainiiiV to tho mpriis nnd + -rpojrm, < rpfTTfii', turn.] A name which has 

passes throu^l. the national observatory of a country; f?^^;"*J^, ""' ;J fj'f wJWp^^^^^ been Suggested for a phenomenon, generally 

the prime or first meridian of a nation ; the zero-point in the carpus, or tO the tOUTth and httil joints Ot t„__,„j ^S'„._,. ,„.„,, Ji,:,,y, ;„ evhiWtp-l W 

longitude for that nation, and from which calculations a malacostracau trunk-leg; as, the meroear- "termed aesmotropy, wnun is exnimtea oy 

are rnade.-Prlnclpal meridian. («) A first or prime „„noint. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, M.a,j-J)ee., certain organic chemical compounds. See 

meridian. (6) The meridian from which the meridians ^qm -,t k^c *desyno1ropy. 

bounding townships are measured.— Terrestrial me- IJOI, 11. 003. - , . ..^ ,. , ^^ 'M'prn7na CTnpr-r)-7o'ii'l « nl TNT. < Gr iifnnr' 

ridlan, a geographic meridian.- Zero meridian, the merocrystalline (mer-o-kris'ta-lin), a. [Gr. JW.erozoa (mer o zo a), n.pi. l'>*^;^ ur.^fpof, 

meridian from which longitude east or west is reckoned. „jW part, + E. crystalUne.'l In petroq., part,-l-Cuo>>, animal.] A grade ot tratoirfra in 

The International Congress at Washington In October, partly crystalline. Fletcher, 1895. Also which the adult worm consists of two distinct 

1894, which adopted for the nations represented the uni- %„,„i truafnllinp himncnittnllinc luinnhiinlinp parts, the head or scolex, and the genital 

foml zero.,neridian of Greenwich for maritime purposes *!'"';'I^ff '"'^! M^''\^*'"r^^^^^ Er^lT' + region or bodv. It Contains the Dibothridiata 

Scun^e. June 21, 1901, p. 979. merocyte (mer 9-s t), «. [G'"- ^|w, P^^t, + J^ ^^^ Tetrahothridiata, in which groups are 

Meridiana (me-rid-i-a'na), n. [NL. (Hill, pro- ^^p f' ^.tile mnsses of protoplasm I'vin^ t included nearly all cestoid worms : contrasted 
posed in 1761, established in 1768), < L. me- t^e nucleate masses of protoplasm lying in Mono^oa. 

^id<an«., pertaining to midday ^.meridian he unsegmen^ed yolk of a mc^oblas^^^ merozoite (mer-o-zo'it), „. [Gr. ,upo,, part, 

The name alludes to the habitual opening of """o^VtMteTme-roe'r [Gr uepoc < '^^ov, animal, + -i«.^.] In the life-cycle of a 

the flowers at noon.] A genus of dicotyledon- ^^^°^tv n^l^^S^r^^^^^ sporozoSn, one of the cells to which a dividing 

ous herbs of the UmWy A steracew. See Ga- L^,'^!^, j E" '^'mWnf. ] In crustaceans, the ^P^^^ gi^eWse. They appear as buds radi- 

meSnLlT'^:^&nal),a. ,menaiar.^^^i&<^r.l!^t,a. ,n.erogon,y, ^ ating from the parent cell and afterward be- 

mlA^lio^ir ^ *'' *"'*"" °' ^ '"''"'"^" ' 2lx^l^Ti::^:ii^^^IwXi^. .--n funy developed, the spore, or as they are tech 

meridional. „ _ t^., . i,- , n 71 <• « 11; lom nically known, the nmrozoi/es, drop off the parent cell and 

The great meridiancU systems, e. g. the Urals and the -"• /*• "itson, lU Jiwl. HUUeim, April O, IJIW, ,,.,,^1^ j^eir way through the fluids of the digestive tract 

Kocky mountains. (Hog. J»ur. (R. O. 8), XV. 640. p. 218. until they come to the cells lining it, and then, like the 


sporoioitea, they penetrate the cells, (trow at their ex- 
penae, and again reproduce spores as before. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., June, 1901, p. 192. 

Mersey jolly-tail. See *jollytail. 

Mertensidae (mer-ten'si-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
ilerteimo, the typieal genus, + -irfa?.] A 
family of tentaciilate ctenophorans which 
have the body compressed in the stomachal 
plane, the subtentacular ribs longer than the 
substoraachal, and no wing-like appendages 
at the sensory pole. It contains the genera 
Euchlora and Charistephane. 

merulioid (me-rO'li-oid), a. [Merulim + -oW.] 
Kesembling or pertaining to the genus ile- 

Memlias (me-ro'li-us), n. [NL. (Haller, 1768), 
< L. minila, a blackbird: see vierle^. The 
name alludes to the black color of the fungus, 
especially in its later stages.] A genus of 
hyraenomyeetous fungi of the family Polypor- 
acex. They have a soft, waxy, usually resu- 
pinate hymenium, with reticulate or sinuous 
folds forming shallow pits. il. lacrymans, 
sometimes called the house-fungus, is the cause 
of a destructive dry-rot of coniferous wood. 
See cut under dry-rot. 

merycole (mer'i-kol). n. [Irreg. < merycol(ogy), 
or < mirylcism) + I. colere, cultivate.] One 
who practises merycism. 

merycology (mer-i-kol'o-ji), ». Inieryc(ism) -t- 
Gr. -Myta, < Aiy«v, speak.] The study of the 
causes, nature, and treatment of rumination 
in man. 

mesaconic (mes-a-kon'ik,, a. [Gr. liico^, 
middle, + E. acoH/c.] Noting an acid, a color- 

, HOCO.CCH3 , , 

less compound, hCCOOH' P'"''?'"'''" ^ 

boiling citraconic acid with dilute nitric acid. 
It crvstallizes in slender needles, melting at 
202° 'C. 

Mesadenia (mes-a-de'ni-ii), n. [NL. (Rafin- 
esque, 1832), < Gr.'/if toc, middle, + adi/v, gland ; 
in alliLsion to the central projection of the 
receptacle.] A genus of plants of the family 
Asterarese. They are tall perennial, mostly smooth, 
often milky-juiced herbs with terminal corj-mbs of small, 
few-tlowered, inconspicuous heads, the Mowers all tubular 
and perfect. There are about Hispecies, natives of North 
and I'eulral America, of which 11 occur within the 
tinted States. They are commonly allied Indian plan- 

mesa-dwelling (ma'sii-dwel'ing), n. A house, 
usually a communal dwelling, built upon a 
mesa or limited table-land with steep sides, 
as in the western part of the United States. 

mesaortitis (mes'a-Sr-ti'tis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
^l^^<x:, midille, -I- aoiwri, aorta, -t- -i(i>.] Inflam- 
mation of the middle coat of the aorta. 

mesaraeum (mes-a-re'um), n. ; pi. mesarsea 
(-ii). [NL., < Gr. /itaapaiov, mesentery, < 
/itaoi, middle, + apaia, belly, flank, fem. of 
apaiA^, porous.] Same as mesentery. 

mesaticephalism (mes'a-ti-sef'a-lizm), n. 
Tho i-oinTitiou of being mesaticepHalie. 

mesaticephalous (mes'a-ti-sef 'a-lus), a. 
.Same a.s nifxnticephalic. 

mesaticephaly f mes'a-ti-sef 'a-U), n. [mes- 
aticephiil-ic + -y^.'\ Iii anthrnp., the condition 
of being mesaticephalic ; mesaticephalism. 

We place systematically after the Tibetans and the 
Indo-Chinese, who arc subbrachycephalous, the Chuk- 
luks, whf»e averajre indication, Til.l), stamlsat the extreme 
. limit of mfnalicphalft. and not far from them, the Tnn- 
gus-Manchu (:)no,(K)0 individuals), another breakins; up of 
Prichard's " Allophylians," with their clearly mesati- 
cephalous skull, which is at the same time excessively 
flattened. Smithsonian Hep., 1895, p. 614. 

mesaticercic (mes'a-ti-str'sik), a. [Also »«e.«- 
atikirkic : < Gr. /ilaaroc, midmost, -I- KepKic, 
radius of the arm.] Having the forearm of 
average length in proportion to the length of 
the arm ; neither brachycercic nor dolichocer- 
cic ; having a radiohumeral index between 75 
and 80. Turnir. 

mesatlkerkic (mes'a-ti-kfr'kik), a. See 

mesatilekanic (mes'a-ti-le-kan'ik), a. [Gr. 
liiaaToi;, midmost, -^ '/-tKovn, dish, bowl (pelvis).] 
Same as *mei<atipeUie. Turner. 

mesatipellic (mes'a-ti-ppl'ik), a. [Gr. /leaaTof, 
midmost, + irfX/.a, 9ish (pelvis).] In nullirop., 
said of a male who has an index of the jjelvie 
brim between 90 and O.^. Also mesopelHc. 
■four. .Inthrop. In.1t., 1900, p. 149. 

mesatipelvic(mes'a-ti-pel'vik),a. IGr. /uaaroc, 
midmost, + L. pelvis, bowl (pelvis).] Same 
MS *mt»ntiprUie. 

Mesatlantis (m.^s-at-lan'tis), n. [Gr. /liao^, 
mi<l(lle, + 'AT>.avTi(, Atlantic] The mid- 


(Lophofkora il'illiamsii). 

One third natural size. 


Atlantic or tropical Atlantic sea-region of 
Sclater, which comprises the Atlantic ocean 
from a little north of the tropic of Cancer 
down to about the tropic of Capricorn. Geog. 
Jowr, (R.G.S.), X. 219. 
mesaxonic (mes-ak-son'ik), a. [Gr. iiiaoq, 
middle, -I- h^uv, axis, 4- -fc] Having the 
third digit of the foot the largest, thus form- 
ing the axis of the foot: contrasted with 

They (Perissodactya) are all digitigrade quadrupeds, 
with the axis of both feet passing through the digit Na 
in (hence ine»axonic\ 

A. S. Woodward, Outlines of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 

[p. 319. 

mescal-buttons (mes-kal 'but''nz), n. pi. 
[mescnl (Nahuatl mexcalli) + E. hidtons.'] The 
dried tops of a succulent, spineless, turnip- 
shaped cactus growing in the arid regions of 
Texas and northern 
Mexico, known botan- 
ically as Lophophora 
Williamsii, and called 
by the natives in 
various localities 

peyote, hikuli, and 
wokowi. The plant 

scarcely rises above the 
ground : it has a flat top 
divided into a number of 
radiating convex ribs bear- 
ing low tubercles, each 
with an areole in the cen- 
ter which bears a tuft of 
silky hairs from which the 
pink flowers appear. The 
tops of the plants are col- 
lected by the Indians and 
dried, forming button-like 
masses an inch or more in 
diameter and about a 
miarter of an inch thick. 
These buttons have nar- 
cotic pnjperties and in 
Texas are sometimes called 
dri/ whixti/. They are 
either chewed dry or are 
added to tizwin, mescal, or 
other alcoholic drinks. 
They pnxluce a delirious 
exhilaration which enables 
the Indians to perfonn certain ceremonial dances for 
many successive hours without fatigue. The effect seems 
to resemble that of opium, though in some Ciises a con- 
dition of exaltation is induced resembling that produced 
by Indian hemp. Several alkaloids have been isolated 
from the plant, s«)ine of which resemble morphine, others 
strychnine, in their effects ujHUi animals. One of them, 
called pellotin^, hjis been intrmluccd iis a hypnotic : an- 
other, called inftfcalin*', seems to be the cause of the 

mescaline (mes-kal'in), n. Imeseal -I- -ine~.2 
Methyl-3, 4, 5-trimethoxvbenzylamine, (CH3- 
0)3C6H2.CH2NHCH3, a'n alkaloid found in 
me'scal-fmttons. It crystallizes in needles 
wliich melt at 151" C. 

mescalism (mes-kiil'izm), n. [mescal -I- -ism.'i 
The habit of using mescal or mescal-buttons. 
Amer. Anthropologist, Oct.-Dec, 1902, p. 789. 

mescal-pit (mes-k'al'pit), n. A pit filled with 
stones on which mescal roots are roasted. 

mescroyance t, «• [OF. See »ni«rre««f.] Un- 
belief. [Rare.] 

There may be any quantity of intermediate mind, in 
various conditions of bog, . . . hut the elements of Croy- 
ance and Mencroyance are always chemically separable 
out of the putrescent mess. 

Ittukin, Foni Clavigera, Ixxii. 383, 

mescroyantt, n. [OF. See miscreant.} An 

mesdem (mes-dem'), «• [Egyptain !] A sub- 
stance used in ancient Egypt as a cosmetic 
and a medicine. It seems to have been either 
antimony sulphid or lead sulphid, more prob- 
ably the latter. K von Meyer (trans.), Hist. 
Chem., p. 18. 

mese* (mes'e), n. [Gr. /ifo-i?, the middle sti-ing 
or note.] In &r. music, the middle or central 
tone of the system. See cut under tetrachord. 

mesectoblast (me-sek'to-blast), n. [Gr. /liao^, 
middle, -I- E. ectoblast.'] Same as *eetomeso- 

This mass of ■mesectohlattt, with enclosed auditory pit, 
hears a considenible resemblance to the common anlage 
of auditor)- pit and lateral line system referred to above. 
It subseriuently extends into the adjacent gill arches, 
where its further history was not followed. 

.Science, April 11, 1902, p. 576. 

mesembryo, «. 2. The blastula stage of a 
polvzoan. Cuminq.'f, 1904. 

Mesencephalic flexure, fossa. See *flexure, 


a. Of or pertaining to both the mesenceph- 
alon, or mid-brain, and the spinal chord. 


mesenchymatal (mes-eng-kl'ma-tal), a. 
Same as mesenchymal. L. 0. tioviard, in 
Science, Deo. 21, 1906, p. 812. 

mesenchjrme, «. 2. In embryol., the whole 
or a portion of the middle germ-layer, or 
mesoblast, when this layer is not epithelial, 
but consists of stellate, loosely interconnected, 
or even disconnected cells like those seen in 
primitive forms of connective tissue. 

About the proton of the liver and the vascular spaces 
surrounding it there is considerable mesenchyme. 

Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc, Nov!, 1903, p. 58. 

mesenchymic (mes-eng-kim'ik), a. Of or per- 
taining to mesenchyme. 

mesenteriform (mez-eu-ter'i-f6rm), a. Re- 
sembling a mesentery. 

Deep carmine, mesenteriform, consisting of auberect 
piicately aggregated laminaj ; the margin minutely rag- 
ged or crispate, and furnished with a few scattered 
pores of irregular shape. Dana, Zooph., p. 708. 

mesenteritic (mes'en-te-rit'ik), a. [niesenter- 
ite -h -jc] Relating to or affected with mesen- 

mesenteroblast (me8-en''t«-ro-blast), n. [mes- 
enteron -I- Gr. /JAaordf, germ.] In embryol., the 
mesenteron; the middle portion of the in- 
testine or alimentary tract, arising from the 
entoderm, as distinguished from the stomo- 
deal and proctodeal portions of the embryonic 
gut, which are of ectodermal origin. 

mesenteron, «. 2. In sea-auemones and 
similar polyps, the main digestive cavity or 
stomach ; in Mollusca, the stomach and intes- 
tine. Compare stomodeeum and 2>roctodseum. 

mesenteropnthisis (mes-en-te-rof'thi-sis), «. 
[NL., < mesenteron -I- Gr. (pffiaig, consumption.] 
Tuberculosis of the mesenteric glands. 

mesentery, «.— Directive mesenteries, in the Ileza- 
coralla, the mesenteries which correspond to the extrem- 
ities of the longitudinal mouth. They are distinguished 
from the other ntesenteries of the animal by the fact that 
the muscular thickenings on the walls of the pairs do not 
face each other, as they do in all other pairs of the body. 
— Edwardslan mesentery, in anthozoans, one of the 
eight mesenteries first fornu-*! : so called because exhib- 
it«l typically by the adult stage of i^tfira rrf»i a. —tJterlne 
mesentery. Same as mesometry. 

mesentoderm (mes-en'to-derm), n. [Gr. //ffrof, 
middle, -f- E. entoderm.'^ In embryol., a cell- 
layer or single blastomere not yet differen- 
tiated into mesoderm and entoderm proper, 
but exhibiting peculiarities of both of these 

mesentomere (mes-en'to-mer), n. [mes(o- 
mere) + entomere.'] In embryol., a blastomere 
which has not yet dividedintomesomeres and 

The cleavage of the egg of the nudibranch, Fiona 
marina, is of the spiral type well known for molluscs. 
From the mesentomere . . . arises the primary mesoblast 
and also enteroblasts, these latter being concerned in the 
f<)rmation of the intestine. 

Amer. Nat., July-Aug., 1904, p. 506. 

mesepisternal (mes-ep-i-ster'nal), a. Of or 

pertaining to the mesepistemum. 
mesepithelium (mes-ep-i-the'li-um), n. [Gr. 

/xfcrof. middle, + NL, (pithelium .} Same as 

mesh^, n. 6. Oneof the subdivisons of ahead 

or ear of wheat ; a wheat spdkelet. 

The spikelets (m£shes) are two to four grained. 
U. S. Depl. Ayr., Bur. Plant Industry, 1901, Bulletin 3, 

[p. 10, 

meshorer (me-sho'rer), V. [Heb. meshorer, 
< shir, sing.] A singer who assists the cantor 
or hazzan in the synagogue. 

mesh-pin (mesh'pin), ». An oval piece of 
wood over which the mesh of nets is formed, 
the loops being knotted on its edge. 

meshummad (me-sho'mad), n. [Heb., < sha- 
mad, destroy.] Literally, one who is de- 
stroyed : a term of disdain and hatred applied 
to one who abandons Judaism for another 
faith ; a pervert. 

mesh-winding (mesh ' win 'ding), n. See 

mesiad (mes'i-ad or me'zi-ad), adv. \_niesi{al) 
+ -(m/3.] In zoiil., to or toward the middle 
line or plane of the body. 

When the bones of the shoulder-girdle In a grebe are 
articulated as in life, there is <iuite an interval between 
their sternal ends, mesiad. Amer. Hat., Jan., 190t, p. 22. 

Mesial length. See *lerigth. 
mesicerin (mes-i-se'rin), n. [mesi(tine) -\- trr. 
Kr/p6r, wax, -t- -(>i2.] A colorless crystalline 

compound, C6H3(CH26H)3, prepared by boil- 
ing the corresponding bromide with water and 
lead carbonate. Also called 1', 3', b'-trihy 


mesidine (mes'i-din), h. lniesi{tine) + -id + 

-inf^.'\ A colorless liquid, H2NC6H2(CH3')3, 
prepared by the reduction of nitrouiesitylene. 
It boils at 229-230° C. Also called amiito-1, 3, 

mesilla (ma-sel'ya), n. [Sp., dim. of mesa : 
see wicsn.] A small mesa. 

mesiocatldad (mes'i-o-ka'dad), adv. [mesi(al) 
+ caudad.] In the median line and toward 
the tail. I'roc. Zool. Soc. London, 1899, p. 1024. 

Mesirenia (mes-i-re'ni-a), ». [Gr. fiimc, mid- 
dle, + NIj. Irenia, the Pacific region.] The 
mid-Pacific sea-region of Sclater, consisting 
of that part of the Pacific which lies between 
the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. 

mesite (mes'it), «. [Gr. /leairr/c, being in the 
middle. See Mesitfs, mesitinei-spar).] An 
old name for a mixture of methyl acetate and 
mesityl oxid, prepared by distilling crude 
wood-alcohol or crude acetic acid from wood 
with sulphuric acid. 

mesitene (mes'i-ten), n. \_mesite + -ewe.] 
Same as ^mesite. 

mesitine (mes'i-tin), «. Same as mesitine- 

mesitol (mes'i-tol), «. lmesit(ine) + -ol.J A 

colorless crystalline compound, HOCgH.2- 

l. ■i.s 

(CH3)3, prepared by the action of nitrous 
acid on me.sidine. It melts at 65-69° C. Also 
called 1, 3, o-irimethylphenol. 

mesitonic (mes-l-ton'ik), «. [inesit{ine) + -one 
-I- -ic] Noting an acid, a colorless compound, 
(CH3)2C(COOH)CH2COCH3, prepared by the 
action of hydrochloric-acid gas, potassium 
cyanide, and alcohol on acetone. It crystal- 
lizes in small prisms or large plates, melts at 
74° C, and boils at 138° C. under 15 millime- 
ters pressure. 

Mesityl OXld, a colorless liquid oleflnic ketone, (0113)2- 
C;CHL'OCHa, prepared by the action of hydrocliloric- 
acid gas, sulphuric acid, or zinc chlorid on acetone. It 
has an odor of peppei-mint and boils at 129.5-130° C. Also 
called iso2>ropiflidine-acetone and 2-7nethyl-2-pentenone, 

mesitylenic (mes"i-ti-le'nik), a. [mesityUiie 

+ -ic] Of or pertaining to mesitylene — Mesl- 

1.3 5 

tylei4c acid, a colorless compound, (t'H3)2C6H3COOH, 
prepaied by the action of dilute nitric acid on mesitylene. 
It forms monoclinic ci^yatals and melts at 166° C. Also 
called 1, a-dimethylbenzoic acid (5). 

mesitylic (mes-i-til'ik), a. [mesityl + -ic] 
Noting an acid, a colorless compound, 

(CH3)2C<^^'j^,^ ,preparedby 

the action of hydrochloric-acid gas, potassium 
cyanide, and alcohol on acetone. It crystal- 
lizes in long prismatic needles, melts, when 
anhydrous, at 174° C, and may be distilled. 

meso-. [Gr. //fffo-f, middle.] A combining form 
used in organic chemistry to indicate optical 
inactivity through internal compensation. 
See *mesoform. 

mesoappendix (mes'o-a-pen'diks), TO. [mes- 
(entery) + appendix.'\ 'The mesentery of tha 
vermiform appendix. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
I. 421. 

mesobacteria (mes'o-bak-te'ri-a), n. pi. [Gr. 
fjiao^, middle, + NL. fcncierja, pi. of bacterium.'] 
Medium-sized rod-shaped bacteria. Billroth, 

inesobentMc(mes-o-ben'thik), a. [mesobenthos 
+ -ie.] Of or pertaining to the mesoben- 
thos; living upon or in the bottom between 
the outer edge of the continental slope and 
the bottom of the deep ocean. Kncyc. Brit., 
XXXIII. 934. 

mesobenthos (mes-o-ben'thos), n. [NL., < 
Gr. fiiaoc, middle, + (iivdoc, depth: see *beti- 
thos.'] The animals and plants which live up- 
on or in the bottom between the outer edge 
of the continental slope and the bottom of the 
deep ocean, considered collectively and in 
contrast with the dwellers in or upon the bot- 
tom of the continental slope and those that 
live upon or in the bottom of the deep ocean. 
See *benthos, *epibentho8, and *hypobenthos. 

The mud-line is the real upper limit of this zone [con- 
tinental slope] : it typically begins at about 100 fathoms, 
but may begin at 5 to 20 fathoms in deep sheltered fll'tha, 
or be pushed down to 300 fathoms where currents are 
strong. Tile fauna of this zone may be termed the meso- 
benthos ; it is not so abundant, nor so sharply character- 
ized, as the epibenthos and yet is sufficiently distinct to 
deserve at any rate a provisional name. 

Encyc. Brit, XXXIII. 9.33. 

mesoblast, n. 2. In cytol., the middle one of 
three concentric protoplasmic layers supposed 
to surround the cell-nucleus. 


The normal and developed cell has three concentric 
envelopes which may be called blasts, the whole enclos- 
ing a nucleus, so that the structure which we found in 
the eiu'th as spheres is repeated here as blasts. These 
are the exoblast, mesobtast, and endoblast. 

J. W. Powell, Truth and Error, p. 69. 
Sporadic mesoblast, mesoblast in the fomi of dis- 
connected cells or cell-clusters, as distinguished from 
typical mesoblast in a continuous cell-layer or epithelium. 
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), 1894, Ser. B, p. 313. 

mesobre^ate (mes-o-breg'mat), a. [Gr. 
peaog, middle, + jiptyfia, sinciput.] In cra- 
niom., having a moderately rounded vertex. 
J. C. Prichard. 

mesobronchium (mes-o-brong'ki-um), n. ; pi. 
mesobroHchia (-a). In ornith., a tube or pro- 
longation of the bronchus running backward 
into one of the abdominal air-sacs. 

Mesocambrian (mes - - kam ' bri -an), n. In 
gcoL, the middle Cambrian. 

Mesocampyli (mes-o-kam'pi-Ii), n. pi. [NL., 

< Gr. /jeaoi, middle, + Ka/xTrv?MC, curved.] In 
Hyatt's classification of the cephalopoda, a 
suborder of the Ammonoidea of uncertain value, 
comprising certain Devonian goniatites or 
forms intermediate in structure between the 
MicrocampyH and Eurycampyli. 

mesO-CarboniferouS (mes"o-kar-bo-nif'e-rus), 
a. Middle Carboniferous. 

Title: 'The Meso-Carboniferous Age of the Union and 
lliveradale fonnations in Nova Scotia.' 

Science, March 7, 1902, p. 392. 

mesocardium (mes-o-kar'di-um), n. ; pi. meso- 
cardia (-a). [NL., < Gr. ptooc, middle, +mp6ia, 
heart.] In embryol., the membrane which con- 
nects the developing heart with the anterior 
body-wall on the ventral side and with the 
intestine on the dorsal side. 

mesocarpaceous (mes'o-kiir-pa'shius), a. Be- 
longing or pertaining to the Mesocarpaceee, a 
family of algEB. 

mesocephal (mes-o-sef'al), «. [Gr. /jemc, 
middle, + Ke<pa/?/, head.] Inanthrop., a meso- 
eephalic individual. Deniker, Eaoes of Man, p. 

mesocephali (mes-o-sef'a-li), n. pi. [NL.] 
In anthrop., mesoeephalid individuals. Keane, 
Ethnology, f. 328. 

mesocepnalic, «. 3. Of or relating to the 

Mesocestoides (mes"9-ses-toi'dez), n. [NL., 

< Gr. liiao^, middle, -<- NL. Cestoides.'] The 
typical genus of the family Mesoeestoididee. 
i'aillant, 1803. 

Mesocestoididse (mes'p-ses-toi'di-de), m. pi. 
[NL., < Mesocestoides + -!(?«.] A family of 
tapeworms, of the order Tetracotylea, having 
the head unarmed but provided with four 
terminal suckers, and the genital pores sepa- 
rate on the ventral surface. It contains the 
genus Mesocestoides, parasitic in the dog and 
cat, especially in Iceland. 

mesochondrium (mes-6-kon'dri-um), n.; pi. 
mesochondria (-ii). [NL., < Gr. /icao;, middle, 
-t- x"'"h'oit cartilage.] The transparent ma- 
trix or intercellular substance in which the 
cellular elements of hyaline cartilage are em- 

mesochroi (me-sok'ro-i), «. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
iUeaof, middle, + XP""} color.] In anthrop., in- 
dividuals or races of a medial (namely, a yel- 
low) color. See the extract under *leucochroi. 

mesochroic (mes-o-kro'ik), a. [mesochroi + -ic] 
In anthrop., of or pertaining to the mesochroi ; 
having a medial (namely, a yellow) color: con- 
trasted with Meucochroic and eethoehroic. 

mesochrone (mes'o-kron), n. [Gr. /ifCTOf, mid- 
dle, + xp"""?, time.] A mean-time curve. P. 
Scrret, 1855. 

mesococcus (mes-o-kok'us), n. ; pi. mesococci 
(-si). [NL., also mesococcos, < Gr. /jeaoc, mid- 
dle, -I- NL. cocCMS.] A medium-sized coccus: 
applied to such forms of bacteria. Billroth. 

mesoconch (mes'o-kongk), a. [Gr. fjsaoi; mid- 
dle, + Koyxit shell.] Same as *mesoconchous. 

mesoconchic (mes-o-kong'kik), a. Same as 

mesoconchous (mes-o-kong'kus), a. [Gr. /jcaoc, 
middle, + Koyxi, shell, + -ous.} In craniom., 
having an orbital index of middle value, that 
is, of from 80.1 to 85.0: a tenn used by Ger- 
man anthropologists. 

mesoconchy (mes'o-kong-ki), n. [rnesoconch 
+ -!/■'.] In craniom., the condition or char- 
acter of being mesoconchous. Biometrika, 
March-July, 1904, p. 214. 

Mesocoracoid arch. See precoracoid *arch. 


mesocotyl (mes-o-kot'il), n. [Gr. /^teciog, mid- 
die, -t- E. cotyl(edon.).] An intercalary inter- 
node developed between the cotyledons in 
certain plants, which renders them alternate 
instead of opposite. 

A further irregulaiity in the case of Klugia Zeylanica 
and some species of .Stieptocaipus is the displacement of 
the cotyledons from the opposite to an alternate position ; 
this is attributed to the intercalaiy development of an 
intemode between the cotyledons, to which the name of 
mesocotyl is given. Sature, Sept. 8, 1904, p. 463. 

mesocracy (me-sok'ra-si), TO. [Gr. /liaix:, mid- 
dle, + -Kparia, rule, < npaTilv, be strong, rule.] 
Government by the middle class. A'. E. D. 

mesocratic (mes-o-krat'ik), a. [Gr. jiiao<:, 
middle, -I- Kparai^, rule. See *»ie«oera^.] 1. 
Pertaining to, or characterized by, mesocracy. 
—2. In geol., having light and dark minerals 
in about equal amounts: contrasted with 
*leucocratic and *melanocratic. 

The main body of the boss is made up of a coarsely 
crystalline, meeucratic, hornblende gabbro. 

Amer. Geol., Sept., 1904, p. 134. 

mesocribrvun (mes-o-krib'rum), TO. [Gr. i^eaor, 
middle, -I- L. cribriim, a sieve.] The median 
one of three main side sacs arising from the 
embryonic cribrum. 

The mammalian cribrum.— W. Blendinger has investi- 
gated this structure in a series of mammals. In origin it 
consists of lateral, more or less vertical, folds, the cribral 
sacs. On the embiyonic cribrum there arise three main 
side sacs, pro-, meso., and metacrihrum, the entrance to 
which is perpendicular to the main axis of the nasal canal. 
Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc, Feb., 1905, p. 42. 

mefSOCyst (mes'o-sist), TO. [Gr. peaoc, middle, 
-t- KvdTif, a bag. ' See cyst.] The double layer 
of peritoneum attaching the gall-bladder 
to the liver when the former is completely sur- 
rounded by serous membrane. Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Mesoderm band, one of the strands of mesodermal cells 
which arise from the germinal groove of the embi-yo of an 

mesodesm (mes'o-desm), TO. [See Mesodesma.] 
In lot., the layer of undifferentiated paren- 
chyma lying between the several strands of 
a polystele. Encyc. Brit., XXV. 416. 

Mesodesma, ". 2. [?. c] A fold of peritoneum 
which subtends one of the uterine ligaments. 

mesodesmic (mes-o-des'mik), a. Of or per- 
taining to a mesodesm. 

mesodiastolic (mes-o - di - as - tol ' ik), a. [Gr. 
/;£CTOf, middle, -f- E.' diastolic] Occurring in 
the middle of the diastole. N. E. 2). 

Mesodon (mes'o-don), TO. [NL., < Gr. /ihoc. 
middle, + bdoi-^ (oiovr-), tooth.] A genus of 
Jurassic fishes, similar to Microdon (which 
see), but having teeth on the vomero-palatine 
in five rows and three or four irregular small 
rows on the splenial. 

mesodont, a. 3. In craniom., having a dental 
index between 42 and 44. 

II. TO. In entom., one of a group of stag- 
beetles which have, like the amphiodonts, a 
mandibular development intermediate be- 
tween the teleodont and priodont types. 

mesodorsal (mes-o-d6r 'sal), a. [Gr. ^ilaoc,, 
middle, + E. dorsal.] Situated in the middle 
of the dorsal region or back. 

meso-epidldymis (mes-o - ep-i - did' i-mis), TO. 
[NL., < Gr. i^eaoc, middle, + NL. epididymis.] 
A double layer of the tunica vaginalis, re- 
sembling the mesentery, that unites the epi- 
didymis to the scrotum. 

mesoform (mes'o-form), TO. [Gr. /daoc, middle, 
+ E. form.] In organic chem., a compound 
which contains two or more asymmetric (opti- 
cally active) carbon atoms in the molecule, 
but which has its optical activity diminished 
or extinguished because one or more of the 
carbon atoms has the dextrorotatory and one 
or more the levorotatory configuration, thus 
more or less completely neutralizing each 
other's optical effect. Such compounds are also said 
to be internally compensated, in contradistinction from 
the racemic or externally compensated isomers. The two 
forms ai-e distinguished, in practice, by the fact that the 
racemic isomer is capable of resolution into two optically 
active substances, wliich is not the case with the meso- 

mesognathia (mes-og-nath'i-a), TO. [NL., < 
Gr. uiaog, middle, + yrdfJof, jaw.] In anthrop., 
the condition of having middle-sized jaws. 

mesognathion (mes-og-nath'i-on), ?). ; pi. meso- 
gnathia (-ii). [Gr. /lirjoc, middle, + yvaOoi, 
jaw.] An external premaxillary bone. 

mesognathism (me-sog'ua-thizm), TO. Imeso- 
gnath-ic + -ism.] In anthrop., the condition 
or character of being mesognathous. 

mesogonion (mes-o-go'ni-on), TO. ; pi. mesogo- 
nia (-a). [NL.] See *mesogonium. 


Mesogonistius (mes'o-go-nis'ti-us), n. [6r. 
fifffof, midtile, + jui'/a, angle, + hriov, sail.] 
A genus of fresh-water sunfishes, of the family 
Centrarcliidse, found in the eastern United 

Blaclc-banded Sunfish i.Afeia£;onistitts chatadon). 
^Frotn Bulletin 47. U. S. Nat. Museum.) 

mesogoniuniCines-o-go'ni-um), n. ; -pX.mesogo- 
nia (-ill. [XL., < Or. liiao^, middle, + joi'of, 
generation.] In Traehomedussp, one of the 
thin vertical lamina? of the subumbrella which 
pass across the bell-cavity from the manu- 
brium to the radial canals, underlying the 
generative sacs and dividing each into two. 
Also meKoi/'mion. 

mesogyrate (mes-o-ji'rat), a. [Gr. licao^, mid- 
dle, -I- L. ffyrahix, pp. of gi/rare, turn.] 
Twisted toward the middle, as the beaks of 
some pelecypod moUusks : contrasted with 
*priisiHiiiriite and *<>i>isthn<iijrate. 

mesogyrous (mes-o-ji'rus), a. [Gr. ;U£(Toc, 
miJ(rie, -1- jipof, a turn, gyre, + -ou.?.] In 
ornitli., having the second or middle loop of 
the intestine arranged in tte form of a spiral, 
as in all Pnsseres. 

mesohepar (mes-o-he 'par), n. [Gr. fitao^, 
middle, -H NL. AepWr. See Aeyinr.] A fold of 
peritoneum attached to the free edge of the 
right lobe of the liver in manv animals. Syd. 
Sm: Lis. 

mesobypoblast (mes-o-hi'po-blist), n. Gr. 
Iijinur, middle, + i-d, under, -I- ^/Mcrrdc, germ.] 
Same as *»ifgentoderm. 

mesohypsicephalic (mcs-o-hip'si-se-fal'ikl, a. 
[riusiiirciihaUc) + hypsiceplialie.] In cranioni., 
beiiiff both mesoeephalie and hvpsieephalic. 
Mail, 1901, p. 190. 

mesolecithal (mes-o-les'i-thal), a. [Gr. fifao^, 
middle, + '/UiBo^, yolk, -f -a/i.] In embryol., 
a term applied to certain eggs, like those of 
most arthropods, in which the yolk in an early 
developmental stage lies in the center and is 
enveloped by a layer of blastodermic cells : 
samf as centrolecithal and *periledthal. 

Mesolithic (mes-o-lith'ik), a. [Gr. fiooc, mid- 
dle, + //Hof, a stone, + -ic] In prehistoric 
arehxoh, relating to the period intermediate 
between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods : 
a term employed in the classification of post- 
glacial deposits which contain human relics, 
or of such relics themselves, and referring to 
the relative character and degree of work- 
manship displayed therein. Contrasted with 
EoHthic, Paleolithic, and Xeolithic. Deniker, 
Races of Man, p. 308. 

mesologlc (meg - o - loj ' ik), a. Same as mego- 

mesomegacraniOTlS (mes-o-meg-a-kra'ni-us), 
a. [lir. uinnr, middle, + /'^>a, great, + 
Kpai'iof, skull.] In craniom., having a skull of 
medium volume, that is, measuring from I.SIO 
to 1,9.')0 cubic centimeters in males and from 
I.GIO to 1,7:50 cubic centimeters in females. 

mesomegaprOBOpous (mes - - meg - a - pros'o- 
pus), a. [Gr. /jiaof, middle, -f- /i*)a, great, + 
-pAnuTToi, face.] In craniom,, said of a skull 
which has a face of middle size, the volume of 
which is from .580 to 640 cubic centimeters in 
males and from 480 to 530 cubic centimeters 
in females. 

mesomental (mes-o-men'tal), a. [Gr. litrnj^, 
middle, + L. omentum + -a?l.] Relating to 
the central portion of the omentum. 

mesomere (mes'o-mer), n. [Gr. fieaoc, middle, 
+ fiepiK, part.] In embryol. : (o) In the seg- 
menting egg, a blastomere, or cell which gives 
rise to the mesoblast. (6) In the vertebrate 
embryo, a mesoblastio somite, or protover- 

mesometatarse (mes-o-mefa-tftrs), «. Same 
as *misomctalarsus. 


mesometatarsus (mes-o-met-a-tar'sus), H.; pi. 
mesiimctatarsi (-si). [Gr. /leaoc, middle, + 
NL. metatarsus,'] The middle metatarsal bone. 

mesomula (me-som'u-la), «. ; pi. mcsomulse 
(-le). [Gr. fie{aoc), middle, + (?) aij/ia, body, -I- 
dim. -ula.'i A young embryo which consists 
of an epithelial mesoderm and entoderm sep- 
arated by a mass of mesenchyme. 

Mesomycetes (mes-o-mi-se'tez), «. p?. [NL., 
< Gr. fieaoc, intermediate, -I- NL. Alycetes.] A 
group of fungi including the Hemiascales and 
the Hemibasidiales, regarded by some authors 
as intermediate between the Pliycomycetes 
and the higher fungi, Aseomycetes and Basid- 
iomycetes. Brefeld. 

mesomycetOUS (mes'o-mi-se'tus), a. Of or 
pertaining to the Mesomycetes, a group of 

mesonasal (mes-o-na'zal), a, [Gr. ^utffof, mid- 
dle, -1- E. nasal.]' Relating to or situated in 
the middle of the nose. 

Mesonemertini (mes"o-ne-m^r-ti'ni), v,pl. 
[NL., < Gr. uicoi, middle, + NL. Xemertini.] 
A group or order of nemerteans having the 
lateral nerves in the dermal muscular layer; 
the body-wall consisting of ectoderm, dermis, 
an external circular, an internal longitudinal, 
and usually an intermediate diagonal layer of 
muscles; the mouth behind the brain; no 
caecum ; and the proboscis without stylets. 
It includes the family Ceplial«thricidse. Com- 
pare *Protonemertini, *Metanemertini, and 
* Heteronemertiiii. 

mesonephridium (mes'o-nc-frid'i-um), n.; pi. 
mesoiicjiliridia (-H). [NL., < Gr. ^fooc, middle, 
+ NL. iKphridium.] A nephridium of meso- 
dermal origin. 

mesopatagium (mes-o-pat-a-ji'um), M.; pi. 
niesopatayia (a). [Gr. /iiacK, middle, + NL. 
patagium. See }>atagium.'\ That part of the 
wing-membrane of a bat lying between the 
fifth digit of the hand and a line drawn from 
the center of the posterior margin to the 

Within the mtgopatagium the subordinate lines incline 
either toward the foreann or the manus. 
Harrinon Allen, Monograph of tlie Bats of North Amer- 

[ica, p. 3. 

mesopectas (mes-o-pek'tus), n. [Gr. /ifaof, 
raidtfle, + L. pectus, breast.] Same as meso- 
stfniiim, 2. 

mesopellic (mes-o-pel'ik), a. [Gr. uiao(, mid- 
dle, + TT-M.a, dish (pelvis), + -I'c] Same as 
*mesatipelUc, Brinton, Races and Peoples, p. 

mesophile (mes'6-fil), a, [G. mesophil (Warm- 
ing, IsyS), < (Jr. /iiaoc, middle, + 0iAof, 
loving.] Same as *mesophilous. C, Mohr, 

mesophilic (mes-o-fil'ik), a, [Gr. liiaof, mid- 
dle, + ©i/JJf, loving.] Preferring, or adapted 
to live imder, a condition of medium tempera- 
ture or moisture; mesophilous: noting espe- 
cially bacteria which grow best in cultures 
which are maintained at a medium tempera- 
ture (li>45°C.). Buck, 'iiied. Handbook, L 
686 Hesophlllc bacteria. See ■kbacterium. 

mesophilous (me - sof ' i - lus), a. Mesophilic ; 
in fihiitiiiifog., raesophytic. 

mesophryon (me-sof'ri-on), n. [NL., < Gr. 
liea6(^pvov, < fitoo^, middle, + ixppif, eyebrow.] 
The region between the eyebrows. 

mesophyte (mes'o-fJt). «. [Gr. mcooc, middle, 
-t- (jivrov, plant.] 1. A plant which is adapted 
to live under conditions of medium moisture 
and dryness; a plant intermediate between 
the hydrophytes and the xerophytes. — 2. 
Same as mesophytum. 

mesophytic (mes-o-tit'ik), a, [mesophyte + 
-ic] Of the nature of or pertaining to meso- 

mesoplankton (mes-o-plangk ' ton), n. [Gr. 
liiani;, middle, -t- NL. plankton.] The ani- 
mals that float or swim in the water below the 
100-fathom line and above the 500-fathom line, 
considered collectively and in contrast with 
the fauna of the deep ocean and the fauna 
and flora of the surface. See *hyi)opla7ikton 
and *epiplankton. 

A. (Arachmactio) albida . . . occurred in over 61 per 

cent of epiplankton hauls, never in a meioplankton haul, 

and may fairly be taken to be a purely epiplankton fonn. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903, I. 117. 

mesoplanktonic (mes'd-plangk-ton'ik), a. 
[mesoplanktiin + -ic] Pertaining to or of the 
nature of mesoplankton. Nature, Nov. 5, 1903, 
p. 23. 

mesoplasm (mes'o-plazm), ». [Gr. ^^ooc, mid- 


die, + TrUa/ia, anything formed.] An inter- 
mediate layer between the ectoplasm and the 
endoplasm of some sporozoans. Cohn. 

mesoplastral, a. II. «. Same as mesoflastron. 

mesoplax (mes'o-plaks), 11, [NL., < Gr. peao(, 
middle, -I- 7r/af, anything flat.] In the 
Pholadidx, a family of teleodesmaceous Pele- 
cypoda, one of the accessory shelly plates, 
thus termed when situated above the beaks of 
the two valves. See also *prosoplax, *meta- 
plax, and *liypo])lax. 

mesopod (mes '0 -pod), w. Same as meso- 

mesopore (mes ' - p6r), «. [Gr. utaoQ, middle, 
-I- irdpof, pore.] In the Bryozoa, the angular 
or irregular, cells which occupy interzooecial 
spaces in some of the paleozoic genera {Mwnti- 

mesopotamic (mes " - po - tam ' ik), a, [See 
Mesopotamian.] Situated between two rivers : 
as, a mesopotamic region. 

mesopsycnic (mes-o-si'kik), a. [Gr. /liaog, 
middle, + ilrnxv, mind, + -ic] In psychol., 
belonging to the mid-period of mental devel- 
opment : opposed, on geologic analogy, to 
*paleopsychie and *cenopsychic. G. S. Hall, 
Adolescence, II. 358. 

mesopterygoid, «. 2. In ichth., a bone be- 
tween the pterygoid and metapterygoid which 
usually helps to wall in the orbital cavity be- 
hind and below. It is not infrequently aibsent. 

mesoptile (mes'op-til), n. [Gr. fieuog, middle, 
-h KTiAov, feather.] A feather of the plumage 
of nestling birds, intermediate between the 
down and the mature feather: it bears on its 
tip the down and is in turn attached at its 
base to the neossoptile : correlative with 
*teleoptile and *neossoptile. 

This so-called nestling plumage, which is always inter- 
mediate in point of time and position between the other 
two named, may be called the menoptile. 

Rep. Fur Seal Investigations, III. 424. 

mesoptycMal (mes-op-tik'i-al), a. [Gr. jiiao^, 
middle, -I- vrrif (ktvx-), fold, -I- -ial.] Relat- 
ing to the anterior middle part of the chest : 
as, the mcsojitycMal scales of lizards. 

mesorcMs (mes -6r ' kis), J!. [NL.] Same as 
mciorehium . 

mesorchium, n. 2. In ic7(<A., the tissue which 
suspends the genital gland from the dorsal 
wall of the abdominal cavity in the males. 

mesorcinol (mes-6r'si-nol), )(. [Gr. //fffof, mid- 
dle, -1- E. orcinol (?).] A colorless compound, 

1. 3. 5 
(HO)2CeH(CH3)3, prepared by the action of 
nitrous acid on aminomesitol. It sublimes in 
small lustrous plates, melts at 149-150° C. and 
boils at 274.5-275.5° C. Also called 1, 3, 5- 

mesorhinian, o. II. »'. In anthrop,, a meso- 
rliinian individual or type. 

mesorhiny (mes'o-rin-i), n. [mesorhine + -y^, ] 
In anthrop., the condition or character of be- 
ing mesorhine. 

mesorostral (mes-o-ros'tral), a. [Gr. /Ufffof, 
middle. + L. rostrum, beak, + -al^.] Pertain- 
ing to or situated upon the median line of the 
beak : specifically, referring to the beak or pro- 
longation of the head of such a cetacean as a 

mesosalpinx (mes-o-sal'pingks), n. [Qr./iiaoi, 
middle, + crd/'.mjf, trumpet.] The upper part 
of the broad ligament between the Fallopian 
tube and the ovary. > 

Mesosauri (mes-o-sa'ri), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
/ifffof, middle, + aaipoc, lizard.] An order of 
plesiosaurs established by Boulenger to eon- 
tain species having vertebrte with a persistent 
notocnord, four sacral vertebriB, and paddles 
with five fingers of not more than five phalan- 
ges each. The type genus, Mesosaurus, is 
from the Trias of South Africa. 

mesoscelocele (mes-o-sel'o-sel), n. [Gr. iiiao(, 
middle, + OKi'/.o^, leg,'-t- kI/Xtj, tumor.] Perineal 

mesosclerometer (mes'o-skle-rom'e-tfer), «. 
[Gr. fiiaoc, middle, -t- OKAj/po^, hard, -I- iitrpov, 
measure.] An instrument for testing the 
hardness of minerals by the rotation of a 
weighted needle pressed against the surface. 
See sclerometer. 

mesoseismal (mes-o-sis'mal), a, [Gr. /iiaof, 
middle, + miafidc, earthquake.] Pertaining 
to or situated in the center of intensity of an 
earthquake : as, the mesoseismal area. 

mesoseme, n. H, n. In craniom., a skull which 
exhibits mesoseme measurements. 


mesosome (mes'o-som), )i. [mcsosoma.] 1. In 
crustaceans, the pereion or thorax. Compare 
*metasome and urosomc. — 2, Same as meso- 

mesospOTO, «■ 2. A nnicellnlar teleutospore 
which occurs in certain species of /'«(•«««(, as 
P. <)fe('»r<(, 1'. Scirpi, etc., associated with the 
ordinary two-celled form. 

mesostasis (me-sos'ta-sis), n. [6r. //^oof, mid- 
dle, + crdai^, a placing.] 1. In petrog., same 
as base-, 8. 

These nn-ks (dolerites of the Western Isles of Scotland 
and of Iceland] . . . are described as jTOSsessing "inter- 
sertal structnre," a structure characterized, according to 
the definition ... by the presence of a hypiKjryst^lline 
interstitial substance {mesostatds) wedjjed in between the 
feldspars. yature, March 1.^ 1K88, p. 459. 

2. In phytogeog., the condition of being meso- 

meSOStatiC (mes-o-stat'ik), a. [Gr. /lem^, 
middle, + ara-iKd^, causing to stand.] 1. In 
petrog., of or pertaining to mesostasis. — 
2. In phytogeog., having place under essen- 
tially uniform conditions of medium mois- 
ture: said of a succession of vegetations. 
F. E. Clements. 

mesosternite (mes-o-stfer'nit), n. [Gr. ftiaoi;, 
middle, + E. sterniie.'] Same as mesosternal 
sternite. See mesosternal. 

meSOStheniC (mes-os-then'ik), a. [Gr. /daoc, 
middle, + adcvof, strength, -t- -tc] 1. Of ordi- 
nary or medium strength. — 2. Strong in the 
median or middle part. 

Mesostoma (me-sos'to-ma), n. [NL.] Same 
as *Mef^ostomHm. 

Mesostomatidae (mes"9-sto-mat'i-de), n. pi. 
Same as *i[et<osto7nidse. 

Mesostomidse (mes-o-stom'i-de), ?!,;)?. [NTi., 
< ilesostomum + -klk.'] A family of fresh- 
water and marine rhahdocoelous turbellarians, 
having o;ie or two generative openings and a 
rosette-shaped, ventrally placed pharynx. It 
includes several genera, among them being 
3Iesostomum, Casirada, and Promesostomnm. 

Mesostomuiu {me-sos'to-mum),«. [NL.,<Gr. 
iifooc, middle, -I- ardua, mouth.] 
The typical genus of the family 
Mesostomiflm. Also Mesostoma. 

mesostyle (mes'o-stil), n. [Gr. 
fiiao', middle, + arhAoi, pillar.] 
1, In bot., a style of intermedi- 
ate length, as in trimorphio 
plants. Compare *»iefe(s(.i/;e and 
*parnstyle. — 2. In anat., the 
median one of the three enamel- 
covered ridges on the outer side 
of the molar tooth of a horse : 
correlated with *parastiile and 

Microchoerus in all probability comes 
in the same group, and when more fully 
known should furnish a closer approxi- 
mation to the Indrisinai than Necrole- 
mur, on account of the development of 
a inem«tyle in the upper molars. 
Amer. Jour. Sci., March, 1904, p. 214. 











entary Canal 
and Nervous Sys. 
tein of Mtsosto- 

meSOSyStOllC (mes"o-SlS-torik), (alter Gratn. 

(I, the two cere- 

trunks ; c, alimen- 
tary canal with 
mouth and pha- 

a. [Gr. uiaoc, middle, + E. sys ^ 
to/io.] Occurring in the middle two fye"-fpotsT'(>, 
of the systole. N. E. D. !""'_,'J?"'"'.,';^"^- 

mesotarsal (mes-o-tiir'sal), a. 
[NL. mesotars{us) -i- -al^.] Re- 
lating to the median horizontal 
line of the tarsus; pertaining to the metatar- 
sus. Parker and Haswell, Zoolosjy, II. 366. 
—Mesotarsal joint, a joint or articulation in the me- 
dian horizontal plane of the tarsus, such as the ankle-joint 
of birds and reptiles, in which the joint is between the 
bones of the tarsus and not between the tibia antl the 

mesotartaric (mes'o-tiir-tar'ik), a. [Gr. fiiao^, 
middle, + E. tartaric^.'] Noting an acid, a 
colorless optically inactive compound, HOOC- 
CH(OH).CH(OH)COOH.H20, prepared by 
the prolonged boiling of d-tartario acid with 
water or hydrochloric acid, it crystallizes in 
rectangular pla'tcs and melts at 140-143" C. The compound 
can not be resolved into optically active isomers, and its 
lack of activity is consequently regarded as being intra- 
molecular, the one asymmetric carbon atom exactly neu- 
tiutizing the other. See ■kmego/orm. 

mesotendon (mes-o-ten'don), n. [Gr. fj^no^, 
middle. + L. tcndn, tendon.] The synovial 
fold which connects a tendon and its sheath. 

mesotheca (mes-o-the'ka\ n. ; pi. mesothecte 
(-se). [Or. /ilmi:, middle, + 67/kti, case.] The 
middle one of the three laminea of the peri- 
gonium in Htjdrozoa. JV. E. D. 

mesotheciam (mes-6-the'si-um), n. ; pi. meso- 


thecia (-a). [Gr. //^(rof, middle, + NL. thecium.'] 
1. The middle layer of cells in the wall of an 
anther. — 2. The thecium of lichens. Jackson, 
Gloss. Bot. Terms. 

mesothennal(mes-o-th^r'mal), «. [Gr. ijho(, 
niiildle, + Oipiij], heat, + -«/!.] Relating to or 
exhibiting a moderate temperature or quantity 
of heat. 

mesothennic (mes - o - ther ' mik), a. [meso- 
therm + -jc] Having the character of a 
mesotherm ; composed of or characterized by 

The most important family of the north temperate zone 
among the Polycal'picae, that of tlie Ranunculaceaj, is 
mesothermic and microthermic. 

A. F. W. Schimper (trans.), Plant-Geog., p. 236. 

mesothet (mes'o-thet), n. [Gr. /ilao(, middle, 
-I- derdv (neuter), placed. See thesin.'] A 
middle or intermediate term or thing. See 
mesothesis. [Rare.] 

Mackaye sat in his usual place . . . while opposite to 
him was Fanner Porter. . . . A curious pair of ' poles ' the 
two made ; the mesothet whereof, by no means a ' punctum 
indifferens,' but a true connecting spiritual idea, stood on 
the table — in the whisky l)ottle. 

Kinffgley, Alton Locke, xxi. 

mesothetic (mes-o-thet'ik), a. [mesothesis.'] 
Of the nature of mesothesis ; intermediate; 
serving to connect extremes or opposites. 

An honest development of the true idea of Protestantism, 
which is paving the way to the mesothetic art of the 
future. Kingsley, Yeast, xv. N. E. D. 

mesothorium (mes-o-tho'ri-um), n. [Gr. /;fCTof, 
miuaie, + NL. thorium.] A disintegration- 
product of thorium, intermediate between 
thorium and radiotlioriiim. 

These preparations must contain the intermediate 
product between thorium and radiothorium. He (Dr. 
Otto Hahn} therefore reaches the conclusion that it is this 
intermediate product, for which he suggests the name 
*' m^sothoHum-" and not the radiothorium, which is 
separated from the thorium in the technical process of 
preparing pure thorium nitrate. B. B. Boltwood, in 
Amer. Jonr. Sci., Aug., 1907, p. 96. 

mesotonic (mes-o-ton'ik), a. [Gr. fzemc, mid- 
dle, + E. tome. See tojicl.] Of the nature of 
or characterized by middle or mean tones. 
See mean *tone and temperament, 5. 

This is known as the System of Mean Tones, or the 
Mesotonic System, as it will be here termed. It was the 
earliest system of temperament, and is claimed by Zarlino 
and Salinas. 

A. J. Ellis, in Proc Roy. Soc. (LondonX XIIL 408. 

mesotriaBne (mes-o-tri'en), re. [Gr. iican^, 
middle, + rpiaiva, trident.] In the nomen- 
clature of the spicular elements of sponges, 
a trisene in which the rhabdome is produced, 
leaving the three cladisks near the middle of 
the shaft. See trieene. 

mesotroch (mes'o-trok), n. [Gr. ixeaoc, equal, 
+ T/rnxog, a wheel.] A band of cells bearing 
cilia and encircling the middle of the body in 
the larvBB of certain marine worms (annelids). 
Compare *prototroch, *paratroch, etc. 

mesotropic (mes - o - trop ' ik). a. [Gr. /lem^, 
middle, + -rpoiro^, < rptTveiv, turn, + -ic.] In 
phytogeog., controlled by conditions changing 
from wet or dry to medium : said of a succes- 
sion of vegetations. F. E. Clements. 

mesotropy (me-sot'ro-pi), n. [mesotrop(ic) 
+ -y3.] The character or condition of being 

mesoturbinaKmes-o-tfer'bi-nal), «. [Gr.//f(T0f, 
middle, + E. turbinal.] The middle turbinate 

meso-uterine (mes-o-ti'te-rin), a. [Gr. ficaog, 
middle, + E. uterine.] Pertaining to the 
middle of the uterus: applied to the fold of 
peritoneum which supports the uterus. 

mesoxalyl (mes-ok'sa-lil), n. lmesoxal{ic) 4- 
-yl.] In organic chem., the bivalent radical 
-COCO.CO- or its hydrated form -C0C(0H)2- 
C0-. It is the radical of mesoxalio acid. 

mesquite^, « — Bristly mesquite, one of the black 

gramas, Bouteloua hirsuta, ranging from Illinois and Wis- 
consin to the Kocky Moimtains. It is a tufted perennial, 
from 6 to 16 inches high, naine<l from its hairy spikes. 
It is valuable chiefly because it will produce feed on 
very poor soils. — Curly or creeping mesquite, Hilaria 
cenchroides, a delicate peremiial glass witli slender, creep- 
ing stems and upright shoots a few inches to nearly a foot 
high. It is one of the most valuable grasses for grazing 
on the dry plains and mesas in the southwestern United 
States. It forms a close mat in summer, cures on the 
r(K)t.s, and when not rotted by late niins affords excellent 
pasture in the f.all and winter. During severe drought it 
appears dead, butquickly revives tlironghout upon the ad- 
vent of warm rains. — Early mesquite, the true buffalo- 
grass, Bulhilis dacii/loidt's. — Grape-vine mesquite. 
Same as vine-'km*'mnite. — Hairy mesquite. Same as 
*m(fe-o«/*. — Running mesquite. same as curly -kmcs- 
oin(c. — Seed-mesqulte, BoutHoua Texana, a small, 
densely tufted grass found in Texas, Oklahoma, and .\r. 


kansas. It is an important grass in stock-ranges, chiefly 
along the Rio Grande. Also called Texas grama.— ifel- 
vet-mesquite. Same as velvet-grass. See Uolcus. — 
Vine-meaquite, Panicum obtusum, a stoloniferoos with upright stems 1-2 feet higil and run- 
ners often 8 or 10 feet long. It ranges from Colorado 
and Texas into Mexico, being found chiefly on irrigated 
ground or on damp soil, most often in shade. Its char- 
acter indicates agricultural value. .Sometimes called 
grape-vine mesquite or grass, and in New Mexico m're- 

mess^, re — Chief Master-at-arms' mess, the chief 
petty officers' mess, jnesided over by the master-at-arms, 
the highest chief petty otticer of a naval vessel. — Orderly 
sergeants' mess, the marines' mess for the sergeants 
and other non-conmiissioned officers of the marine guard. 
— Steerage mess, the midshipmen's mess-— Ward- 
room mess, the commissioned officers' mess ; generally 
for those above the rank of ensign.— Warrant-Offloers* 
mess, the mess of the boatswain, gunner, carpenter, sail- 
maker, and waiTant machinists. 

message-hook (mes'aj-hiik), re. A wire hook 
upon which are filed the sheets of paper on 
which telegraphic messages have been written. 

message-rate (mes'aj-rat), «. A fixed rate of 
payment per message sent by telephone, as 
distingushed from a subscription entitling to 
unlimited service. N. E. D. 

message-stick (mes'aj-stik), n. A stick bear- 
ing carved marks, carried by a messenger. 
The marks serve as reminders and are a device 
for securing the accurate delivery of the mes- 
sage. Message-sticks are used particularly in 

message-string (mes'aj-string), n. A knotted 
string to which a number of symbolic objects 
are attached : used to convey messages from 
one person or tribe to another, and found, for 
instance, among the Jebu tribe in Africa. 
See also *Ano(-«-r)fi«5r. Eatzel (trans.). Hist, 
of Mankind, II. 406. 

mess-beef (mes'bef), n. Beef packed in bar- 
rels for use on board ship. 

mess-boy (mes'boi), n. Naut., the one who 
waits on the officers' table on a merchant 

messel'' (mes'el), n. In Arabic music, a^vaefhoA. 
or system of fixing and measuring intervals 
which involves their description in terms de- 
rived by dividing the vibration-number of the 
lower tone by that of the higher: thus, the 
messel of an octave was 2, of a fifth 1^, etc. 
It is supposed that the messel theorists, by at 
least the fourteenth century, had established 
the modern thirds and sixths as distinguished 
from those of the Pythagorean system. 

messenger, «.— To fleet the messenijer. See*/fef(i. 

messenger-rope (mes'en-jer-rop), n. 1. In 
power-transmission, a rope-drive for operating 
a drum or machine. — 2. A rope used to sup- 
port guide-sheaves. 

messenger-strand (mes'en-jfer-strand), n. A 
strand in a messenger-wire or a single wire 
used to support a cable. 

messenger-'Wire (mes'en-j^r-wir), n. A wire 
or wire rope used to support an aerial cable. 
The cable is attached to the messenger-wire 
at frequent intervals by cable-clips. 

Messianism (me-si'an-izm), n. \^Messian(ic) 
+ -ism.] Belief in a Messiah. 

messieurs. Plural of monsieur. 

Messinese (mes-i-nes'), a. and n. [Messina, a 
city in Italy, -f- -ese.] I. a. Of or pertaining 
to Messina. 
II. «. An inhabitant of Messina. 

Messinian (me-sin'i-an), a. and ii. [Messina, 
a city in Italy, + -iati.] I. a. Of or pertain- 
ing to Messina; in geol., noting a division of 
the Tertiary in Italy commonly regarded as ap- 
pertaining to the base of the Pliocene, though 
by some authors considered as the top of the 
Miocene. It is constituted of deposits indi- 
cating alternations of marine and brackish- 
water conditions. 

II. re. 1. An inhabitant of Messina. — 2. 
In gcoL, the Messinian formation. 

messire (me-ser'), n. [F., < L. meus senior. 
See monsieur.] Sir: a French title of honor 

Erefixed originally to the names of persons of 
igh rank, but later used more loosely as a form 
of address. 

mess-kid (mes'kid), re. Same as kid^, 1. 

mess-man (mes'man), n. Same as *mess-boy. 

Messrs, An abbreviation of the French Mes- 

mess-'whistle (mes'liwis^'l), ». ..Ynw^., the pipe 
to meals : the winding of the boatswain's call 
as <a summons to meals. 

mestiza (mes-te'za), n. Feminine of mestizo. 

Mestizo ■wool. See *!roo;. 


mesto (mas 'to), a. [It., < L. meeslus, sad, < 
msreir, be sad".] In munk; sad, gloomy. 

mesiiranema (mes-u-ran'e-ma), «. [NL., also 
mesouraiiema, < Gr. /isao(, middle, + ovpavoc, 
heaven.] In astrol., mid-beaven; the tenth 
house of the heavens, beiugthematernal house, 
or house of dignities. 

mesuranic (mes-u-ran'ik), a. [Gr. /ieao(, mid- 
dle, + oiipavof, palate, + -if.] In craniom., 
having a palatomaxillary Index between 110 
and 11.1. Turner. 

met. An abbreviation (n) of metaphor, meta- 
jihorkal, meUtphoricalbj ; (b) of metaphysical, 
metaphysically, metaphysics; (c) of metro- 

met-. A combining form sometimes used in 
organic chemistry in place of meta-. 

meta-. (fO '" inorganic ckem., among the different 
tyj)e3 of periodic, pliospliorio, »i-seniuus, arsenic, Iwracic, 
and silicic acids, a prefix used in the name of that which 
contains the least proportion of hydrogen, (e) As a 
prefix to the names of benzene derivations, it signifies 
that atoms or radicals substituting two, three, or four of 
the hydrogen atoms of benzene have the positions (if all 
six hydrogen atoms of the original benzene be numbered 
consecutively from 1 to «) 1 and 3, 1, 2, and 4, or 1, 2, 3, 
and 5, respectively. This arrangement is spoken of as 
asymmetric. Infieol., it is used to denote change, transfor- 
mation, or metamorphism, but differently in different in- 
stances. In one case the rock-name to which it is prefixed 
acc^trds with the present character of the rock, and the pre- 
fix mfta- indicates that it has been developed by processes 
of metamorphism ; as, ineta-diorite, a diorite which 
has resulted from metamorphism, possibly of a gabhro. 
In another case the rock name descrn>es the rock as it 
wiis before metamorphism : as, meta-diabase, for au 
altered di;lh:ise. 

meta-andesite (met-a-an'de-zit), n. An 
altered or partly metamorphosed andesite. 
Much of the lava contains porphjTitic quartz, and in 
general may he designated metarhyolite, but a large 
part, being without free quartz and less Bilice<^)Us, has 
the appearance of inefaandeirite. A peculiarity of many 
of the-se nx-ks is that they are rich in s^nla. 

Conlrih. to Knn. GeiA., I". S. C.eol. Surv., 1902, p. 124. 

meta-arthritic (mefa-ar-thrit'ik), a. [Gr. 
ufrij, after, -H V,. arthritic.'] Consequent upon 
arthritis as an effect. 

metabasalt (mefa-ba-salf), n. An altered 
or partly metamorphosed basalt. Amcr. Jour. 
Sci., Feb., 1904, p. 14.5. 

metabelian (met-a-be'li-an), «. [Gr. /ifTii, 
with, + E. ,-l/«7«(»^!] In moW(., noting a group 
wliose oogredient group of isomorphisms is 

metabiosis (mefa-bi-o'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
//frri, with, + iHioaic, a way of life.] The de- 
pendence of an organism upon another which 
furnishes something that is necessary for its 

metabiotic (met'a-bi-ot'ik), a. [metabiosis 
{-ot-) + -If".] In ftio?., dependent upon another 
for some condition of existence. See *meta- 

metabole (me-tab'6-le), n. [Gr. lurafiofJi, 
changing, change, i fiera,3a?./.eiv, turn about, 
change.] Development with metamorphosis, 
such as characterizes many insects : contrasted 
y!]th*anietabole, or development without meta- 

metabolin (me-tab'o-lin), «. [metabol(ic) + 
-in-.] Same as metabolite. 

metabolizable (me-tab'o-li-za-bl), a. [metabo- 
lize + -ahlf.] Capable of metabolic transfor- 
mation : said of foods received into the animal 
system. See metabolism. 

metabolon (me-tab'o-lon), «.; pi. mctabola 
(-la). [Gr. ii!Ta:i6?j)v, lieut. of /«Ta/3d/.of, change- 
able, < iierajia/.'>£iv, turn about, change.] A 
temporary and transitional form of matter 
produced by the disintegration of radioactive 
substances such as thorium or radium. The 
metabolon dilTera from a chemical element in 
having only a temporary existence. 

The various m^tabolons from the radio-elements are 
distinguished from ordinary matter by their great in- 
stability and consequent nipid rate of change. 

E. liulherfurd, Radio-activity, p. 324. 

metacantllid (met-a-kan'thid), n. and a. I. n. 
A member of the fieteropterous family Meta- 

II. a. Havifig the characters of, or belong- 
ing to, the farnUy Metacanthidse. 

metacarpal. I. ^.— Metacarpal ligament, pha- 
lanx See *litjnmen1, ■kphaOinjr. 

II. «. 2. One of the six primary feathers of 
a bird's wing which are attached to the meta- 
carpal bones. 
metacarpodi^tal (met-a-kilr-po-<lij'i-tal), n. 
One of the primaries of a bird's wing : the term 
was devised by Wray, who divided the prima- 


ries into digitals, those attached directly to the 
digits, and metacarpals, those joined to the 

metacarpophalanz (met-a-kar-po-fa'langks), 
«.; i>l.metacarpophalanges'{-(a,-lsin'jez). [NL., 
< metacarpus, 2, -I- phalanx.~\ A pectoral ray; 
one of the rays of the pectoral fin in fislies. 
Starks, Synonymy of the Fish Skeleton, p. 523. 

metacarpus, ». 2. Same as actinost. Starks, 
Sytionymy of the Fish Skeleton, p. 523. 

metacasein (met-a-ka'sf-iu), «. [meta- + 
ca^iein.] A certain phase in the rennin reac- 
tion (coagulation of milk), during which the 
paracasein is precipitated only by higher tem- 

metacenter, ». 2. In biol., an organism or an 
organ which, while one of the descendants 
from an archetyjie, itself becomes anew arche- 
type around which new divergent or apocen- 
tric modifications are produced. 

With reference to any particular group of forms such a 

new centre of modification may be termed a metacentre. 

Encyc. Brit, XXVIII. 343. 

Curve of metacenters or transverse metacenters. 

See iri'tirrrn ,,/ ship calculnttonx. 

metacentral (met-a-seu'tral), a. Same as 
metacentric. Trans. LinneanSoc. London, Zool., 
Oct., 1901, p. 229. 

metacentric, a. 2. In biol., pertaining to a 
new center around which new diverging modi- 
fications are produced. P. C. Mitchell Meta- 
centric diagram, in naval arc/i., a diagram showing 
the curves of metacenters and of centers of buoyancy in a 
conventional method. See cut and description under 
ircurveg of ship calculations. — Metacentric height. 
See *hei(/ht. 

metacentricity (met"a-sen-tris'i-ti), n. [meta- 
centric + -If.'/.] The property of being meta- 
centric, in either sense of that word. 

metacerium (met-a-se'ri-um), n. [NL., < Gr. 
ftrd, with, + NL. cerium.] A supposed new 
chemical element announced by Brauner as 
probably present as an oxid mixed with oxid 
of cerium. No confirmation of its existence 
has been had. 

metacestode (met-a-ses'tod), n. [Gr. uerd, 
after, implying change, + E. cestode.j A 
sexless, encysted 
stage of certain 
tapeworms, as 
If imperfectly 
cooked fish in- 
fested with the 
parasite in this 
stage is eaten by 
man, the meta- 
cestode develops 
into the mature 
tapeworm. Also 
called pleroces- 

metacbemlc (met-a-kem'ik), a. [Gr. fieri, be- 
yond, -I- E. chemic".] 1. Of or pertaining to 
metaeheiui.stry ; metachemieal. — 2. Jn petrog., 
noting changes in the chemical constitution 
of rocks ; metasomatic. Dana, 1886. 

In none of the specimens studied was there any 
schistosity, so that the alteration has been metachemic. 
22i( An. Hep. U. S. Oeol. Sttrt>., ii. 793. 

metachemieal (tnet-a-kem'i-kal), a. [Gr. /lerd, 
after, -I- E. chemical.) Transcending chem- 
istry; standing beyond the bounds of true 
chemistry : metachemic. 

What Mendel^ef denominates the metachemieal and 
vague ('verschwonmiene ') theory of electrons. 

Science, March 4, 1904, p. 395, 

Metachlamydeae (mefa-kla-mid'e-e), n. pi. 
[XL. (Engler, 1898), <" Gr. picTO, after, H- 
X?^a/ii^ (x'/Muvi^-), cloak, envelop, -t- -ew.] A 
series of dicotyledonous plants, embracing all 
those having a double floral envelop (calyx 
and corolla), with the parts of the inner en- 
velop (corolla) coherent. Although coextensive 
with the *Siimpetnlie (wliich see), it is not to be con- 
founded with that (which is a division) and is coordinate 
with the series * Archichlamydeie (which see). The 

Klants of this series appeared latiT in the geological 
istory of plants and possess a higher organization than 
those of the .i rehichlnmydeie. 

metachlamydeOUS (met"a-kla-mid'e-us), a. 
[MctaihUimyilciC + -ous,] ' Belonging to the 
plant series Metachlann/dcsp; having the divi- 
sions of tlie corolla coliorent. 

metachlorite (mct-a-kl6 'rit), n. [meta- + 
chlorite] A dull leek -green ohioritio mineral, 
related to daphnite. 

metacliromasy (met-a-kro'ma-si), n. [Gr. 
//f-rt, with, after, -I- ;t'ptj/ia, color.] An anoma- 
lous manner of staining, whereby a single 

Metacestode of Bothriocethalui en- 
cysted in the smelt (after Leuckart). 
(i-rom Lankester's "Zooloify.") 


stain will color different tissue elements in 
different tints or in altogetherdifferent colors : 
a term introduced by Ehrlich. Not all dyes 
have metachromatic properties. The most 
notable ones are methyl-violet, thionin,methyl- 
ene-azure, cresyl violet RE, and toluidin blue. 
The cells which contain granules contain also a store of 
ferment (zymogen), whilst the cells that are destitute of 
granules exhibitthe reaction of mucin (mefacAroma*!/). 
Lancet, July 18, 1903, p." 177. 

metachromatic (met"a-kro-mat'ik), a. [Gr. 
//£ra, beyond, +;{'ptj//a (;i-pw//ar-), color, + -ic] 
1. Pertaining to or characterized by meta- 
chromatism or color-change. — 2. Pertaining to 
or exhibiting metaehromasy; metachromie. — 
Metachromatic bodies, granules in the interior of cer- 
tain bacteria which take on a different stain from the rest 
of the cell ; metachromie granules. 

metachromatism(met-a-kr6'ma-tizm), n. [Gr. 
\itTu., after, + ;fp(j//o(r-), color, + -%sm.\ Change 
of color; specifieallj-, variation of color due to 
changes in the temperature of a body ; change 
of color by change of i>hysical conditions, 
as in the case of a double salt con.sisting of 
silver chlorid and mercuric iodide, which 
changes from yellow to red on being heated 
and returns to yellow after cooling. 

metachromatosis (met-a-krd-ma-to'sis), «. 
[Gr. (izja, alter, + ;);-pai/ic(r-), color, -I- -osis.] 
An alteration in color. 

metachrome (met'a-krom), n. [See *meta- 
chromatic] A body or substance that changes 

metachromie (met-a-kro'mik), a. [Gr. fierli, 
after, -I- xp"/'a, color, -f- -ic] 1. Staining in 
a color different from that of the dye used — 
for example, red with a blue or violet dye; 
metachromatic. — 2. Differentiated by means 
of special stains : applied to granules and other 
contents of the cell.— MetJichromie granules, 
in bacterial., minute bodies within the protoplasm of 
bacteria which are brought out by special staining 
methods ; metaclu-omatic Iwdies. 

metachromism (met-a-kro ' mizm), n. 1. 
Same as *metachromatism . — 2. Same as *meta- 
ch romasy. 

Metacineta (met'a-si-ne'ta), n. [NL., < Gr. 
/terd, after, + KivT/rdf, < klveIv, move.] The 
typical and only genus of the family Meta- 
cinetidm. Biitschli, 1888. 

Metacinetidse (met "a-si-nef i-de), n. pi. 
[.Metacineta + -idie.] " A family of Suctoria, 
consisting ot thecate forms having the base of 
the cup drawn otit into a long stalk and the 
walls perforated for the exit of the tentacles. 
It contains the single genus Metacineta. 

metacinnamene (met-a-sin'a-men), ■». [mcta- 
+ cinnamene.] Same as *metastyrolene. 

metacneme (met'ak-nem), n. [Gr. /iET<i, after, 
-t- Kvr/iiri, tibia.] In anthozoans, one of the 
later mesenteries which appear after the 
twelve primary mesenteries. Compare *pro- 

metacnemic (met-ak-ne'mik), a. [metacneme 
+ -ic] Eesembling, or pertaining to, a 
metacneme. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
May, 1902, p. 397. 

metacoele, ". 2. The trunk-cavity formed as 
a pair of entodermal outgrowths in the Semi- 

And a metaccele (trunk cavity), formed as a pair of 
endoilermal outgrowths, which may possibly have been 
originally archenteric diverticula. 

Encyc. Brit., XXIX. 249. 

metacoeloma (met-a-se-lo'mii), n. ; pi. meta- 
coelomata (-ma-tii). " [NL., < Gr. /'era, after, + 
Koi/M/ia, a hollow'!] In embryol., that portion of 
the true body-cavity, or coeloma, which be- 
comes the pleuroperitoneal cavity of the adult. 

metaconal (met-a-ko'nal), a. [metacone + 
-rt/i.] Of or pertaining to the metacone. 
I'roc. Zool. Soc. London, 1896, p. 570. 

metacone (met'a-kon), n. [Gr. /if TO, after, 
+ /vui'of, cone.] The outer, hindmost cusp on 
the upper molar of such a tooth as that of a 
horse or horse-like matnmal. See cut under 
*tooth, 1. Parker and Haswell, Zoology, II. 529. 

metaconid (met - a - kon ' id), «. [metacone + 
-id.] The anterior or intermediate cusp on 
the inner side of a lower molar of a mammal : 
typically present in the teeth ot the extinct 
Byracotherium and in existing monkeys. 

Treating them for the present as subspecies, the animal 
I should call H. a. leucurus has the txjoth small and nar- 
row . . ., low . . ., and simple, the antero-intetnal cusp 
not or scarcely divided into its constituent paraconid and 
metaconid, . . . and with butone lowcusp on the centre 
of the talon. 

Aniials and May. Nat. Hist., June, 1004, p. 409. 


anetaconule (met-a-kon'ul), n. [Gr. ftera, 
with, + E. conule.'] The posterior smaller or 
intermediate cusp on the upper molar tooth of 
a mammal. See cut under *toot)i, 1. Amer. 
Geol.. April. 1905, p. 244. 

metacopaivic (met-a-ko-pa'vik), a. [Gr. fera, 
with. + E. copaira + -ic.l Noting a crystal- 
line acid. C0.2H34O4, contained in Maracaibo 
copaiva balsam. It is possibly identical with 
giirjtinic acid. 

metacoracoid(met-a-kor'a-lioid), n. rGr./^frd, 
with, + E. coracoid.] Ifhe coracoid proper, 
as distinguished from the epicoracoid. 

Similarly the doubly ossified condition of the coracoid 
may now be held diagnostic, for it is known that the 
epieoracoidal element, originally thought to characterize 
the niunotremes alone, is always present, and that reduc- 
tion to a varying degree characterizes the vietacoracoidy 
which retires, as in man, as the so-called coracoid epiphysis. 
Smithsonian Rep., 1902, p. 588. 

jnetacrasis (met - a -kra ' sis), «. [Gr. /^fra, 
after, + updmc, mingling.] 1. Kinetic metab- 
olism ; transmutation of energy. Jackson, 
Gloss. Bot. Terms. — 2. In geol., that variety 
of metamorphism which involves the recrys- 
tallization of old materials into new com- 
pounds Avithout the necessary addition of new 
matter : thus, shales may be changed to mica 
schists. Geikie, Text-book of Geol., p. 765. 

metacresol-anytol (met - a - kre'sol-an"i-tol), 
n. A 40-per-eent. solution of metacresol in 
anytol : used in erisypelas. 

metacribnun (met-a-krib'rum), n. [Gr. /"frd, 
with, + L. cribrum, a sieve.] The outermost 
of the three main side sacs arising from the 
embryonic cribrum. See*»iesocribrum. Jour. 
Soy. 'Micros. Soe., Feb., 1905, p. 42. 

metacrisis (me-tak'ri-sis), n. [Gr. fierd, after, 
-I- npiai;, a separating.] Injietroff., a term 
introduced by Bonney (1886) to signify recom- 
bination or a change, such as the conversion 
of a mud into a mass of quartz with mica and 
other silicates. 

metacrolein (met-a-kro ' le-in), n. Imeta- + 
acrolein.'] A colorless crystalline compound, 
(C3H40)3, prepared by the action of sodium 
hydroxid on /3-ehlorpropionie aldehyde. It has 
a highly offensive odor and melts at 50° C. 

metacrystal (met-a-kris'tal), n. [Gr. fiera, 
after, + E. crystal.'} A relatively large crys- 
tal, simulating the phenocrysts of eruptive 
rocks, but formed in both sediments and 
eruptives during metamorphism. Examples 
are garnets and staurolite in schists ; andalu- 
site in contact-zones; etc. A. C. Lane, in 
Bulletin Geol. Soc. Amer., XIV. 388. 

metacyclic, a. 2. Solvable by radicals: as, 
a mi-turyclic equation. See *eqiiation. 

metacyesis (met"a-s5-e'sis), n. [Gr. /lerd, after, 
-I- nir/oic, gestation.] Ectopic gestation in 
which the embryo, at first in the uterus, is car- 
ried to some outside part where it undergoes 
further development. 

metadesmine (met-a-des'min), n. [meta- + 
ilcxiiiiiie.'i A more or less completely dehy- 
drated stilbite (desmine). 

metadiabase (met-a-di 'a-bas), n. [meta- + 
diabases] Same a.8 epidiorite. 

metadiazin (mefa-di-az'in), ». [meta- + 
diociji.j Same as *pyrimidine. 

metadiorite (met-a-di'o-rit), n. [meta- + 
diorite.} In petroij., a ptaneric rock, having 
the composition of diorite, which has been pro- 
duced by the alteration or metamorphism of 
another rock, most frequently by the altera- 
tion of pyroxene to hornblende. Dana. 

metadiscoidal (met"a-dis-koi'dal), a. [Gr. 
/if TO, after, -I- E. discoid + -aA.] ' In cmbryol., 
noting the placenta of certain mammals such 
as the primates (man and apes), in which the 
villi are restricted to a disk-shaped chorionic 
area on the ventral side of the embryo. Par- 
ker and Hasicell, Zoology, II. 562. 

meta-element (met ' a -el " f - ment), n. [Gr. 
fierd, after, -f- E. element.'] 'In chem., a term 
suggested by Sir William Crookes for the very 
similar but in some respects different com- 
ponents into which crude yttrium seems to 
split up on oft-repeated fractional crystalliza- 
tion of its salts. He connected these supposed 
analogues of closely related organic radicals 
with his ideas as to the genesis of the generally 
recognized elements of chemistry from a sin- 
gle primitive form of matter. 

metafysics, ». An amended spelling of meia- 



metagabbro (met-argab'ro), n. [Gr. /ierd, after, 
+ E. gabbro.'] An altered or partly metamor- 
phosed gabbro. Amer. Jour. Set., Feb., 1904, 
p. 145. 

metagadolinite (met-a-gad'o-lin-it), n. [Gr. 
fitra. after. + E. gadolinitc.] An uncertain 
alteration-product of gadoliuite. 

metagallic (met-ii-gal'ik), a. Imeta- + gallic^.'] 
Same as *melanoyallic. 

Metagene (met'a-jen), a. and n. [Gr. fierd, 
after, -t- -jci'w, -producing.] In geol., a term 
suggested by Heilprin (1887) as an equivalent 
of Miocene. 

metageometer (met"a-je-om'e-t6r), n. Imeta- 
geomcfry, after geometer.'] One who is skilled 
in metageometry. 

metageometrical (mefa-je-o-met'ri-kal), a. 
[metageometry + -ic-al.] Of or pertaining to 

metageometrlcian (met"a-je-om-e-trish'an), 
n. [inetageometric + -ian!] Same as *meta- 

Our metageometriciang tried to derive the basic geo- 
metrical principles from pure reason but failed. 

Science, Jan. 16, 1903, p. 106. 

metageometry (met"a-ge-om'e-tri), n. [Gr. 
//fro, after, + E. • geometry. Compare meta- 
physics.] A system of geometry wnich omits 
or reverses some one or more of the explicit 
or implicit postulates of ordinary geometry, 
such as that space has but three dimensions, 
that all points of space have like neighboring 
places, that everjf pair of unbounded straight 
lines which are in one plane and do not cut 
one another at a finite distance cut one another 
at infinity, etc. See *non-Jiuclidean. 

The titthhook o( Metaffeometry. . . . M. Barbarin calls 
fifth book of 'Metageometry' that which corresponds to 
the fifth book of the * Elements of Legendre ' or to the 
eleventh of Euclid. Science, Sept 16, 1904, p. 364. 

metaglobulin (met-a-glob'u-lin), n. [meta- 
+ globulin.] Same a,s fibrinogen. 

Metagnatha (me-tag'na-tha), n. pi. [NL., < 
Gr. |Ufra, after, -(- yvddoc, jaw.] In Brauer's 
classification of insects, a group of superordi- 
nal rank including those forms which take 
their food by means of jaws when young, but 
by suction when adult. 

metagnatbous, a. 2. Of or pertaining to the 

meta^ram (met'a-gram), M. [Gr. /lerd, over, 
-I- ypdfi/ia, a letter.] A word altered by re- 
moving some of its letters and substituting 

metagraph (met'a-graf), n. [Gr. /lerd, be- 
tween, + ypd<t>etv, write.] In craniom., an in- 
strument used for drawing diagrams of the 
inner form of the skull. 

metagraphic (met-a-graf 'ik), a. [metagraph(y) 
+ -ie.] 1. Of the nature of metagraphy; trans- 
literative. — 2. Pertaining to, or drawn by 
means of, the metagraph. 

metagrobolism (met-a-grob'o-lizm), n. [meta- 
grobol{ize) + -ism).] " The act of puzzling; 
mystification. [Humorous.] 

By whose [the mendicant friars' and Jacobins' ] gyrono- 
momic circumbilivaginations, as by two celivagous fllo- 
pendulums, all the autonomatic vietanrobolism of the 
Romish church, when tottering and emblustricated with 
the gibble gabble gibberish of this odious error and 
heresy, is homocentrically poised. 

Rabelais (trans.), iik 38. 

metagrobolize (met-a-grob'o-liz), V. t. ; pret. 
and pp. mctagrobolizcd, ppr." mctagrobolizing. 
[F. metagraboulizer (Rabelais), to puzzle (Cot- 
grave).] To puzzle; puzzle out. [Humorous.] 
Ha, ha, a pair of breeches is not so easily got ; I have 
experience of it myself. Consider, Domine, I have been 
these eighteen days in matagraholising this brave speech. 
Rabelais (trans.), i. 158. 
I find my brains altogether metagrabolized and con- 
founded, and my spirits in a most dunsical puzzle. 

Rabelais (trans.), iii. 59. 
"You see," quoth .Stalky, as they strolled up to prep. 

with the ignoble herd, " if you get the houses well mixed 

up an' scuiflin', it "s even bettin' that some ass will start 

a real row. Hullo, Orrin, you look rather vietagrobolized. " 
k. Kipling, Stalky & Co., p. 124. 

metakinesis (met-'a-ki-ne'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
Iitrd, after, -t- Kivrjan;, motion.] 1. Same as 

Heuser('84) seems to have been the first to call atten- 
tion to the double character of the daughter chromosomes 
in the diaster stage of Tradescantia virginica, but he in- 
terpreted the separation of the daughter segments during 
metakinesis of the firet mitosis as a transverse division. 

Bot. Gazette, April, 1903, p. 251. 
2. Any mental process or manifestation of 
consciousness. See the extract. 

We call manifestations of energy 'kinetic' manifesta- 
tions, and we use the tenn 'kinesis' for physical manifes- 
tations of this order. Similarly, we may call concomitant 
manifestations of the mental or couacioua order 'metaki- 


netic, and may use the term ' metakinesis ' for all man ifes- 
tations belonging to this phenomenal order. According 
to the monistic hyixjthesis, every mode of kinesis has its 
concomitant mode of metakinesis, and when the kinetic 
manifestations assume the form of the molecular processes 
in the human brain, the metakinetic manifestations as- 
sume the form of human consciousness. 

C. L. Morgan, Animal Life and Intelligence, p. 467. 

metakinetic (met"a-ki-net'ik), a. [meta- 
kinesis.] (Jf or pertaining to metakinesis, in 
either sense of that word ; specifically, per- 
taining to mind or consciousness or to a 
manifestation of mind or consciousness. See 
^metakinesis, 2. L. F. Ward, Pure Soeiol., 
p. 156. 

metal, n. 11. In »iJHJ»!(7; (a) Cast-iron, (ft) Hard 
rock ; whin or igneous rock, (.c) pi. A general 
name for coal-bearing strata. Barrowman, 
Glossary — Albata metal, an alloy comi>osed of 40 
parts of copper, 32 of zinc, and 8 of nickel.— Alfenld 
metal, an alloy composed of 6<5 parts of copper, 30 of 
zinc, and 10 of nickel, with traces of iron. It is a kind of 
German silver— Alger metal, an alloy composed of 90 
parts of tin and 10 of antimony. It is suitable as a pro- 
tector from corrosion.— Argusoid metal, an alloy com- 
posed of 5.5.6 per cent of copper, 23.2 of zinc, 13.4 of 
ni ckel, 3.5 of lead, and 4 of tin, with traces of iron.— Ash- 
berry metal, an alloy somewhat resembling Britannia 
metal (which see, imder metal). It is composed of 78-82 
parts of tin, 14-20 of antimony, 2-3 of copper, 1-2 of zinc, 
1-2 of nickel, and 1 ))art of aluminium. It is harder than 
Britannia metal and is used chiefly for the manufacturing 
of forks, spoons, coffee-pots, tea-iwts, etc., for which Bri- 
tannia metal is generally employed.— Baudoln metal, an 
alloy comp<jsed of 72 parts of copper, 16.6 of nickel, 1.8 of 
cobalt, 2.5 of tin, and 7.1 of zinc, -\bout ^ per cent, of 
altnnlnlum may also be added. — Bohlerre metSLl, an 
alloy of 66 paits of copper and 34 of zinc. It is use<l for 
sheathing ships.— Bourbon metal, an alloy composed 
of equal pai-ts of aluminium and tin. It solders readily. 
— Coarse metal, the impure metal obtained in one of the 
intennediary processes of extraction. — Colloidal met- 
als. See *c««o»dn(,— Delta metal, an alloy consisting 
ciiiefly of brass or bronze with a small prop<jrtion of iron, 
and sometimes containing also manganese or lead. The 
iron is chemically dissfjlved in the brass or the bronze, 
and the alloy is chai-actelized by great strength and 
toughness, durability, and resistance to corrosion. It is 
especially valuable for ship-building, massive engineer- 
ing, sanitary work, etc.— Direct metal, molten cast-iron 
taken directly from the blast-fiuiiace and used in the sub- 
sequent metallurgical processes before it has solidified. 
— Doll metal, molten metal which has stood in a ladle 
until it thickens, or into which pieces of s<jlld metal have 
been thrown to cool it Dull metal is preferable for 
heavy castings because it shrinks less, crystallizes more 
closely, and Is less liable to blow-holes and spongy places 
than hot metal.— Expanded metal, sheet-metal lathing 
and lattice for use in making screens and lockers and for 
reinforcing concrete. It is made by cutting in sheet- 
metal a series of short slits arranged in parallel lines. 

Expanded Metal. 
A. lathing; B, net. 

one line breaking joint with the next, and then pulling 
the sheet out sidewise until the slits are drawn open and 
fonn a diamond-mesh net It Is extensively used in flre- 
proot and steel-concrete construction. See reinforced 
-kconcrete. — FlJie metal, the regulus or matte, contain- 
ing from 60 to 80 per cent of copper, obtained in the 
fourth stage of the Welsh method of copper-smelting 
(which see, under -^method). The name serves to dis- 
tinguish it from the regulus obtained in the second stage 
of the process, which is known as coa rse metal. See white 
metal, under metal.— Frencil metal, metallic anti- 
mony of a marketable degree of pm-ity. .Also called 
star ?np(ai.— Hercules metal, a trailc-n'ame of an alloy 
of copper and a little aluminium. — Karmarsch metal, 
an alloy composed of tin, copper, and antimony In varying 
proportions. It is used as a bearing-metal. — Magnolia 
metal, a trade-name of an antl-frlctlon alloy, used for the 
bearings of machinery, etc., consisting of about 7S per 
cent, of lead, 18 of antimony, and 4 of tin. — Perforated 
metal, a trade-name of Iron, brass, copper, or other sheet- 
metal perforated in a perforatlng-press. with s(iuare. 
round, or oblong holes arranged in various patterns : used 
for screens, riddles, sieves, lamp-flxtnres, and other pur- 
poses. ConijmTC expanded *metaL — Platinum metkls, 
a natural group of elements of metallic character, found 
associated In the mineral kingdom, and having close rela- 
tions with one another as to chemical behavior. There 
are six in all, forming two subgroups of three each, plati- 
num. Iridium, and osmium in the one, palladium, rho- 
dium, and ruthenium In the other.— Rare-earth metals. 
See irearthl. — Ruoltz metal, an alloy which contains 
from 20 to 30 per cent of silver 25 to 30 per cent of nickel, 
and 35 to .'tO i>er cent of copper : used for manufac- 
turing jewelry. — Spence'S metal, a compound obtained 
by dissolving metallic sulphlds (mostly those of iron, 
lead, and zinc in varying proportions) in melted sulphur. 
It melts at 160^ C, takes perfect impressions, and is at- 


tacked by few acids. It U used for soldering gas-pipes, 
and is especially valuable for nialving air-tight connections 
between glass tubes.— Stax metal, a trade-name of re- 
fined metallic antimony showing on the suriace the star- 
like crjstalline maikings which indicate a near approach 
to purity.— White metal, (b) A metallic alloy used for 
the bciuings of machineiy, usually consisting of tin and 
lead hardened by antimony, zinc, or copper, and distin- 
guished by greater fusibility and the absence of yellow 
color trimi the bronzes used for the same purpose, (c) 
A raeUilUc alloy used for the production, by casting in 
iron or brass molds, of cheap ornamental articles to be 
electroplated, usually consisting of lead and tin hardened 
by antimony, with occasional addition of other metals. 

Metal-ammonia compounds. See ^ammonia. 
Metal-ammonium compounds. See *ammo- 


metalbumin (met-al-bu'min), n. [meta- + 
albumin.'^ Same as *^.sp«rfomMC!tt (which see). 

metalepsis, ». 2. IiicAem.,sameasmc<«/e/<.«(/. 

metalik (me-tal'ik), «. [Turk.] A Turkish 
eoiu worth ten paras or about one cent. 

metaline, «. 3. A. trade-name of a non-rust- 
ing antifriction alloy, intended to be used as 
a lubrieaut in bearing surfaces. It is inserted 
as plugs or short pencil-like rods radially in 
holes in the bearing. 

metallaceous (met-a-la'shlus), a. [metal -(- 
-acefjm.'\ Kesembliiig or analogous in char- 
acter to the metals. 

metalleity (met-a-le'i-ti), n. [F. mMalleitp, 
< L. mttdUeus, metallic] The property of 
being metallic; metallic character. Coleridge 

Metallic acid, an acid of which the radical consists of a 
met;d in combination with oxygen, as chromic aei<l (H^- 
'.'r<Vi). The term is frequently but incoiTectly applied to 
an acid oxid of a metal or a metallic anhydrid. as chro- 
mium trioxid (Cr<>3).— Metallic return. .See -kreturnl. 

metallician (met-a-lish'an), H. [metallic + -i- 
+ -iiti.] A racing book-maker: from the fact 
that book-makers used metallic books and 
peii'-i!s. Iltitl")!, Slang Diet. 

metallocyanide (met'a-lo-si'a-nid), ». [L. 
metiilhim. metal, -I- E. cyanide.'] Any cyanide 
of a irietiil. 

metallogenetic (met'a-lo-jf-net'ik), a. [Gr. 
fiiTa/'/iir, metal, -f- II. goictir.] Producing 
metals.— Metallogenetic province, a region of simi. 
lar or related ore-dejwisit-s. L. de Lautiay, Compte 
rendu. loth Int. Geol. Congr.. 1906, I. 5.W. 

metallogeny (met-a-loj'e-nl), n. [Gr. /lera?.- 
'/jov, metal, -yivqr, -producing.] That special 
branch of geology which treats of the genesis 
of the metalliferous deposits. 
On the possible rdle of slipping in metallnrjf.rwj. 

Xatiire. April 13, 190.1, p. 576. 

metallograpi (me-tal'O-graf), w. [See metal- 
lot/rfii>li!i.] A print produced by metallography. 
See mfittifl'tf/rtrphyj 3. 

metallographer (met-a-log'ra-ffer), «. [m«ta?- 
lotinipliiiit + -cr-.] "A metallographist ; a 
metii!liir>;ist. .J (Ach^mm, April 1, 1905, p. 406. 

MetallOgrapMc province, a mining regit>n in which the 
ore-deiHwits possess a general similarity of type. Com- 
pare itmetatt'><j*'netic, which is Ut he preferred because 
not alreafly established in a totally different sense. J. A*. 
Spurr. in V. S. lieol. Surv., Prof. Paper 42, p. 276. 

metallographical ( met ' a - lo - graf 'i - kal ), o. 
[mctnll(iijniph(y) + -tcfl/.] Relating to or con- 
nected with metallography. 

metalloptric ( met - a - lop ' trik ), a. [Gr. 
liha/.'/.ov, taken in sense of L. meUtllum, metal, 
+ Gr. -oTzrpov, < or-, see.] Relating to the 
minute structure of metals and their alloys 
as studied with the aid of the microscope. 

The report takes up the work done by the ditf erent de- 
partments, these ajvering heat and mechanics, optical 
research,, electric thermometers, pressure iuilicators, 
photometry, saccharimetrv, metalloptric researches anil 
chemistry. Elect. Itev., Hept. 10, 19(M, p. 400. 

metalloscope (me-tal'o-skop), n. [Gr. fiiToi'/xm, 
taken in sense of L. mcttiUum, metal, + Gr. 
aKOTTili', view.] An instrument for investigat- 
ing microscopically the structure of metals. 
The metal under examination is polished and 
then etched, this process disclosing its crystal- 
line structure. Science, Oct. 30, 1903, p. 575. 

metallotechny ( met ' a - lo - tek - ni ), n. [Gr. 
luTa/.>m; metal, -l- rix^, art.] The art of 
working in metals. X. E. D. 

metallurgy, ".-Physical metallnrgy, 'he study of 

the ph\sj'",l i,n.pei-tie!» of inet;ds iirid alloys. This iiranch 
of nn-ralliirgy is o<;cupying a large share of the attention 
of scientista at the jtresent time. Klectrochem. and 
Mtlnt. Indwitry, July. 1906, p. 248. 

metal-mark (met'al-mark), «. Any butterfly 
of the family Uiodinidse.—Lsnee metal-mark, an 
American rifxlfnid butterfly, Cnlephelu /«,rf(i(i».— Small 
metal-mark, an American riodlnid butterfly, Calepheiit 
citniin. whic:h occurs in the southern United States. Its 
early stages are unknown. 

metalogi8i8(met-a-loj'i-sis), n. [Gr. //frd, after, 
-t- '/o'jioir, numeration, calculation.] A chang- 
ing of numerical status or relations. [Bare.] 


At the upper surface the disintegrated rocks form an 
overplacement of soils which undergo such chemical 
reaction that the substances of vegetal life are pro- 
duced. This material, exposed for longer or shorter 
periods, is transported by streams to lakes or to the sea 
and sinks to the bottom, where it is recorabined into 
various substances, especially as carbonate of lime, chlo- 
ride of sodium, other salts, clay, and coal. All of this 
transmutation is a numerical change in the relation of 
the atoms to the molecules of the substances developed. 
Let us call it metalogitsin, 

J. W. Powell, Truth and EiTor, p. 55. 

metaloph (met'a-lof), II. [Gr. ^l(ra, after, -1- 
/.cupoi', crest.] A crest, or fold of enamel, de- 
veloped on the postero-internal angle of such 
an upper molar as that of a horse. Amer. 
Museum Jour. Sup., Jan., 1903, Guide Leailet 
No. 9, p. 20. 

metalorganic (mefal-or-gan'ik), a. [Prop. 
metalloryaiiic, < metal (L. metallum) + organic] 
Pertaining to a compound consisting of a 
metal in combination with one or more organic 
radicals, such as zinc methyl, Zn(CH3).2, or 
magnesium ethyl iodide, MgIC2H5. 

metal-spinning (met'al-spin"ing), n. In sheet- 
metal work; the forming of brass, copper, and 
other vessels on a spinning-lathe. A flat disk is 
placed in the lathe and made to revolve at a high speed 
in a vertical plane. A suitable tool is then held in the 
hand, supported on the tool-rest, and pressed against the 
disk, causing it to bend into the desired form. Vases, 
bowls, plates, j:u^ pans, and other vessels are in this way 
pressed or spun directly from Hat disks of sheet-metal. 
.See •kspinninil-lftttie. 

metamathematical (met-a-math-e-mat'i-kal), 
II. [mi't(iin<ithi:matic{s) + -ui'^.'] I'ertaining to 
or of the nature of metamathematies. 

metamerical (met-a-raer'i-kal), a. [metamere 
+ -iciil.] Of or pertaining to metameres, or 
segments of the body; metameric. 

metameride (me-tam'e-rid), n. [metamer + 
-ide.] Same as metmner. 

metamorfose, metamorfosis. Simplified 
spellings of metamorphose, metamorphosis. 

metamorphic, «. 3. Noting races formed by 
intercrossing of archimorphie races in those 
parts of the world where distinct archimorijhic 
races come into contact. Examples of meta- 
morphic races are the Malay, Ethiopians, and 
Hottentots. «. T. Frituch. ' 

metamorphism, » — Contact metamorphlsm, in 
petroii., the nit-taniorpliism dt-veloped inriickin the imme- 
diate Meiglibuili<«>,l uf ignrous nx-ks. ^t^enietninoriihiMn. 
— Macrostructural metamorphism, metamorphisni 
which i)njduces changes of structure snthoiently coai-se 
to be ejisily discenii]>le with the uniissisted eye. (ieikie, 
Text-i)-«.k.>f lieol. (4th ed.), p. 705. — Microstructural 
metamorphism, changes in the mici-oscopic structure 
of nK'ks wljiih nuiy not be visible without magnification. 
Oeiki,\ Text-book of Geol. (4th ed.), p. 765. 

metamorphist (met-a-m6r'fist), «. [meta- 
morph{ism) + -ist.] In //eo^, an advocate of 
the theory of metamorphism. 

metamorphopsy (met'a-mdr-fop'si), «. Same 
as nulamorphopsia. 

metamorphosis, n. 5. In music, either the 
same as rariation(see variation, 9), or that ex- 
tension or transformation of a theme or sub- 
ject which often appears in modern music in 
the progress or development of an extended 
movement. From Beethoven onward the 
recognition of the essentially plastic nature 
of musical ideas (see idea, 9) has steadily ad- 
vanced and constitutes one of the salient 
charactei-istics of recent composition — Stadia 
of metamorphosis, instars. See *t7i«tar2. 

metamorphous (met-a-m6r'fus), a. Same as 

metamorphy, n. 2. In biol., the abnormal 
replacement of a part of the body of an organ- 
ism by another part, as in a flower in which 
the pistil is replaced by a leaf -shoot. 

Metamynodon (met-a-min'O-don), n. [NL., 
irreg. < Gr. /^fra, after, + aftvvetv, ward off, 
defend, + oiSoif. tooth.] A genus of aquatic, 
hornless rhinoceroses occurring in the White 
River Oligocene deposits of North America. 
It is characterized by formidable canine 
tusks, small but prominent eye-sockets, a 
broad, flat skull, and the jiresence of four com- 
pletely functional digits in the manus. The 
fatter character widely separates this animal 
from the true rhinoceroses. 

Metanemertini (met"a-ne-m^r-ti'ni), n. pi. 
[XL., < Gr. /iiTii, after, + NL. Nemertini.'] 
A group or order of nemerteans having the 
bram and lateral nerves lying within the der- 
mal muscles of the body-parenchyma, the 
body-wall as in the Mcsonemertini, the mouth 
in front of the brain, the proboscis usually 
with stylets, and a ctecum generally present. 
It incliides several families, among which are 


the Eunemertidse, Amphiporidse, Tetrastemmidee, 
and MalacoMellidse. 

metanephric (met-a-nef'rik), a. [metaneph- 
r{on) + -ic] Of or pertaining to the meta- 

Another organ which, though not peculiar to the Mam- 
malia, is yet a diagnostic feature of teiTestrial verte- 
brates, is the metanephric kidney, and that there is 
possibly a relationship between terrestrial modes of loco- 
motion and the evolution of this organ I will now endeavor 
to show. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903, I. 33». 

Metanephric duct, a duct that in higher vertebrates 
becomes the m-eter. Parker and IJaxwell, Zoology, II. 110. 

metanephros (met-a-nef 'ros), ». Same as 

metanepionic (met - a - nep - i - on ' ik), a. [Gr. 
li£Ta, between, -1- vi/inog, an infant.] In the 
nomenclature of the stages of growth and 
decline (auxology), noting a substage of the 
nepionio condition intermediate between the 
ananepionic and the paranepionio conditions. 
See *nejnomc. 

For about half a volution or less, the shell is smooth, 
although lines of growth become more pronounced. At 
more or less regular intervals stronger lines of growth 
appear (ananepionic). In the later portion of the nepi- 
onio stage (metanepionic) longitudinal wrinkles or ribs 
appear which characterize the ambital portion of the 
whorl, and may be traced upward to the suture between 
the two whorls. Amer. Nat., Aug., 1903, p. 518. 

metantimonate (met-an'ti-mo-nat), n. [meta- 
+ antimondte.'l A salt of antimonic acid, as 
sodium antinionate, the production of which 
by precipitation, owing to its slight solubility, 
is sometimes used as a test for sodium in its 

metantimonic (met-an-ti-mon'ik), a. [meta- 
-f antimonic] Noting an acid, HSbO<), ob- 
tained by heating ortho-antimonic acid to 
175° C. The metantimonic acid of Fr^my (H4- 
Sb207) is now called pyro-antimonic acid, thus 
preserving analogy with the different phos- 
phoric acids. 

metanucleolus (met"a-nu-kle'o-lus), H. [NL.] 
Same as *mctanuclexis. 

After a time the chromatin emerges and is re-dis- 
tributed in the nuclear framework, or it postpones its 
emergence until the formation of the directive spindle 
where it takes the form of chromosomes. In both cases 
there is a residue (Hacker's "metanucleolus"), which is 
either a pi-oduct of metabolism or superfluous chi'omatin. 
Juur. Roy. Micros. Soc., April, 1904, p. 187. 

metanucleus(mct-a-nii'kle-u8), »». [NL., < 
Gr. /jcrd, after, + NL. nucleus.] The nucleo- 
lus of the ovum after its extrusion into the 
cytoplasm from the nucleus or germinal ves- 
icle, r. Haccker, 1892. 

meta-organism (met-a-6r'gan-izm), n. [Gr. 
liiTo., after, + E. organism?] See the extract. 
That this body of ours ... is interpenetrated with a 
'meta-organism' of identical shape and structure, and 
capable sometimes of detaching itself from the solid 
flesh. Myers, Phantasms of Living, II. 278. JV. i'. D. 

metapectin (met-a-pek' tin), n. [meta- -f 
pectin.] A colorless amorphous-acid com- 
pound, C32H4s032(f), prepared by boiling 
parapectin with dilute acid. 

metapectUS (met-a-pek'tus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
/'era, after, + li. pectus, breast.] Same as 
metastenmm, 2. 

Meso- and Meiapectua with a double row of dark green 
nodules placed on transverse spota of the same color ; 
metapleura with a row of spines. 

.innats and Mag. Nat. Hist., June, 1904, p. 440. 

metapeptic (met-a-pep'tik), a. [metapepsis.] 
Pertaining to, or characterized by, metapepsis. 

metaph. Same as *met. (a) and (6). 

metaphase (met'a-faz), n. [Gr. /jerd, after, + 
<pdai(, phase.] In cytol., the second or middle 

Diagrams of the later phases of mitosis. 
^. metaphase, splitting of the chromosomes, ; «. the cast-oft 
nucleolus ; B, anaphase, Lhe daughter-chromosomes diverging, be. 


tween them the interzonal fibers, i/., or central spindle': centro- 
somes already doubted in anticipation of the ensuinijf division : C, 
late anaphase or telophase, showing dirision of the cell-body, 
tnidbody at the equator of the spindle and beginning reconstruct 
tion of the daughter-nuclei : Dt division completed. (From Wilson's 
"The Cell. "1 

stage of karyokinetic cell-division, or mitosis, 
in whit'h the chromosomes are collected to 
form the equatorial plate of the spindle and 
undergo longitudinal fission. Compare ^ana- 
phasr and * telophase. Strasburgcr, 1884. 

metaphasis (me-taf'a-sis), n. [NL.] Same 
as *mit(iphase. 

metaphenylene (met-a-fe'nil-en), n. \mcta- 
+ plieniilcii('.~\ The phenylene radical in which 
the two valence bonds extend from carbon 
atoms that are in the meta position. See 
*meta- (e) — Metaphenylene blue. See*bhie. 

metaphonical (met-a-fou'i-kal), a. Pertain- 
ing to, or of the natui'e of, metaphony or um- 

metaphony (me-taf'o-ni), n. [F. mMaphonie, 
< Gr. jUfa, over, + <jiavf/, sound.] Umlaut. 

Since the usaal term 'mutation' is altogether vague, 
designating any kind of vowel-shifting whatever, I have 
ventured to intn>duce into the English tenninology the 
wortl ' metaphony ' for Gennan ' Umlaut, ' as al eady iu my 
French edition. 

r. Henry, Comp. Grammar of Eng. and German, p. 43. 

metaphragmal (met-a-frag'mal), a. [meta- 
phruyma + -o?l.] df or pertaining to the 
metaphragm or metaphragma. 

metaphysicize (met-a-fiz'i-slz), r. i. ; pret. 
and pp. metaphijsicizcd, ppr. metaphysicizing. 
[metajihysic + -ize.'] To engage in metaphysi- 
cal reflection or argument ; think metaphysi- 

He [Walking Stewart] had also this singularity ahout 
him — that he was everlastingly metaphysiclzing against 

De Quincey, JTote Book of an English Opium-eater, p. 243. 

metaphysiologist (met-a-fiz-i-ol'p-jist), n. 
[nieliiplii/siologiy) + -ist.'\ A student of meta- 


Modern mettphysicians and metaphynologiats have 
been staggered by the imjtropriety of assigning Secretion, 
Digestion, &c., to the spiritual agent active in Thought 
and Will. 

O. II. Lewes, in Fortnightly Eev., April, 1876, p. 48a 

metaphysiology (met-a-fiz-i-ol'o-ji), )i. [Gr. 
fieTci, alter, + E. physiology.^ A science or 
theory of life transcending physiology. 

There is still the radical separation between the con- 
ceptions of Creation and Evolution in the explanation of 
the Cosmos ; and between the conceptions of metaphysiol- 
ogy, and physiology in the explanation of Life and Mind. 
G. II. Lewes, in Fortnightly Kev., April, 1876, p. 479. 

Metaphyta Cmet - a - fl ' ta), n. pi. [NL. 
(Haeckel, 1889), < Gr. uera, beyond, -1- <fiv-6v, 
pi. <pvTd, plant.] A great division of the 
vegetable kingdom including all multicellu- 
lar plants, or plants possessing tissues, that 
is, all except the Protophyta (which see). It 
corresponds in plant life to the Metazoa in 
animal life. 

metaphyte (met'a-fit), n. [Gr. ficTa, after, -t- 
^tirdf, plant.] In hot., a, multicellular plant : 
corresponding to nietazoon in zoology. See 

metaphytic (met-a-fit'ik), a. [metaphyt{e) + 
-ic] Pertaining to metaphytes, or of the na- 
ture of a metaphyte. 

metaplasm^, ». 2. In cytol., a collective term 
applied to lifeless or non-living substances or 
inclusions such as yolk-bodies, starch, pig- 
ment, etc., in the cell-protoplasm, as distin- 
guished from the living substances. Hanstein, 

These non-living substances altogether belong to the 
group known as metaplaem or paraplasm, in contradis- 
tinction Ui the substance which is the real living element 
of the cell — the protoplasm. 

S. Watase, Biol. Lectures, 1893, p. 85. 

metaplasmic (met-a-plaz'mik), a. [metaplasm 
+ -I'c] Consisting of, or pertaining to, meta- 

After the formation of the daughter nuclei, they again 
begin to fill with the linin granules or reticulum (the so- 
called metaplasmic substance of Strasburger) until, at the 
time of maturity, they are so dense as to make any dis- 
tinction between the granular material and chromatin 
reticulum veiy difficult. Bot. Gazette, July, 1903, p. 11. 

metaplasmosism (met-a-plas'mo-sizm), n. 
[NL., < Gr. /iera, aftei, implying change, + 
Tr?A<7/m, anything formed, -f- -os{is) + ■ism.'] 
A pathological change in a cell or its constitu- 
ents, naeckel. [Rare.] 

metaplaz (met'a-plaks), n. [NL., < Gr. //era, 
after, -f TrXiif, a plate ] In the I'holadidee (a 
family of teleodesmaceous Pelecypoda), one of 


the accessory shelly plates, thus termed when 
situated behind the beaks of the two valves. 
See also *prosoplax, *mesoplax, and *hypoplax. 

metaplezus (met-a-plek'sus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
jura, after, -t- NL. plexus.] The choroid 
plexus in tlio fourth ventricle of the brain. 

metapneumonic (met"a-nu-mon'ik), a. [Gr. 
ftera, after, + 'ii'L. pneumonia + -ic] Follow- 
ing upon pneumonia ; occurring as a sequel of 

metapod (met'a-pod), n. [Also metapode; 
< NL. metapodium.'] Same as metapodium. 

metapodion (met-a-po'di-on), n.; i^X.metapodia 
(-%)■ [NL., < Gr. iJ-ira, after, -1- irdSiov, dim. 
of Troi'f, foot.] In hymenopterous insects with 
a petiolated abdomen, the part of the abdomen 
situated behind the petiole. 

metapodius (met-a-p6'di-us), n. ; pi. metapo- 
di) (-i). [NL., < (Jr. ^e-a, after, + jroif {t^oS-), 
foot.] A large American coreid bug, Meta- 
podius femoratus, the thick-thighed metapo- 

a, -idult; b, nymph. Enlarged one fourth. 

dius, occurring abundantly in the southern 
United States. It is both carnivorous and 
phytophagous, and is an important enemy of 
the cotton-caterpillar and army-worm. 

metapole (met'a-pol), n. [Gr. iieTa, after, + 
7r<iAof, pole.] If'BCX, ACY, and ABZ are tri- 
angles constructed externally on tlie sides of 
ABC, and BCX', ACY', and ABZ' triangles 
constructed internally, and all six are similar 
to A T, the straights AX, BY, and CZ cointer- 
sect in T^, prime metapole of ABC and T ; the 
straights AX', BY', and CZ' in T2, second 
metapole of ABC and T. 

metapolitical (met"a-po-lit'i-kal), a. \rneta- 
politic{s) + -dU.] df or pertaining to meta- 

The metaphysical, or as I have proposed to call them, 
metapolitical reasonings hitherto discussed, belong to 
government in the abstract. But there is a second class 
of reasoners who argue for a change in our government 
from former usage. Coleridge, The Friend, II. iv. 

metapolitician(met'''a-pol-i-tish'an), n. \_meta- 
politics.] dne who indulges in metapolitics 
or abstract political theorizing. 

The metapoliticians, as they have aptly been called, 
who bewilder themselves with abstractions. 

Southey, Ess., I. 390. A'. E. D. 

metaprotaspis (met"a-pro-tas'pis), n. [NL., 
< Gr. fitrd, after, -t- NL. protasyiis.] A sub- 
division of the protaspis or larval stage in the 
trilobites intermediate between the anapro- 
taspis and paraprotaspis conditions. See 

metaprotein (met-a-pro'te-in), n. [meta- + 
protein.] A protein derivative which results 
from the action of acids or alkalies upon albu- 
mins. The groTip includes the acid albumins 
and alkaline albuminates. 

metapsychical (met-a-si'ki-kal), a. A term 
formed on the analogy of metaphysical to de- 
note phenomena beyond the range of ordinary 
consciousness; occult or transcendental: ap- 
plied to the phenomena of psychical research. 
Athenieum, April 22, 1905. 

metapsychology (met-a-si-kol'o-ji), re. Aterm 
formed on the analogy of tnetaphysies to de- 
note philosophical speculation regarding the 
mind, its origin, functions, etc., which is 
beyond the reach of verification by mental 
experience ; metempirical psychology. 

metapterygoid, ». 2. In io7iWi., the posterior 
of the three pterygoid elements, the meso- 
pterygoid and the pterygoid being anterior to 
it. It is articulated behind with the hyoman- 

metapyric (met-a-pir'ik), a. [Gr. /icri, after 
(signifying change), -I- nip, fire, + -ic] In 


petrog., noting a metamorphosed igneous rock : 
thus, a metapyric gneiss is one derived from a 
granite. Gregory, 1894. 

metaquinite (met-a-kwin'it), n. [Gr. ucri, 
after, -t- E. quina "+ -ite^.] Dihydroxvhexa- 
hydrodiphenyl, C6H5CoH9(OH)2: made by 
reducing phenyldiketohexamethylene with 
sodium and alcohol. It melts at 157° C. 

metarachidial (met"a-ra-kid'i-al), a. [meta- 
rachis (assumed stem -rachid-) + -ial.] Of or 
pertaining to a metarachis : as, the metarachid- 
ial aspect of a sea-pen. 

metaracllis (me-tar'a-kis), n. ; pi. metaraches 
(-kez). [Gr. /itrti, after, -(- pd;i;if, spine.] In 
Pennatulacca, that face of the rachis on which 
the zooids are borne : opposed to *prorachis. 

metargon (met-ar'gon), n. [Gr. /lera, beyond, 
-I- E. argon.] A supposed element found in 
atmospheric air : afterward found to be merely 
carbon monoxid. 

metarhyolite (met-a-ri'6-lit), n. [Gr. fieri, 
after, -1- E. rhyolite"] An altered or partly 
metamorphosed rhyolite. 

Much of the lava contains porphyritic quartz, and in 
general may be designated metarhyolite, but a large part, 
being without free quartz and less siliceous, has the ap- 
pearance of metaaudesite. A peculiaiity of many of these 
rocks is that they ai-e rich in soda. 

Contrib. to Boon. Geol., V. S. Geol. Surv., 1902, p. 124. 

metaschematism (met-a-ske'ma-tizm), n. 
[NL. mcfdschematismus, < Gr. fieraaxilia-Tiafio^, 
< utTaaxviio-ri^eiv, to transform.] A change in 
the form of a disease, as when hemoptysis 
follows suppression of the menses. Syd. Soc. 

metascolecite (met-a-skol'e-s-it), n. [meta- + 
scolecitc.] A partly'dehydrated scolecite, dif- 
fering from the original mineral in physical 

metaseptum(met-a-sep'tum), n.\ pi. metasepta 
(-ta). [NL., < Gr. fierd, after, + NL. septum, 
partition.] In corals. See the extract. 

In recent corals the septa beyond the primary septa — 
metasepta — are found Xxi appear bilaterally, in a dorso- 
ventral sequence, within each of the six primary systems, 
the adult radial symmetiy being secondary. In certain 
Palaeozoic corals the metasepta arise in a regular dorso- 
ventral succession within only four of the six primary 
systems. Science, March 6, 1903, p. 388. 

metasitism (met'a-si-tizm), n. [Gr. fie-a, 
after, implying change, + cirog, food (cutcIv, 
eat), -t- -Js/H.] 1. Change from the method of 
nutrition which is characteristic of plants to 
that which is characteristic of animals. [Rare.] 
In the same way we can derive the phycomycetes by 
metasitism from the siphonea, the fungi from the algae. 
Haeckel (trans.), Wonders of Life, p." 616. 

2. Cannibalism, especially among protozoans. 

metasocial (met-a-s6'shal), a. [Gr. fierd, after, 
+ E. social.] tertaining to the stage of 
social evolution which begins with the con- 
quest and subjugation of one group or race by 
another, and continues through fusion or 
amalgamation. L. F. Ward, Pure Sociol., 
p. 274. 

metasomatic, a. 3. Relating to the alterna- 
tions of air and water within the earth, which 
are suggestive of breathing, and eventually 
produce important geological changes. 

metasomatism, n. 2. Chemical change occur- 
ring in a body of ore or in a rock-mass at a 
considerable depth in the earth's crust: dis- 
tinguished from weattiering, which occurs at 
or near the surface. 

metasomatist (met-a-s6'ma-tist), n. [Gr. 
/'trd, over, + aci/in (ciJ/jaT-), body, -t- -ist.] 
One who believes in the lithological theory of 

metasomatome (met-a-s6'ma-t6m), n. [Gr. 
fierd, after, -f a(ofia(T-j, body, -I- -ome.] One 
of the constrictions or spaces between succes- 
sive mesoplastic somites, or proto vertebrae, in 
vertebrate embrj'os. 

metasome, ». 2. In some crustaceans, as the 
amphipods, the first three segments of the 
pleon or abdomen. Compare *mesosome and 

metasjperm (met'a^sperm), n. [Gt. /jerd, over, 
-I- CTzspfia, seed.]' A member of the Meta- 
spcrnne; an angiosperm. 

Metaspermse (met-a-sp^r' me), [NL. 
(Str.asburger, 1872), i Gr. ferd, after, + aTrepfia, 
seed.] Same as Angiospermse (which see) 
and * Arcltispermse. The term is designed to 
emphasize tlie fact that these plants appeared 
later in the geological series, none being cer- 
tainly known earlier than the Lower Cretan 
ceous. See *Metachlamydese. 


metaspennic (met-a-sp^r'mik), a. IMeta- 
speriii(i€) + -if.] of', or consistiag of, Meta- 

metastability (met'a-sta-bil'i-ti), n. [meta- + 
itdhility.] The character of being metasta- 
ble ; specifically, in thermodi/nam., equilibrium 
of the type, neither strictly stable nor un- 
stable, possessed by a medium under certain 
conditions such as those which exist in the 
case of an under-cooled liquid. 

metastable (met-a-sta'bl), a. [meta- + stable^.'] 

1. In jilii/s. cheni'., having a stability of such 
sort that a minute impressed change of condi- 
tions may produce a distui'banee not propor- 
tional to the impressed change. Pure water in 
a smiKjth vessel may be cooled a few degrees below the 
freezing-point without the formation of ice. The water 
is then in a metastable condition. If a hundredth of a 
grain of ice at the temperature of fhe freezing-point be 
brought in contact with the water, a certain fraction of 
it becomes ice. while the temperature of the whole rises 
to the freezing-iwiiit ; and if ten or a thousand gi-ains of 
ice be used, the fraction frozen and the final temperature 
are j)recisely the same. A somewhat closely analogous 
condition in mechanics is called an unstable equilibrium ; 
but the word equilibrium, in chemistry, has been applied 
to the permanence of a given relation between two or 
more substances and cannot consistently be applied to 
the stability of a single substance. 

Among supersaturated solutions there are some which 

under dctlnite conditi<,ns can be kept indefinitely, if 

genns are excluded, without formation of the solid phase. 

Such solutions are called Metastable. 

H. W. Morse and Q. W, Pierce, in Proc. Amer. Acad, of 

[Arts and Sciences, May, 1903. 

2. In Ihermodynam., in a state intermediate 
between stable equilibrium and unstable equi- 
librium, but approaching stability as nearly 
as the conditions will permit. 

metastasis, n. 4. In petrog., a change within 
a rock or mineral in the nature of reerystaHiz- 
ation or molecular rearrangement, without 
the addition or subtraction of material : as the 
crystallization of a limestone, or the devitrifi- 
cation of glass. 

metastasize (me-tas'ta-siz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. 
metastasized, ppr. metastasizing, [nietastasif 
+ -ire.] In pathol., to produce new foci of 
disease in more or less distant parts by means 
of metastasis : referring usually to malignant 

As might be expected the tendency to metastasize is 
mncb greater in certain tumors than in others. 

Jour. Med. Research, Nov., 1907, p. 187. 

metastatic, a. 2. Eclating to or characteristic 
of the Mctastatica or Holostomatidse ; involving 
a change of host but no alternation of genera- 
tions : as, the metastatic mode of develop- 
mont of certain trematodes. 

Metastatica (met-a-stat 'i-kS), n. pJ. The 
llDliistiimiitiiiie. Leuckart. 

Metastigmata (met-a-stig'ma-tii), n. pi. [NL., 

< Gr. iiira, after. + ariyua, point, mark.] In 
Canestrini's classification of the Acarina, a 
group corre8i)onding to the superfamily Ixo- 
diiidea, or ticks. 

metastigmate (met-a-stig'mat), a. and n. I. 

a. Having the characters of or belonging to 

the .Metastigmata. 
II. n. A member of the Metastigmata. 
metastome (met'a-stom), n. Same as mcta- 

metastomial (met-a-sto'mi-al), a. [meta- 

Ktiiitiium + -ail.] "Of or pertaining to the 

metastomium (met-a-sto 'mi-um), n. [NL., 

< (ir. fu-ra, behind, + oTd/ia, mouth.] The 
region of the body behind the mouth ; the 

metastropbe (me -tas ' tro - fe), n. [Gr. /if™, 
aftir, -\- n-fxi^ri, a turning.] Change or inter- 
change; spei'itically, in crystallog. See the 

A 8<jlid figure is symmetrical to an ails when every 
radius vector moving in a plane perpendicular to the axis 
and meeting a jMiint of tlie flgure would also meet cor- 
rej»{>onding i)oints at the same distances from the axis at 

each revolution through an arc-angle of — -. 

The aspect of such a «jlid figure will not therefore be 
changed by a revolution of the solid round this axis 

through the angle — , and any portion of its surface so 

revolving will move into a position in which it will be 
congruent with another portion of the surface entirely 
corresponding to it. 

Def.— Congruence of this kind will be termed nietas- 
tritphr, and such corresponding parts will be said to be 
metiatn>phic to each other. 

A'. Strrry-Mttskelyne, Crystallography, p. 99. 

metastrophicCmet-a-strof 'ik), a. [Gr. neT&, 
after, -t- arpoifi^, a turning, + -ic] Of, char- 
acterized by, or of the nature of, metastrophe; 



interchangeable : said specifically of the faces, 
edges, and solid angles of a crystal with refer- 
ence to rotation about an axis of symmetry. 
See '''symmetry, 6. 
metastyle (met'a-stil), «. [Gr. nerA, after, -I- 
E. «iy/A] 1. In 6o^, an unusually long style : 

are the most numerous and widelv distributed 
of the micro-organisms. See ^prototrophic 
and *paratro2>hic. 
metatropic (met-a-trop'ik), a. [rnetatrop(y) 
+ -ic] Pertaining to, or characterized by, 
said chiefly of trimorphic plants. Compare metatropy (me-tat'ro-pi), n. [Gr. /lerA, after 
*mesostyle and *parastyle. — 2. The posterior (indicating change),'-!- rpo-^, a turning.] In 
enamel-covered ridge on the outer side of such petrog., metamorphic processes consisting in 
a molar as that of a horse : correlative with physical changes, into which chemical action 
*parastyle and *mesostyJe. does not enter or enters only to a slight ex- 

Rudimentary conules, and para-, meso-, and metastyles. tent. Irvivg, 1889. 

U. F. Osbom, in Bulletin Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1902, mctatungstate (met-a-tung'stat), 11. [meto- 

rn 910 _L tuiitjstatc.'i A salt of metatungstic acid 

[p. 210. 

Same as 

metastyrene (met-a-stl'ren), n, 

metastyrol (met-a-sti'rol), n. Imeta- + styrol.2 
See *m('t<isti/ri>lene. 

metastjrrolene (met-a-sti'ro-len), «. lmet(i- + 
styrolene .'] A transparent, highly refractive, 
solid polymer of styrolene, (CgH8)n, contained 
in liquid storax and fonned spontaneously 
from stjTolene, into which it is retransformed 
by distillation. Also called metastyrene, vieta- 
cinnamciie, and, incorrectly, metastyrol. 

metasyncrisis (met-a-sin'kri-sis), n. [Gr. nera- 
aiyKjuaif, < fieraavyKpivciv, use diaphoretics.] 
In med., the elimination of morbid matter, 
particularly through the pores of the skin. 
-V. E. D. 

metasyphilis (met-a-sif'i-lis), n. \meta- + 
syjihilis.] Plereditary syphilis. 

metasyphilitic (met-a-sif-i-lit'ik), a. 1. Re- 
lating to or of the nature of hereditary syphi- 
lis. — 2. Occurring as a sequel of syphilis. 

metatactic (met-a-tak'tik), a. [metataxis.'\ 
Pertaining to, or of the nature of, metataxis. 

Metatarsal artery, phalanx. See *artery, 


metatarsale, n. 2. pi. The bones of the meta- 
tarsus considered collectively. 

metatazlc (met-a-tak'sik), a. Same as *meta- 
^ao(i('.— MetatailC change. See -kchange. 

metataxis (met-a-tak'sis), n. [Gr. fierA, after 
(indicating change), + raSiq, arrangement.] 
In petrog., mechanical modification such as 
transverse cleavage, produced in a rock by 
metamorphism. Irving, 1889. 

metate (me-ta'te), n. 

The metatungstates are not precipitated by 
the addition of an acid unless the solution is 
boiled for some time, when ordinary tungstio 
acid is thrown down. 

metatungstic (met-a-tung'stik), a. [metatung- 
st(ate) + -!c.] Noting a metallic acid, form- 
ing small yellow crystals of the composition 
H.2W4O13.7H.2O, obtained by decomposing 
barium metatungstate by dilute sulphuric 
acid. It differs from ordinary or normal tung- 
stie acid in being soluble in v;ater. 

metatype (met'a-tip), n. [Gr. fierd, after, + 
TrTToc, type.] 1. A tabulation of the normal 
or average individuals of a race, in respect to 
any characteristic, as a basis for statistical 
comparison with exceptional or aberrant in- 
dividuals. See the extract under *metatypic. 
It is these metatypes that we should compare anatomi- 
cally with the criminals if we would make conii)al'i8on be- 
tween the anatomic characters of the two classes. 

Smithsonian Rep., 1890, p. 630. 

2. In the nomenclature of types in natural 
history, a topotype identified by the nomen- 
clator himself. 
metatypic(met-a-tip'ik), a. \jnetatype+ -ic] 
Pertaining to, or of the nature of, a metatype. 
In order to characterize criminals in general, it is neces- 
sary to obtain the averages, which can be compared 
with the averages of other individuals of the same race, 
the same sex, the same social class, etc. These latter in- 
dividuals must themselves be the average of their respec- 
tive race, sex, or class, and their averages thus taken 
sliould become the type or standard. Honest or virtuous 
men (a category not less vague than that of criminals) will 
then be without doubt thametatypic. 

Smithsonian Rep., 

huatl vietatt, metlatl.] 

of stone, usually 
on three, form- 
erly also on 
four, legs of the 
same block. In 
ancient times 
the Mexican 

often elabor 

ately eaived, 

whereas the 

Peruvian batan is a rude slab. The metate 

is in common use in the North American 


Thus it is found that the nether millstone, which may 

Meute from Pueblo Viejo. 

(From 2and An. Rep. Bureau 

Amer. Ethiiol.) 

1890, p. 631. 

[Mex. Sp. metate, < Na- metavanadate (met-a-van'a-dat), n. [racto- 
A primitive hand-mill t'anad(_ic) + -a(el.] A salt of metavanadio 
acid, as sodium metavanadate, NaVOs, and 
ammonium metavanadate, NH4VO3. The 
latter of these gives a deep-black color with 
tincture of galls which has been proposed for 
use as writing-ink; it has also been used in 
the development of aniline black on cotton 
was metavanadic (met"a-va-nad'ik), a. [tneta- + 
vunadu:] Noting an acid, a substance ob- 
tained in brilliant scales of a golden color by 
prolonged boiling of cuprie metavanadate 
with sulphurous acid. Its formula is HVO3. 
It has been used as a golden brouzing-powder. 
metavoltaite (met-a-vol'tii-it), n. Same as 

be either a ledge or other mass in place of a portable metaVOltine (met-a- vol ' tin), n. [Gr. /iera, 

iMjwlder, is, in the early stage of use. a flat or slightly 
concave metate, which after more extended use becomes 
a deeply concave metate, still later a shallow mortar, and 
at length a deep mortar which may eventually be worn 
thn)Ugh, if the original mass is not more than 9 to 15 
inches in thickness. Smithsonian Rep., 1899, p. 37. 

metathetical, a. 2. In cA<?m.,involvingtrans- 
position of constituents between two com- 
pounds which interact chemically with each 

In order that water may act hydrolytically upon barium 
chloride, for example, with liberation of hydrogen chlor- 
ide and substitution of oxygen for chlorine, the tempera- 
ture of the system must approach low redness, while 
magnesium chloride is attacked at a nmch lower temper- 
ature, and aluminum chloride is extremely sensitive to 
the inetathetical action of water. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., May, 1904, p. 366. 

metatitanic (met"a-ti-tan'ik), a. [meta- + 
titanic] Noting an acid, a substance thrown 
down as a white precipitate on boiling a 
solution of orthotitanic acid in aqueous hydro- 
chloric acid. Its formula is H2Ti03, analo- 
gous to that of raetasilicic acid. 

metatrophia (mot-a-tro'fi-ii), n. [NL., < Gr. 
/ura, with, -f arpo^'ia, atrophy.] The atrophy 
of malnutrition. Also metatrophy. 

metatrophic (met-a-trof'ik), a. [Gr. fura, 
after, + Tpo(firi, nourishment, + -ic] Depend- 
ent upon organic matter, both nitrogenous 

after, -f E. voltine.'j A hydrous sulphate of 
potassium, sodium, and fen'ic iron which 
occurs in minute yellow hexagonal scales. It 
is related in x:omposition to voltaite. 
metazone (met'a-z6n), n. [Gr. /icra, behind, 
+ E. roHc] Tlie posterior of the three zones 
into which the jironotum of the Acridiidse, 
Locustidie, and Gryllidee is divided. 

Melanoplus decoratus sp. nov. Related to deconis. 
Vertex rather strongly protuberant, especially in female. 
I'ronotum with mid-carina strong on metmone, weak or 
indistinct on prozone. Psyche (Boston), XI. 12. 

Met. E. An abbreviation of Metallurgical 

metel2 (me'tel), n. [Ar.] It. The thorn- 
apple. Datura Stramonium. — 2. The specific 
name given by Linnasus to the hairy thorn- 
apple. Datura Metel. 

metembryo, n. 2. The gastmla stage of a 
polyzoan. Cumings, 1904. 

metempsychosist (me-temp-si-ko'sist), n. 
[metcmpsyi-hos{is) + -ist.} One who believes 
in metempsychosis. N. E. D. 

Metencephalic fossa. See */o«sai. 

a. In neural. , of or pertaining to both the 
metencephalon, or cerebellum, and the spinal 
and carbonaceous : applied to bacteria'which cord. ..,.,.. -n 

are thus dependent for their existence. They metensarcosiS (met'en-sar-ko sis), n. [Gr. 


frra, over, + h-aapnaatr, < h, in, + crdpf, flesh.] 
The transference of the flesh of one body to 
another. X. E. D. [Kare.] 

See especially the conclusion of the 'Rreat scene (iii. 
6) [of Couitreves " Mourniii); liride "); anil Almeria's offer 
(iv. 7) to clothe the rotten bones of her (supposedly) dead 
lover with her own flesh — a species of meti' miarcogis 
altosetlier original. The bathos of the concluding lines 
eiiuiUs that of the moral of Ituckingham's Julius Caesar. 
A. W. Ward, A Hist of English Dramatic Literature, 

[II. 589, note. 

metenteron, «. 2. In sea-anemones and 
polyps, one of the radially arranged cavities 
given off from the stomach or mesenteron; 
an intermesenteric chamber. 

meteor^aph (me'tf-or-graf), n. Imeteor + 
Gr. }pa<;iea; write.]' 1. A device for quickly 
recording the exact location of the path of a 
shooting star. Neumayer's arrangement con- 
sisted of a plate supported at any angle on the 
ordinary equatorial mounting of a telescope. 
The records were made by hand-drawn pencil 
lines on this plate. — 2. A meteorograph. 

Meteoric paper. See *paper. 

meteorics (mO-te-or'iks), «. The study of the 
atmosphere ; meteorology* 

meteorin (me'te-o-rin), II. [meteor + -iii^.'] 
A supposed new metal reported by A. T. Abel 
aa separated from the Cranbourne (Australia) 
meteoric iron. It was later shown by Flight 
to be identical with Reichenbach's ttenite, and 
was named by him edmoiidsonite (after George 
Edmondson, 'Director of Queenwood College, 

meteorist (me'te-o-rist), n. [rneteor -f -ist.'\ 
One who is versed in the study of meteors. 
N. E. v. 

meteoristic ^me"te-p-ris'tik), (7. [mcteorism.'\ 
Pertaining to or aileeted with meteorism. 

meteorit (me'te-o-rit), n. [6. (f ) : gee meteor- 
ife] An alloy of aluminium and phosphorus. 
It is a chemical mixture and can be melted 
and cast. It has a comparatively liigh tensile 
strength and can be worked like brass. Sci. 
Amer. Sup., Jan. 24, 1903, p. 22622. 

meteorite) ». The great interest in meteorites in re- 
cent years has led not only to a minuter study of known 
meteorites, but also to a keener search for new specimens 
and a closer wateh for falls. The result of this activity is 
shown in the very considerable increase in tlie number of 
known meteorites from well-authenticated in<lependent 
sources. The collections of Vienna and London contain 
each between 560 and (iOO specimens and the Ward-Coonley 
collection (now in New York) has over 600. Of recent 
discoveries of meteoric iron, the Willamette specimen, 
found in Clackamas county, Oregon, in 1902, ia remarkable 
for its great size (being one of the four largest mjisses 
known to e.xist : see below), and also for various structural 
features. Its dimensions are lOJ x 7 x 4 feet, and its esti- 
mated weight about 1.SJ tons. Tlie form (see cut) is 
roughly conical, and the cone-shaped portion, lying be- 
neath when found, was obviously the front side (brust- 
eei'te) in the forward motion of tlie mjiss. A remarkable 
feature of this iron is the large, basin-like cavities on the 
upper exposed surface, probably the result of terrestrial 
decomposition during the long period that has elapsed 
since its fall. Near Canon Diablo, Arizona, in a very 
limited area, more than (JOO masses of meteoric iron hjive 
been found since 1891, They vary from about 1,200 
pounds to half an ounce and less in weight and their 
occurrence is immediately associated with a remarkable 
crater (J of a mile wide, r>(X) feet deep), which is believed 
to owe its origin to the impact of the meteoric mass. This 
iron is noteworthy because it has been shown by various 
Investigators, especially by Moissau of Paris, to contain 
minute transparent octahedrons of diamond. It has also 
yielded green crystals of carbon silicide (mois- 
ganite). identical with the artificial compound used in the 
arts as an abrasive under the name of carborundum. The 
mass of meteoric iron, the ' Ahnighito meteorite," brought 
to New York by Lieutenant Peary from, Cape York, Green- 
land, in 1897 (known since 1818), is unquestiouiibly the 
largest meteorite preserved in any museum and perhaps 
the largest mass known to exist It measures 11 x 7^ x 
5i feet and weighs 36J tons ; its form is shown in the cut 


1871), while that of Chupadero, Chihuahua, Mexico (18.'i2), 
weighs about 16 tons. The meteoric origin of the Ahni. 
ghito iron is well established, although the iron of Disko 
Island and those of some other localities on the west coast 
of Greenland are certainly terrestrial. The great mass of 
Santa Catharina, Brazil, remarkable for its high percent- 
age of nickel (:M per cent), is now generally regarded as 
terrestrial ; this type is called catarinite by Meunicr. 
Some doubt also has been cast upon the meteoric origin of 
the iron from Oktibbeha county, Jlississippi, which con- 
tains 60 per cent of nickel {oktibhehite type, Meunier). 
The meteorites which have been seen to fall between 1890 
and 1906 number about 30. These include three irons, 
those of Quesa, Spain (1898), of Bugaldi, New South Wales 
(1900), and of Ngoureyma, in Northwest Africa (1900) ; the 
latter-named mass weighed 37J kilograms, and its remark- 
able appearance is shown in the adjoining cut The 
minute microscopic and chemical examination of meteoric 
irons has led to more definite knowledge of the composi- 
tion of the various iron-nickel alloys, Itnmnnlr. t/enite, 
and plesnte fomiing the triad (or trias) of Reichenbach 
(see Widmamutdtlian figureg, under WidmanmldttUin) ; 
of these, kamacite contains from 4.8 to 7.4 per cent of 
nickel, tjcnite from 16.7 to 38.1 per cent., and plessite is 
regarded as a eutectic mixture of the two species. Reich, 
enbach's tamprite (tjlanzeisen) has been shown, however, 
to be not nickel-iron, but in part iron carbide (including 
cohemte (Fe, NifeC), and in part schreibermte. The ed- 
mondsantte of Might (irteteorin of Abel) is only tronite. 
The tnckelkamacite of Brezina (hiiUcisenof Reichenbach) 
is kamacite, not in regular form as usual, but of irregular 
outline inclosing accessory constituents, sulphids, graph- 
ite, silicates, etc. The iron sulphid of meteoric irons is 
now conceded to be troilite (FeS), not pyrrhotine (Fe7S8), 
The list of chemical. elements identified in meteorites 
has been increased by the following, several of them de- 
tected in traces only and a few perhaps needing conflr- 

WiUamette Metotit,-. 

Side Yiew showing holes piercing the base. 

In the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

A somewhat higher weight (estimated as 46 tons) is given 
for the iron of Bacubirito, Sinaloa, Mexico (known since 

Ahnighito Meteorite. 

(ii feet wide.) 

In the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

mation: gold, silver, platinum, iridium, palladium, lead, 
gallium, selenium ; the stone of Saline township, Kansas, 
contains free phosphorus. Tlie identification of leucite, 
a mineral of rather rare occun-ence in terrestrial igneous 
rocks, as an essential constituent of the meteoric stone of 
Schafstiidt is an interesting point; it is probably also 
present in the Pavlovka stone (1882). The classification 
of meteorites now generally adopted is essentially that of 
Gustjiv Rose (Berlin, 186,3) as extended and elaboi'ated by 
later writers, particulaily A. Brezina of Vienna. The 
fundamental division is that between the meteoric irons, 
or siderites, consisting essentially of metallic iron (prob- 
ably in all cases nickel-iron), and the meteoric stones, or 
aerolites, in which silicates predominate, the metallic 
nickel-iron sometimes (though rarely) entirely absent 
As a transition-group between the irons and stones be- 
long those meteorites in which the iron fonns a continu- 
ous, sponge-like mass inclosing silicates (chiefly olivin 
and bronzite) ; these are often embraced under the gen- 
eral name of sideroliles, and sometimes (as below, Bre- 
zina) divided into sideroliles aud lithusideriles, according 
as the iron, on a cross-section, appears as separate grains 
or forms a continuous web. The system of Brezina (cata- 
logue of the Ward-Coonley collection, 1904) recognizes 
further the following prominent divisions : I. Ston es ; 
(n) aehondrites, chondri generally absent, metallic iron 
absent or only sparingly present ; (b) chondrites, chontlri 
prominent, bronzite, olivin, and iron essential ; (c) clum- 
drites, with enstitite, anorthite, and iron essential ; (rf) 
sideroliles, iron inclosing silicates, iron in separate grams 
in section. II. Irons : (c) lithosideriles, iron and sili- 
cates, the iron continuous in section ; (/) actahedrites, 
irons with octahedral structure aa shown iu 'Widmann- 
stiittian figures ; {g) hexahedrites, irons with cubic struc- 
ture and cleavage ; (/i) ataxites, structure inteiTupted or 
indistinct These divisions are further separated into 
groups or types briefly characterized as follows : (n) 
ACHONDKITES : (1) chladnite (abbreviated Chi), con- 
sisting chiefly of bronzite (named, like the mineral chlad- 
nite ( = enstatite), after the physicist Chladni (17ri6-lS27), 
who wrote about meteors) ; (2) chladnite with bronzite, 
blacker metallic veined (Chia); (3) anyrite (A), chiefly 
augite (named after the meteorite of Angra dos Keys, 
Brazil; date of fall, 1869); (4) chassiijnite (cha), chiefly 
olivin (Chassigny, France, ISli")) ; (:'.) b'uxtite (,\',\\), bronzite 
and augite (Busti, India, lSf>2); (6) umphuterite (Am), 
bronzite and olivin (named by Tschermak); (7) rodite 
(Ro), bronzite and olivin, brecciated or breccia-like (La 
Roda, Spain, 1871) ; (8) encrite (Eu), augite with anorthite 
(named by Rose in 1863 ; also used for a terrestrial rock : 
see eucrite) ; (9) shergottite (She), augite with niaske- 
lynitc (Sherghotty, India, ISU.".) ; (10) hou-ardite (Ho), bron- 
zite, olivin, augite, and anorthite (named by Rose after 
Edw.Trd Howard, who first determined the true nature of 
meteoric iron : Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1802) ; (11) how- 
ardite, brecciated (Hob) ; (12) leucittiranolite (L), leucite, 
anorthite, augite, and glass (named by C. Klein, 1904). (6) 
Chosdbites : (1) howarditic chondrite (Cho) ; (2) the 


same, veined (Choa); (3) chondrite, white and friable 
(Cw) ; (4) the same, veined (Cwa) ; (5) the same, brecciated 
(Cwl)); (6) intennediate chondrite (Ci), firm, with white 
and gray chondri ; (7) the same, veined (Cia) ; (8) the 
same, brecciated (Cib) ; (9) gray chondrite (Og), flmi gray 
mass with chon- 
dri ; (10) the same, 
veined (Cga); (11) 
the same, brecci- 
ated (Cgb) ; (12) or- 
vinite (Co), black, 
infiltrated mass, 
discontinuous j 
crust (Oi-vlnio, 
Italy, 1872) ; (13) I 
tadjerite (CtX 

black, semiglasay, 
without crust 
(Tadjira, Africa, 
1867); (14) black 
chondrite (Cs), 
dark or black mass; 
chondri of various 
colors ; (15) the 
same, veined (Csa) ; 
(16) ureilite (IT), 
black mass, chon- 
dritic or granular, 
iron in veins, etc. 
(Novo UreijRussia, 
1886); (17) carbona- 
ceous chondrite 
(K), dull-black 
friable chondri 
with free car- 
bon and little or 
no iron ; (18) the 
same, spherulitic 
(Kc); (19) the 
same, spherulitic, 
veined (Kca) ; (20) 
spherulitic chon- 
drite (Cc), mass 
friable, chondri not breaking with matrix ; (21) the same, 
veined (Cca) ; (22) the same, brecciated (Ccb) ; (2:i) or- 
nansite (t'co), friable mass of chondri (Oniaiis, France, 
1868); (24) ngawite (Ccn), friable, brecciated mass of 
chondri (Ngawi, Java, 1883) ; (26) spherulitic chondrite, 
crystalline (Cck); (26) the same, veined (Ccka) ; (27) the 
same, brecciated (Cckb) ; (28) crystalline chondrite (Ck) ; 
(29) the same, veined (Cka) ; (:jo) the same, brecciated 
(Ckb). (<•) Enstatite-anorthite ohonuhites : crys- 
talline chondrite <;Cck), enstatite, anorthite, and iron 
with i-ound chondri. (d) Siderolites : (1) mesaaderite 
(M), sponge-like mass of iron inclosing crjstalline olivin 
and bronzite (name given by G. Rose, 1862 : see mesnside- 
rite); (■>) grahamite (llg), the same, with also plagioclase 
(,r Lorimer Graham of New York city); (:i) lodhranite 
(Lo), granular crystalline olivin and hionzite in iron (Lod- 
hran, Indi;», 1868). (c) Lithosiderites : (1) siderophyre 
(S), bronzite grains with .accessory asmaniteiii iron(named 
by Tschermak) ; (2)-<5) groups of pallasites, iron inclosing- 
olivin (Pk), (Pr), (Pi). (Pa), differing chiefly in relation to. 
the olivin (named from Pallas iron, Krasnoyarsk. Siberia, 
1749). (J) OcTAHEDRiTES : groups (l)-(3), fine octahe- 
drites (OfO. (Ofv). (Of), showing thin lamella; of varying- 
types, widths 0.:i-<j.4 millimeters; (4) medium octahe- 
drite (Cm), lamella! 0..5-0.10 millimetere ; (5) broad octa- 
hedrite (Og), lamella; 1.5-2.0 millimeters; (6) broaiiest 

Bugaldi Meteorite. 

One hall natural size, showing the drip 

from the under side, tail end. 

In Technological Museum, 

Sydney. N. S. W. 



Ngoure>-ma Meteorite. 
Top and side yiews, about one scTenth natural size. 

octahedrite (Ogp) ; ("HH) brecciated octahedrite.«, flne^ 
medium, etc., ditfereiit types (Obk), (Obn), (Obz). (obzj,'),. 
(Obc) ; (r2)(x;taliedrite, Hammond pruiip (Ob). 0/) Hexa- 
HKDRiTEs: (1) noniial, not granular (H) ; (-2) >:i-unular 
(Ha); (3) brecciated (Hb). (/*) Ataxites : groups {ly- 
(8) (respectively desigiiat<?d as Do, Dsh, Db, Dl, Dn. Ds, 
Dp, and Dm), diflfering cbiefly eitber in amount of nickel 
or in structure ; the Siratic group (Ds, and named fi-oni a 
place in Senegal) is poor in nickel, but contiins rhabdite. 
Daubr^e divided all meteorites into four grand divisions, 
according to the amount of iron present, namely : holo- 
siderHe», containing no silicates ; tfy aside ritesy an iron 
mass inclosing silicates ; it2K»-tTdosideritex, stones with 
disseminated grains of iron ; asideritesy stones containing 


no metallic iron. He f iii-thf r diviiled the sporadosiderites 
into polt/itideriteg, iron abundant ; olifjoxiderites, iron less 
abuudant ; and cryptoside rites, iron not visible Ut the 
eye. This classification was further developed by Meunier, 
who distinguished fifty-three groups, named in most cases 
after 8<.>nie typical meteorite ; these begin with the highly 
nickeliferous irons oktibbehite and catarinite (see above), 
also tazewellUe. nelmnite, braunite, etc., and end with 
onnieillite and hokkeu-ellite. 

Meteoritic hypothesis. See -^hypothesis. 

meteorogram (me'te-o-ro-grara). H. [Gr. uere- 
ujpnv. \\ iiH'teor. + ypdufiOj a writing.] The rec- 
ord of atmospheric conditions made by a 

Six possible sources of constant error have been recog- 
nized as influencing the records. These are (1) instru- 
mental errors, (2) errors in exposure of instruments when 
comparing with standards, (S) errors in reading from 
meteoro<jrain», etc. 

r. S. Monthly Weather Rev., March, ISOl^ p. 121. 

meteorograph, » — ASrlal meteorograph, a very 

Iii.'ht fcnii of meteorograph, designed to be raised to a lu-iL'ht by means of kites or a souuding-balktoii. 
Meteoroldal hypothesis. Same as meteoritic 

*hiij»>fhrsis. Amer. GeoL, July, 1903, p. 14. 
meteorol. An abbreviation of meteorohgical. 
Meteorological chart. See weather-map.^TAetecTO- 

loglcal equator, photography. See -ke^iuator, ■^pho- 


meteorology, ".— Cosmlcal meteorology, the gen- 
eral relation of the earths atniosifhere to eosmical pro- 
cesses, more especially to the radiation from the sun to 
the earth, or the nidiation of the earth into space.— 
I)ynamlc meteorology, the study of the forces that 
produce the moti«ms of the atmosphere; the combined 
thermodynamics, hydr*Hlynamics, and aerodynamics of 
the atni<«phere ; the physics of the atmosphere ; theo- 
retical meteorol()gy.— Planetary meteorology, the 
study of the relations between atmospheric phenomena 
and the motions or positions of tlie m<j*m and planets, 
since no such relations are accepted by the best author- 
ities, this study is also spoken of us a fahe or pxcudc- 
»*^//■r,ro^.'/.v.— Statical meteorology, that branch of 
meleon-.tU')gy which treats of the conditiini and the 
phenomena of the atmosphere at any moment, without 
much regard to the underlying causes ; statistical meteor- 
ology : eliniatology. 

meteoroscope, ». 2. An instrnment for ob- 
serving and registering the apparent path of a 

meter*, n. 4. In photog., an instrument for 
determining the time of exposure. 

Exposure Metern. When gelatine dry plates came into 
general use. and wer»maile ot many different degrees of 
sensitiveness, the want of a guide to the pn.per exjKjsure 
for the various makes of i>lat«8 under different conditions 
"f lighting began to be felt, and several methotls were 
l.vised for meeting the want. Encyc. Brit., XXXI. 701. 
Meter of water, a unit of gaseous pressure ; the pres- 
sure exerte4l by a vertical colunni of water one meter in 
height. A meter of water exerts a pressure of lOfM) kilo- 
grams, or a metric ton. <m a s«iuare meter of surface, 
hence its numerical convenience as a unit. Also called 
nn-ter of water r')/«m>L— Pendulum meter, an electric 
meter wh'ch has an oscillatory instead of a rotat4>r>' mo- 
tirni.— Power-factor meter, a recording instrument 
for indicating tin- p«.wer fact<ir of an alteniating-current 
circuit. — Quantity meter, an integrating meter for 
electric circuits which usually reads or records in am- 
IH're-h<iurB or coulombs. 

meter-angle (me ' ter - ang ' gl), «. In optics^ 
the unit of convergence correnponding to one 
diopter of accommodation. 

meter-bridge (me't^r-brij), n. A slide-wire 
bridge the calibrated wire of which is one 
Tiifter h>iig. See ^sHde-tcire bridge. 

meter-candle (me't^r-kan'dl), n. Same as 

meter-gram (me'ter-gram), n. A practical 
unit used in describing or specifying the prop- 
erties of wire or other electrical conductors; 
a wire one meter long and weighing one gram. 

meter-lens (me't^r-lenz), n. A lens having a 
focal distance of one meter. 

meter-millimeter ( me^t^r-miri-me-ter ), H. 
A practical unit used in describing or specify- 
ing the properties, especially the resistance, 
of wires ; a wire one meter long and one milli- 
Tncter in diameter. 

meter-pump (me't^r-pump), n. A device for 
obtMimnt: samples of air for analysis. Jhick, 
M*-l. Ibuidbook, II. 567. 

metethereal (met-e-the're-al), a. [Gr. fura^ 
after, + E. etherehl.l Existing beyond the 
ether. See the extract. [Rare.] 

Metetherial.— That wliich apiwjars to lie aft«r or be- 

ycnid the ether; the metethfrinl environment denotes the 

spiritual or tranftcen<Iental world in which the soul exists. 

F. W. li. Ml/em, Human P»:r8*»nality, I. Gloss, p. xix. 

UV. A D. 

meth-. A combining form sometimes used in 
or;:;ttiic chemistry in place of niethyl. 

Meth. An abbreviation of Methodist. 

methacetin (meth-as'e-tin), n, Imeth(ijl) H- 
ftcffin.] A trade-name of para-oxyraethylacet- 
anilidc, a white crystalline j>owder, for use as 
an antipyretic and antiseptic remedy. 


methaform ( meth ' a -form ), n. Same as 
'^rhloretone^ or ^acetone chloroform. 

methanal (meth'a-nal), n. [niethane -h -flZ3.] 
Same as formaldehyde. 

Methane type, the constitution of those organic com- 
pounds which may be considered as being derived from 
ntethane (CH4), by the replacement of one or more of the 
hydrogen atoms by radicals or elements. 

methanol (meth'a-nol), n. [methane + -o/.] 
The official, scientific name for methyl alcohol, 

methazonic (meth-a-zon'ik), a. [meth{yl) -f 
a::one -k- -icsl Noting an acid, a colorless, un- 
stable, explosive compound, CH2N2O3, pre- 
pared by the action of alcohol and sodium 
hydroxid on nitromethanci It crystallizes in 
needles and melts at 58-60° C. 

methenyl (meth'e-nll), n. \_meth(yl) + -ene + 
-yl.'] The trivalent organic radical ^CH. Also 
called methine. 

methide (meth'id), iu ImethiyI) + -ide^.'] 
A class-name applied in organic chemistry to 
compotinds of the univalent radical methyl, 
-CH3. It is chiefly used in the case of metallic 

methilepsia (meth-i-lep'si-ii), n. [NL., < Gr. 
f^iitfv, wiiio, -I- /^^/f, taking, seizure.] Same 
as methomania. 

methionic (meth-l-on'ik), a. [me{thyl) + ihi~ 
onic.'] Noting an acid, a colorless crystalline 
deliquescent, very stable compound, CH2- 
(S0qH)2^ prepared by the action of fuming 
sulpnunc acid on lactic acid, and formed, in 
small quantity, by the action of sidphuric acid 
on ether. 

method, ».—Apa€Ogric method, reductio ad absurdum, 
— ApostoU method, in med., the treatment of tibroid 
tumors <'f the uterus by means of electrolysis. — Arge- 
lander'S method, in a»tron., a method of observing the 
light-tluctuationa of a variable star by visual comparison 
with neighb<iring stars of nearly the same brightness. — 
Bradley's method, in upticit, a metho<l of determining 
the velocity of light from the aberration of the fixed staj-s 
and the velocity of the earth in its orbit, due t<3 the as- 
tronomer Bradley(17:i7). Hee velocity o/-kliyht.—BTBJl€i'S 
method, in med., the treatment of typhoid and tither 
fevers by means of cool baths. ^Brandt's method, in 
med., manual pressure through the iibdonunal walls uikhi 
the Fallopiim tulies, designed to foreu out contained pus 
or other nuid.—Bravals'S method, in meteor., amethcKl 
of determining the true altitude and motion of a cUuid. 
It consists in observing the images of a cloud as seen in 
one mirror far below the oV)server and in another mirror 
nearhim. The twomirrors may be turned sothatthetwo 
images perfectly overlap or coincide. The lower mirror 
may be always hfjrizontal and may be the sm(.K)th surface 
of a lake. The angle between the two miirors and their 
distance apart enable the observer U) compute the alti- 
tude i'f the ch»iid.— Cascade method. See -kcnitcadel. 

-Collodion sac method, stt- ^eollodion.—CrzCii*^ 

method, in ni'd. : ('() Tile instillation of a solution of 
nitrate id silver into the eyes of a new-bom child, as a 
preventive of goni)rTheal ophthalmia, (b) Tompression 
of the uterus made by the liand of the accoucheur in order 
t-i squeeze out the j)larenta aftt-r tlie birth of the child. — 
Deslandre's spectroerraphlc method, ^'ee -^gpectro- 
f/r<7;i/NV.— Double-slit method, tlie method of the 
*8pectrohelicjgraph (which see).— Dry method. Same 
as dry way (whicii see, under ar.i/). —Dumas'a method, 
in phy 8., a process for the detennination of \apor-densi- 
tiea invented by the chemist Dumas. It consists in 
heating the liquitl to be vaporized in a glass bulb of 
known Vfjlume. When the liquid has entirely disap- 
peared, the neck of the bulb is sealed and the bulb is 
weighed. From the mass of the vapor, thus detemuned, 
and its vidume, the vapor-density is computed. —Error 
JXXethOdB, in pxychophyg., aunme introduced by Wnndt 
in 1.S83 to include avei-age error and right and wrong 
cases. See yradation itmethod/i, — Flzeau-Comu 
method, in opticH, tlie method emplr»yed by Fizeau and 
subsequently by Comu for measuring the velocity of light. 
See v'i„city of *^ty/l^— Flechslg's myeUnatlon 
method. See *irtyc//H«/iVn.~Foucault's method, in 
(ndics, the meth(Hl employed by Foucault for measuring 
the velocity of light. See velocity 0/ * light. ~TrO\)en- 
iUB'fl method, in math., a method of integrating linear 
differential equations in series. It has the advantage of 
exhibiting the c<innection between the two solutions 
found by it.— Galton'S method, in pyyrhfL, a name 
sometimes applied Uj the ciuestionary method, which, 
though not invented by Oalt^Hi, was used by him with con- 
spicuous success in the stmly of visualization. Tables of 
ipiestions (questionaries) dealing with some psychological 
t<jpic are prepared and sent to a hu-ge mnnber of pei-sons. 
The replies are collated with a view to the induction cif 
psychological unifonnities, the determination of the 
range of mental variation, etc.— Glbbs'S vector method. 
See -kcector. — Gol^ method, in hixtol., a method of dis- 
tinguishing the nene-cells and their branches by Btaiu- 
ing them with silver nitrate. 

Tlie Golgi method of differentiating the nervous elements 
has so revolutionized our knowledge of the structure of 
the nervous system that no text-b<K)k on that subject ten 
vears old is of any value except as history. 

Amer. Inventor, Dec. 1.5, 1003, p. 298. 
Oradatlon methods, in pfyrhophyg., a name intrtHluced 
by Wundt in 1»8;J Ut include minimal changes and mean 
gradations. E. B. TUchener, Exper. Psychol., II. ii. 
;il».— GraJBBln method, iu photog., a process, especially 
adapted ^> the pb<»tographing of manuscripts, invented 
by Mgr. (Jrattin of Paris. See the extract 

The apparatus for the methode Grajfin consists essen- 
tially of a prism, or mirrcjr, inclined at an angle of 45 de- 
grees, In front of the object glass of the camera, in order 


to reverse the image before its passage into the object, 
glass, in such a way that, twice reversed, it is reproduced 
as a positive on the sensitive paper. The proof will be 
negative; the black letters of the manuscript or book 
copied will appear in wliite against a black or dark back- 
ground. The order of the letters and their position will 
be nonnal, by reason of the double reversal. The plate- 
holder contains sheets of bromide paper, preferably rapid. 
One great advantage of the method is that the manuseiipt 
or book Ui be photographed may be placed horizontally 
on the table or chair, or on the floor. The work is done 
with rapidity, almost as fast as one can turn the pages. 
Only one copy can be made by this process, which cannot 
therefore serve for the production of a large number of 
copies. The Nation, March 5, 1908. 

Oram's method, in bacterial., a method of staining 
based upon the principle that certain bacteria after being 
stained with aniline dyes retain the color on subsequent 
treatment with a solution of iodopotiissic iodide, wliile 
others are decolorized.^Hampe's method, in che)n., a 
method for the detemiination of oxygen which consists 
in reducing the oxid of finely divided copper (brought to 
a bright-red lieat) in a current of hydrogen, the loss in 
weight giving a measure of the amount of oxygen.— 
Hehner method, iu chem., an analytical process applied 
to butter, and to other fats and oils, which determines 
the percentage of insoluble fatty acids whicli can be ob- 
tained from the particular fat— Inverse method of 
fluxions. See y^wa^iwi.— Isthmus method, a method 
of testing the magnetic permeability of iron under great 
magnetizing force, in which the sample, in the form of a 
short bobbin, is so placed between the poles of an electro- 
magnet as to form part of a closed magnetic circuit 

In applying the isthmifg method it is desirable to be 
able to turn the bobbin round suddenly between the mag- 
net ;joles. 

J. A. Exving, Magnetic Induction in Iron and other- 

[Metals, p. 150. 

Keeler's spectrographic method. See •kiq)ectro- 
f/r^^j^Mc— KJeldahl method, in chem., a method of de- 
termining nitrogen in organic compounds, suggested by 
Kjeldahl. It consists in boiling the substance with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, with or without the addition of 
A little copper or potassium sulphate or mercuric oxid : 
this oxidizes the carbon to carbon dioxid, and the hydro- 
gen to water, and converts the nitrogen into ammonia. 
The liquid is then made alkaline and tlie ammonia bcjiled 
off. The method is used chiefly for the examination of 
fertilizers, foodstuffs, etc— LabOrde'S method, iti med., 
a method of inducing resjiinitiun in eases of threatening 
asphyxiation, as in drowning, by means of rhythmical trac- 
tions on the tongue. — Littrow's method (naut.), a 
navigation rule, named sifter its authoi', by whirh to deter- 
mine the ship's longitude from the enii>IoynRiit of rircum- 
meridian altitudes.- Measurement methods, metric 
methods; psychophysical metric methods; in psycho- 
phys., methods for the determination of the stimulus and 
differential limen, and of subjectively equivalent stimuli 
and stimulus'differences ; typified by the four classical 
methods of just noticeable differences, mean gradations, 
average error, and right and wrong cases.— Method Of 
average error, one of the four classical methods of psy- 
chophysics, in which a variable stimulus is equated for 
sensation to a const4mt stimulus and the errors of adjust- 
ment are combined to funiish a representative or average 
error. The method was introduced into psychophysics by 
Fechner. A*. B. Titchoner, Exper. Psychol., 11. i. 70. — 
Method of characteristics, a geometric method at the 
basis of enunierative geometry, founded by Chasles on his 
forrespon<lence-principle (]8t>4).— Method Of Clement 
andDesormes, iu phys., a method for the deterniinntion 
of the rati() of the two specific heats of a gas. The gas, con- 
tained in a closed receptacle, is suddenly compressed by 
means of a piston, and the change of pressure due to this 
approximately adiabatic cliangeof volume is immediately 
noted. The pressure is read again after the gas has cooled. 
This gives the result of an isothennal change of volume. 
The ratio of these two changes is the ratio of the si)ecific 
heats.- Method of complete series, in psychoj}hy.t., a 
mode of the method of just noticeable difl^erences (which 
see, under -kdifference) which combines into one the par- 
tial series required for the detennination of the u]q)er 
and lower differential li mens. —Method Of constant 
stimuli, ill psychophys., the method of right and wrong- 
cases as employed with a number of stimuli for the de- 
tennination of" the stimulus limen.- Method Of con- 
stant stimulus-differences, in pi^ychophys., the 
method of right iiTid wrong cases as employed with a 
number of stimuli, above and below the staiulard stimu- 
lus, for the determination of the differential limen.— 
Method of doubled stimuli, in psychophys., a method, 
proposed by J. Merkel, the object of which is the deter- 
mination of a stimulus that is subjectively the doul>le of 
the given stimulu.s.— Method Of equal and unequal 
cases, in paychnphys., a mollification of the method of 
right and wrong cases. projMised in 1SS8 by J. Merkel.— 
Method of equal-appearing intervals, of equal 
sense-distances, of mean gradations, of supralim- 
inal differences, in ]»!yhi'}>hy^., a methiui the oliject 
of which is tile equation of two supniliiiiiMul .sense- 
distances. In the usual fomi of the method, the two ex- 
treme stimuli are given, and the third, intermediate 
stimulus is varied up ami down by small steps until it 
appears Ui divide the XaAoX sense-distance into halves. 
Other fonns of the metluKl are, however, possible; and 
the princijde may also be employed for the just notice- 
ablel differentiation of supraliminal sense-distances. — 
Method of equivalents, in psychophys., a form of the 
Fechnerian method of avenige error in which the .stimuli 
or stimulus-differences to be equated are apjiUe*! to differ- 
ent parts of the sense-oi^an.— Method Of infinitesimals, 
the method of Leibnitz for the calculus. Method Of 
just noticeable differences, method of least differ- 
ences, method of minimal differences. See *'/*/- 
ference.— Method of limits. ('') In psyrhophys., a form 
or mode of the method of just noticeable differences 
(which see, under -kdifference), developed by G. E. Mueller. 
It is characterized by rules of procedure which make its 
results comparable with the result.s of the metluxl of con- 
stant stinndus-ditferences (method of right and wrong 
cases).- Method Of minimal changes, in psychophys., 
a form or mode of the method of just noticeable differences 
(which see, under -kdifference), develojwd by Wundt It 


is chai-Hcterizeti by the attention paid to the psychologi- 
Ciil v;iriable errors. esiH'ciuUy to ex])ectj\tion and pmctice. 
—Method of multiple reproduction, nethod of 
single reproduction, in ;',s*/('/i(»;»/ii/A'., forms nf tlie Fech- 
nerian method of average eiTor employed in work upon 
the estimation of time-intervals. In the former, a stan- 
dani or normal interval is given, and the observer repro- 
duces thisinterviU (say, by tapping on a key) three, five, 
ten, or so many times, tlie length of the nonnal and of the 
reproduced intervals being graphically recorded ; in the 
latter, the normal interval is bounded by two clicks or 
Btn.>kes, and the oV>server is required to make a third 
stroke as soon as a time has elapsed which he judges to 
be equal to the normal. The length of the two intervals 
is recorded as before.— Method Of paired compaii- 
BOns. See -kvomparisoii.— Method of passage, in hAc- 
terinl., a methoil of im-reasing the virulence of pathogenic 
bacteria by inoculating a number of animals one from the 
other in a series. —Method Of reactions, in metal., a 
method of double dect>niposition, in which to a molten 
' bath or to a st)lntion of a combiimtion of bases and acids 
a reagent is added which is itself a salt or compound of 
base and acid ; the acid of the metallic solution goes to 
the base of the reagent, and the acid of the reagent unites 
with the bases in the solutioiK Such double decomposi- 
tions we usual with the silicates and cavbuiiates in reduc- 
tion processes. —Method Of reciprocal polars, in geom., 
a method of duplicating or (iualizing all desrriptive and 
many metric projieilies of curves and surfaces by consid- 
eration of polar reciprocals. It was thst systematically 
employed by Poncelet— Method Of right and wrong 
answers, in vst/chophj/g., a simplified form of the method 
of right and wrong cases, introduced by J. Jastrow and E. 
Kpdepelin. in which the judgment 'doubtful' is forbid- 
den and all judgments have accordingly the form * greater' 
or 'less. —Method of right and wrong cases, in pay- 
chophys., a method in which a single slight stimulus- 
difference, or a number of stinuilus-ditferences ranging 
from small to large above and below the standard stimu; 
lus, is presented to the observer, who is required to judge 
in each case of the relation of the component stimuli (as 
second stimulus greater, less, much greater, relation 
doubtful, etc.). From the distribution of the judgments 
in accordance with the theoi-y of probabilities a differen- 
tial limen and its meiisure of precision may be determined, 
like the method of constant stimuli ^which see, above), 
the method is available for the determination of a stinui- 
lus limen. It is evidently, in a way, the counterpart and 
supplement of such methods as that of minimal changes. 
There, stimuli are varied until a required judgment has 
been passed ; here, stimuli are constant and the observer's 
judgments are variable.— Method Of Roy and Rams- 
den* in phys., a method for the measurement of the linear 
expansion of bars, in which the elongation is observed 
directly through microscopes focused upon cross-lines 
ruled upon the specimen.. See *(/j7afo«it^/cr.— Methord 
of substitutions, in atrj., a method based upon replac- 
ing a quantity by another or by a function of several othei-s. 
—Method of two, three, five, etc., cases, in psycho- 
phys., Wundt's names for various fomis of the method of 
right and wrong cases. In the first, there are two possi- 
bilities of judgment (equal and unequal, or positive and 
negative") ; in the second, three (greater, doubtful, less) ; 
in the third, five (much greater, greater, etc.).— Methods 
of adjustment. See •kadjustment.—MQtiiodB Of dif- 
ference, in psychophys., a name proposed in 1891 by E. 
Kraepelin to iiiclude right and wrong cases, right and 
wrong answers, and ecjual and une(iual cases. See 
innethods 0/ limit.s.—'M.ethods Of enumeration, in ?;«.(/- 
chophyi., a tenn introduced by Wundt in isSfO to include 
the methods of two, three, five, ete., cases, and extended 
in 1902 to average en*or : opposed in the flret case to 
methods ({f-kadjiigtment, &i\d in the second to gradation 
•m^^Aorfs. —Methods of limits, in p^^ychophys., a name 
proposed in 1891 by E. Kraepelin to include minimal 
changes, mean gradations, and average error. — Mixed 
method, the combination upon one printing-plate of the 
different processes of line-engraving, etching, mezzotint, 
with rouletting. 

Line-engraving has been killed by etching, mezzotint, 
and that bastard fonn of line-engraving known as the 
*' mixed method " — a combination of etching, graving, and 
machine-ruling, such as is seen in Thomas Landseer's 
"Stag at Bay." Encyc. Brit., XXVIII. 267. 

Napier's method (naut.), a graphic representation of 
the deviation. The margin of a compass card is shown 
as cut out at the N-pointand straightened into a veitical 
line, divided into 32 equal parts which con*espond to the 
32 points of tlie compass, and into 360 degrees of its cir- 
cumference. Also called Napier's card, compass-error 
card, curve, diagram, and deviation diagram..— New- 
ton's method of approximation, in al'j., a method for 
obtaining the roots of equations. — O'Dwyer'S method, 
in med., a method of relieving obstructive dyspncea by 
intubation of the larynx.- Ogata's method, in med. (a) 
A method of resuscitation of an asjihyxiated new-boni 
infant by alteniatelyapproximating the feet and the head 
and letting the body fall, holding the infant by the feet 
only, (h) A method of resuscitation, in cases of asphyxia 
from chloroform or ether, by stroking the lower portion 
of the chest with the fingers in order to stimulate respi- 
ration and the action of the heart. — Open method, in 
m^d., the treatment of wounds by free exposure to the 
air, as cnntrasted with the use of air-tight antiseptic dress- 
, ings.— Patch method. See *pa(cA.— Point-to-point 
method, a method of detennining wave-fonns of alter- 
^ting currents, in which each point ujkju the curve 

licating the wave is found separately. Also called s(eji>- 

'i^tep method. 

i-^ther X'laces there is an apparent want of knowledge 
it progress, as, for example, where the oscillograph 
of as an instrument of little value, the point-to- 
' being described as more practical. 

Nature, May 14, 1903, p. 31. 
^method, in tOi^ographical surveying of an 
I or teiTiUjry, the traverse methinl of de- 
relative jKisitions of several points by sur- 
. tf consecutive lines joining those points: 
Side ▼iev^ative to the method of triangulation, in 
In the American T^reyed form the sides of contiguous tri- 
A somewhat higher '' ">«»' «"J«» "« determined by trig- 
for the iron of Bacub. 


On the other side, the polygonal method permitted, as 
has already been stated, the carrying on of the operations 
of the survey along the route of each expedition. 

Geog. Jour. (K. G. S.), XVI. 331. 

Questionary method. See Galton's itmethod. — Reck- 
oning method, in psychophys., a metliod of enumei-ation 
((term. Abziihlungsmethode) typified by the method 
of right and wrong cases. W. Wundt (trans.), Outlines 
of Psychol., p. 2r.7.— Reserve-seed method. See *seed. 
-Reserve-sprout method. See •ksprout.—Romer's 
method, in cptiffi, tlie method employed by Komer 
(ICTfi) for comi)uting tlie velocity of light from observa- 
tions upon the eclipses of Jupiter's moons, made when 
the earth and that planet were in conjunction and when 
they were in opjxjsition. See velocity 0/ -klight. — ROUS- 
seau's method, in photom., agraphic method devised by 
Rousseau for finding the mean spherical intensity of a 
source of light. See Jiousseati's ir/igitre. — Sayre's 
method, in surg., the treatment of lateral curvature of 
the spine, or of Pott's disease, by means of a corset of 
plaster of Paris applied while the i)atient is suspended by 
bands under the arms.— Scattered-seed method. See 
•secrf.— -Schleich method, in med.: (a) Induction of 
local ana.'stlut'ia by distention of the tissues with a weak 
cocaine solution subcutaneously injected, {h) Induction 
of general anajsthesia by a mixture cf cldorofoiT.i, ether, 
and petroleum ether administered by inhalation.— Schott 
method, in med., the treatment of heart-disease Dy baths 
in effervescent water and by si)ecial exercises. — Seeheck'S 
and Holmgren's method, in exper. pnychoi., a rough 
method of testing partial color-blindness. Colored cards 
or worsteds are given to the subject, wlio is required to 
sort and match them witliout naming the colors.— Serial 
method, in jjxyc/irtp/ij/s., any methoil which implies the 
presentation to theol)gerverof a graded series of stimuli ; 
specifically, in the sphere of sensation, a gradation method ; 
in the sphere of aifection, a fonn of tlie method of imjires- 
sion. As applied to affective processes, the serial method 
reciuires that a series of stimuli be presented to the ob- 
server one at a time, and be referred by him to one or 
other of certain prearranged categories of affective inten- 
sity, as very pleasant, moderately pleasant, indifferent, 
moilerately unpleasant, very unpleasant The results are 
recorded in graphic fonn. — Single-tree method, that 
method of conservative lumbering in which reproduction 
from self-sown seed under the shelter of the old stand is 
invited by the cutting of single trees. This cutting may 
be made througliout the forest, as in some wood-lots, or in 
definite portions of the forest in turn. Also called selec- 
tion system,select ion method, shelter-^cood selection system. 

— Stand method, that method of conservative lum- 
bering in which reproduction is secured from self-sown 
seed by means of successive cuttings made throughout the 
mature stand, thus leading to the production of a new 
stand approximately even aged. ThesI successive cuttings 
encourage seed production, create conditions favorable to 
the growth of seedlings, and gradually remove the re- 
maining trees of the mature stand as the young growth 
defelopsf The series of cuttings, which vary in number 
and duration according to the degree of difficulty with 
which reproduction is effected, is divided into the follow- 
ing four kinds : (1) Preparatory cuttings fit the stand for 
its reproduction by the removal of dead, dying, or defec- 
tive trees, and prepare the ground for the germination of 
seeds. A stand in which one or more preparatory cut- 
tings have been made is in the preparatory stage. (2) 
Seed cuttings encourage seed production by the furtlier 
opening of thestand, and admit lightin quantity favorable 
for the development of young growth. A forest in which one 
or more seed cuttings have been made is in the seedling 
stage, (^^y Removal cuttings gradually remove the mature 
stand winch would otherwise retard the development of 
the young trees. A stand in which one or more removal 
cuttings have been made is in the removal stage. (4) The 
Jinal cutting is the last of the removal cuttings, in which 
all of the old stand still remaining is cut. Also called 
shelter-wood compartment syyfem, method of successive 
thinnings, compart imnt ni/stfm, and high forest com- 
partment syste7n.—&ta.tisiical method, (a) See sta- 
tistical method, under statistical. 0) In phys., the 
method of statistical niecluuiics in which a great number 
of systems, similar in nature but differing as to configura- 
tions and vrlorities, are simultaneously considered. — 
Step-hy-step method. Same as point-to-point -kmethod. 

— Sturm's method, in a/.'/., a method for ascertaining 
how many real mots of an e<iuation lie between any given 
limits.— Sylvester's dlalytic method, in alg., a method 
of elimination. See diaigtic, 3.— Sylvester's method, 
in tned., a method of aitiilcial respiration for the resusci- 
tation of a drowning person. Inspiration is effected by 
drawing the anns up over the head, the subject lying 
on the back, and expiration by folding the arms over the 
chest and producing pressure. — Tentative method, 
specifically, a procedure followed by skilled experts in 
opening locks of either the tumbler, pin, or combination 
keyless type, in which advantage is taken of possible lost 
motion due to poor mechanical construction, to detect, 
by feeling the yielding of the bolt, the position of pins 
or tumblers. This element of weakness has been reduced 
or eliminated in the more modem constructions, such 
as tlie so-called "paracentric" or deeply corrugated sec- 
tion of the key-way in tlat-key tyjies, and by the timtlnck 
combinations.— Thiersch's method Of skin-grafting. 
See itsHn-grafting.—VT\lt9XY method Of chemistry. 
See unitary ittheory.— "Welsh method Of COpper- 
smelting, a pnx-ess of smelting cojtper in reverber- 
atory furnaces, emph>yed largely in South "Wales. It is 
conducted in six stiiges. In the fii"st stage the pyritic ore 
(the ore usually employed) is roasted in a reverberatory 
furnace to expel the arsenic and a part of the sulphur, 
and a large proportion of thesulphidof iron present in 
the pyrites is changed into oxid of iron, while the copper 
oxid is converted into sulphid. In the second stage of 
the process the oxid of iron is removed by melting and by 
causing it to combine with silica: this part of the process 
is also can'ied out in a reverberatory furnace, and a coarse 
metal is obtained containing aboutj33 per cent, of copper. 
In the third stage the granulated coarse metal is calcined 
again for the purpose of oxidizing more of the sulpliid of 
iron. In the fourth stage the calcined coarse metal is 
fused together with some slag containing silica and ores 
containing oxid and carbonate of copper. The fused mass 
separates by gravity into the matte or regulus, containing 


from 60 to 80 per cent, of copi»er, and a metallic slag con- 
sisting chiefly of silicate of iron, but containing also some 
copper. The regulus, which is called, according to its 
appeaiance, eitlier cake blue metal, cake white metal, 
or pimple in^tal, is placed again in the reverberatory 
furnace. This constitutes the fifth stsige of the pnx;e8a, 
in which the sulphur is partly removed and blister-copper 
obtained. In the sixth and last st^ige the metal is refined 
and toughened by being subjected to oxidizing agencies 
while molten, duiing which the arsenic escajjes as vapor, 
while the other metals are converted to oxids.— Wet 
method. Same as wet way. — Will and Varrentrapp'fl 
method, in chem., a process, devised liy tlie two chemists 
named, for detennining quantitatively the nitrogen of 
organic substances submitted to analysis. It consists es- 
sentially in heating, in a tube of hard glass, a weighed 
portion of the substance mixed with a lai^e excess of soda- 
lime (a mixture of sodium and calcium hydroxids), tlius 
converting the nitrogen present into ammonia, which is 
cajried as gas into an excess of hydrochloric acid and so 
fixed as ammonium chlorid. In the ammonium chlniid 
the ammonia, and from it by calculation the nitrogen, 
may be determined either by the gravimetric or the vol- 
umetric method. This process has for a number of years 
been in most cases replaced by that of Kjeldahl.— Zero 
method. Same as null-method (which see, under 

metliodaster (meth'o-das-t^r), n. [Irreg. < 
method + -aster. Tlie formation does not ex- 
press the meaning intended.] One who makes 
an ignorant use of scientific methods, or mag- 
nifies unduly the importance of methods. 

The methndaster and macerator blunts the intuitions, 
the best thing in youth, drags down thoughts that lly and 
makes them crawl at a slow, senescent pace. More yet, 
it tends to pedantry that shields ignorance from exposure, 
teaches the art of seeming wise with empty minds, . . . 
and whips up a modicum of knowledge to deceptive pro 
portions. G. S. Hall, Adolescence, II. 496. 

Methodist. I. w.—Calvlnlstlc Methodists, Meth- 

fjdistswho accei)t the Calvinistic teachings of WhitefleUl, 
in the controverey of 1740, as opposed to the Aiminian 
doctrine of John Wedey. They are found chiefly in 
II. «.— Reformed Methodist Church. See 

*c7( u rch. 

Methodological parallelism, physiologi co-psycho- 
logical parallelism ; a methodological form of the doc- 
trine of psychophysical parallelism. See the quotation. 

From this [psychoneural parallelism] we must distin- 
guish a second sense of parallelism founded on the dis- 
parity just mentioned -as also-pertaining to the p«yehl«al 
and neural correlates. We may call this physiologico- 
psychological, or, more briefly, methodological parallelism. 
It rejects, as illogical, the attempt U> penetrate to psy- 
chical facts from the standpoint of phyiology. ... It 
also forbids the psychologist to piece out his own short- 
comings with tags borrowed froni the physiologist. The 
conceptions of the two sciences are to be kept distinct 
as the facta themselves to whi«h they relate are distinct. 
. . . This method olt^ical convention, as we may call it, 
implies a more stringent interpretation of causation than 
that expounded by J. S. Mill. ICncyc. Brit, XXXII. 66. 

Methody (meth'o-di), «. Same as Methodist, 
[Vulgar or dial.] 

methol (meth'ol), n. [meth(yl) + -o/.] 1. 
Same as "^carbiuoJ, *mefhanoly or mctJnj} al- 
cohol {v,'h\ch see, nuder alcohol), — 2. A color- 
less hydrocarbon, said to be found in crude 
wood-alcohol. It is probably a mixture. 

methonal (meth'o-nal), n. [incih{yl) + -one 
+ -rt/3.] A synthetic organic compound, 
(CH3)2C(SOoCH;i)2, similar in composition 
and action to sulphonal ; dimethylsulphone- 
dimethylmethane. It is hj'pnotie. 

methose (meth'os), n. {mcth{yl) + -osc.'] A 
colorless, sweet, syrupy carbohydrate, C(jHi2- 
Og, prepared by the condensation of formalde- 
hyde under the influence of magnesium 
hydroxid. It is probably a mixture. 

methoxy-group (me - thok ' si - grop), H. 
[meth{yl) + oxy- + groups.'] The monovalent 
organic radical -OCH3, derived from methyl 

methoxyl (meth-ok'sil), n. Same as ^mcthoxy- 

Methven screen. See '^^light standard* 

Methyl acetanllide, a coal-tar product with properties 
similar to acetanilide, sold under the tnule-name^xai.'nn: 
principally used as an analgesic— Mcttvl aldehyde. 
v^ame as formaldehude. — liLethyX alkali blue. See 
•khlue.— 'UlQthyl blue. See mcth'il-blue.— tHeXhjl 
chlorid, a colorless gas. CH3CI, prepared by the action 
of sodium chlorid and sulphuric acid on meth'yl alcohol, 
and formed by treating methane with chlorin. It has au 
ethereal odor and boils at— 23. TXT. It is sometimes 
used, mixed with ethyl chlorid, to jiroduce ana-stbesia. 
Also called chlormethane.— l/LeXiiVl ecsin, Cracge, 
See iteo^n, *or«n(/<?l.— Methyl Violet. See *mf f/(i/f- 

methylate, v. t. 2. To substitute in (a com- 
pound) the methyl radical -CH;^, for an equiv- 
alent of some other radical or element. 
— Methylated spirit. Alcohol thus denaturized or ren- 
dered unfit for drinking (with the additim of one half of 
one per cent of benzene) is by law exempt from the in- 
ternal revenue tax in the I'nited States, and therefore 
becomes available for manufacturing uses at much re- 
duced cost. Similar regulations have been adopted in 
otlier countries, and other materials than crude wood- 
spirit have been employed to denaturize the common or 
ethyl alcohol. 




[methyl + -atc^.} (Piper mefliystieum) . It crystallizes in silky, metoxenous (me-tok'se-ims), a. [Gr. iitra, 

-Sodium methy 
..Icirless compound, CH;jOXa, prepared by the methysticin (me-this'ti-sin) 

lustrous, prismatic needles and melts at 180° C. 
] n. [NL. methys- 
r ti. 1 t tic{um) + -(n2.] Same as *kawain. 
\_nmiiylate m^yg^ (ma-tya'), n. [F. metier, OF. mestier, 
bee metiiy- jn^gigj-^ _ jt. mestiero, < L. wi««(«<erj«w, attend- 
ance, service, office, occupation, work: see 

methylate (meth'i-iat), «. 
A derivative of methyl alcohol, 
late, a I'.ilorless compound, CH;jO:" 
;tction iif s.Kliuni on methyl alcohol. 

methylation (meth-i-la'shon), « 
+ -«)«.] The act of methylating, 
Metbylene acetylenazln. Same as *'jlyozahne. 
—Methylene benzoate, a crystalline comiiound. (tv 
Hnt-'Oo).,!'!!.,, prepared indirectly from formaldehyde 
and'iicicl. It melta at 99' C. and boila at ibh' C. 
— Methylene bine. See mtthylem-blue. — Methylene 
dlbenzamide, a crystalline compound. {('fiU5C0>'Il)2- 

CHo formed t»v the action of anunonia on methyleiie - ■ , y m w-ii- ^™ h* ™,- a o.> 

benloatl. It melts at US' C- Methylene gray, green, ""■"<■'•• -l- ' ««'"«''. ^^ ""«'" *■»"•»• P- *«• 

violet. See *</rnj/, etc.— New methylene-blue. (") m^tissage (ma-te-sazh'), «. [F., < metis, of 
A basic coal-tar color of the thiazii. type It .lyes ,„ixed race : see »«f(i>.] Mixture of races, 
tann n-mordaiited cotton a fuller and redder blue than „... „^ ,^- .-,, „ -"n, f^^ „f .„,;,;„ . „„„ 
methylene-blue. (')) X basio color of Uie o.vazin type, metlSSe (ma-tes ), n. [b ., tem. ot metis, see 
distinguished as neic metkyletie-Uue GO. WK'fis.] A Woman of mixed blood, particularly 

jnethylenitan (meth-il-en ' i-tan), ?i. [metliy- of mixed Indian and white descent. 
Irne + -itc- + -ait.'] A yellow syrupy or Metius's ratio. See ■''ratio. 

prepared metoche (niet'o-ke), n. [Gr. iieroxfi, a sharing, 
< /JtTEx^'v, share in, take part in, < /iera, among, 
+ £;i-Ea', have.] Inarch.: (n) The arrangement 
of a dentil-course or of a Doric frieze with its 
triglyphs and metopes : a term used by Vi- 
truvius (III. 3) [although some authorities 
make the term »iete<omc]. (6) The space be 

amoug. -t- itvoc, a stranger.] Heteroecious. 
metranate (met'ra-nat), n. [metran + -ate^.1 
The office or jurisdiction of a metran or head 
of the Abyssinian church. 

The Patriarchate of Alexandria, and Metranate of Ethi- 
opia. J. M. Neale, Hist. Eastern Chuich, I. 111. N. E. D. 

ministry and mystery^.'] Trade; profession ; metraneurism (me-tran 'u-rizm), n. [Gr. 
with reference to literature or art, one's par- fii/zpa, uterus, + avtvpvofid^, dilation (see aneu- 
ticular kind or line of ability. ri.s)«).] Same as ^metrectasia. 

Messrs. Morris & Co. s furniture was not of William metraterm (me ' tra -term), «. [Gr. fiiiTfia, 
Morris's own design, flat ornament being essentially his uterus, + L. term(inus), end.] In Certain 

trematodes, the short, thiok-walled terminal 
portion of the uterus. 

The uterus terminates in a short heavy-walled region 
devoid of eggs, known as the metraterm. 

Buck, Med. Handbook, VII. 862. 

amorphous carbohydrate, CgH^inO^, 
by boiling trioxymethylene with lime-water. 
It is not fermentable and is probably a mix- 

methylglycine (meth-il-gli'sin), it. Same as 
*sfircoxiiic. Also methylqlijcosiiie. 

methylgnanidin (meth-il-gwa'ni-din), n. A 
poisonous substance, of the nature of a pto- 
maine, which has been found in decomposing 

methyllndol (meth - il - in ' dol), fl. Same as 

methylmethane (meth-il-meth'an), «. Same 

by a false analogy with metope 
metochv (met 'o-ki), ?i. [Gr. //{TOOT, a shar- 
ing.] The relation between ants and those 
of their guests which are tolerated and not 
disagreeable to them. Cambridge Nat. Hist., 
VI. 183. 
methylosis(meth-i-16'sis), n. [Gr. /ifTd, after, metodontiasis (mefo-don-ti'a-sis), ji. [NL 

metratonia (me-tra-to'ni-a), M. [NL., < Gr. 

lirjTjia, uterus, + arovia, atony.] Atony of the 

metratrophia (me-tra-tro'fi-a), n. [Gr. nvrpa, 

uterus, + arpotpia, atrophy.] Atrophy of the 

metrectasia (me-trek-ta'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 

fii/rpa, uterus, + iKTamc, extension.] Dilatation 

of the non-pregnant uterus, 
tween two dentils: used by French writers, metrectomy (me-trek'to-mi), n. [Gr. /jz/t/jo 

< Gr. fit 


after, + ofSoi'f (oi^ovr-), tooth. -I- 
1 . Faulty development of the teeth. — 
2. The second dentition. 
metcestrous (met-es'trus), a. Of or pertaining 
to the metoestnun. See the extract under *met- 
metoestmm (met-es'tmm), n. ; pi. metcestra 
(-trii). [Gr. fuTa, after, + olarpo^, vehement 
imjiulse.] The period of decline which follows 
the height of tlie period of sexual desire in 
female mammals. 

Jfe(as#(r«7n, orthe Metcestrous Periwl. — If conception 
does not take place during ccstrus the activity of the gen- 
erative organs gradually subsides during a definite period, 
which I have called the vietce»truin ; and this is followed 
... by a long peritxl of rest. 

W. Ileape, in Quart. Jour. Micros. Set, Nov., 1900, p. 8. 

metol (met'ol), H. [viet{hyl) + -ol.] A trade- 
name of methyl-7>-amino-m-cre8ol hydrochlo- 

rid, CH3AhCoH;,OHCH3.HC1. It is used in 
photography as a developer. 

+ i'/'r/. matter, + -osis.] In geol., that variety 

of metaraorphism which involves change of 

chemical substance. Geikie, Text-book of 

Geol., p. 76.5. 
methylpelletierine (meth'il-pel-e-ter*in), n. 

A colrirlfss, hygroscopic, dextrorotatory, li- 
quid alkaloid, C'9Hi7(jN, contained chiefly in 

the root of the pomegranate-tree. It boils at 

21.5° C. 
methylpentose (meth-il-pen'tos), n. [methyl 

+ liciitiisc] A pentose in which one hydrogen 

atom has been replaced by the methyl-group : 

used especially of rhamnose or isodulcite. 
methylphenacetin (meth"il-fe-nas'e-tin), «. 

[methyl + jjhenacetin.l A colorless synthetic 

compound formed by the action of methyl 

iodide on phenacetin. It is hypnotic, 
metbylsalol (meth -il - sal ' ol), n. [methyl + 

salol.] A colorless crystalline synthetic com- 
pound, a methyl derivative of salol: used in 

methyluramine(meth'il-ur-am'in),n. [methyl meton. An abbreviation of JHetonywiy 

+ ur{ir) + amine.'] A methyl derivative of metonym (met'6-nim), n. [Gr. //frd 

guanidin, NH:C:(NH.2)(NH.CH3), obtained - '• " ' 

on oxidation of creatine,, to which it is closely 

related : same as *methylguani(iin. It has also 

been found in putrefying meat. 
methylurethane (meth"'il-ur-eth'an), n. 

[methi/l + iiriic) + ethane] A crystalline 

synthetic liyiniotic obtained by the action 

of cyanogen chlorid on methyl alcohol, 
methyl-violet, n. 2. One of several basic 
loi-s of the triphenylmethane group. They 
insist chiefly of the hydrochlorids of penta- 

inethyl and hexamethyl pararosaniline or their 

benzyl derivatives. . 

methyostylic (meth'i-o-stil'ik), a. Relating nietopantritis (™«^''_^:,?*'i:t7,*',l'' ^'. 

to, or having that arrangement of the visceral ~ " " " 

arches termed, methyostyly. 
methyostyly (meth - i - os ' ti - li), «. [Gr. fxrui, 

after, + E. hyo(id) + Gr. orf /.of, pillar, +-.i/3.] 

That condition of the visceral arches in which 

their component parts are more or less shifted 

'I'om their primitive conditions, and the metap- 
rygoid, syrnplectic, and adjacent parts as- 
-t the hyomandibular in the support of the 
wer jaw: a condition found in the Teleostei, 
1 bony fishes. 
Mfthffoxtt/lf/. in allusion either t^) the prominence of the 


uterus, + cKTOft^, excision.] Same as hyster- 

metrelcosis (me-trel-ko'sis), «. [NL., < Gr. 
fi'/rpn, uterus. + 'c'/kuci^, ulceration.] Ulcera- 
tion of the uterus, especially of its neck. 

metremphysema(me"tTem-fi-se'ma), ». [NL., 
< Gr. /i'/Tpa, uterus, + i/npiicni/ia, inflation.] 
Same as physometra. 

metret (met'ret), n. [meter^, metre^, the mea- 
sure of length, + dim. -et, used here with a 
partioular implication.] A decimal submul- 
tiple of the meter, in the scheme of magnitudes 
devised about 1860 by G. J. Stoney. See 
*mctro and *uno. 

We shall use the syllable -et for decimal submultiple. 
Thus the sixthet will mean the sixth of these -ets, that 
is, a unit ni the sixth place of decimals. In this nomen- 
clature the tenthet of a meter is the same as the tenth- 
•metret, I. e., the tenth of the series of vietrets or decimal 
submultiples of a meter. 

G. J. Sioney, in Smithsonian Rep., 1899, p. 208. 

metria (me'tri-il), «. [NL., < Gr. /^^rpa, uterus.] 
Any local inflammatory condition following 

metric^, «.— Metric property, in lyenm., a property 
which involves measure or (luantity. — Metric relation, 
a relation which involves measure or quantity. 

metric^, c— Metric or metrical pattern. In music, 
the scheme of long and shoit tones, resting \i\wn and cou- 
fomiable to the fundamental rhythm, according to which a 
particular melody or phrase is laid out. For instance, 
the metric pattern of the first line of " The Bluebells of 
Scotland," as compared with its rhythmic pattern, may 
be expressed thus : 

-I- biwpa, a name (see onyni).] A name given 
to a group (usually a genus) after a different 
name had been applied to another member Metric pattern : 
(usually a species) of the same group. Ac- 
cording to the American code of botanical 
nomenclature, a metonym is invalid. Rhythmic pattern : 

A name is rejected when there is an older valid name 
b««d CD another ™™'«5 "' /h" ^ij.'" K^^^J^f -^'^^'^ What is here called a metric pattern is, however, often 
Code of Hot. .Nomenclature, p. 1,5. ^^^^^ ^ rhythm, thus reversing the use of the terms. See 
metopantralgla (met " 6 - pan - tral ' ji - a), n. mcdrS, 2, and rhythm, 2. 
[NL., < tir. /lirujTov, forehead, + avrpov, cave metllC'', « — Metric horse-power. S,ee -^horse-power. 
(cavity), + dAjof, pain.] Pain in the frontal metrics^, ".—Projective metrics, in j;eom., the treat- 


! n 1 ,-K 

n n 1 

SS mm S 

A A 

A A 


1 .9 3 4 

1 i 3 

relations to the 

< Gf. piruTrov, forehead, + avrpov, cave (cav 
ity), + -itis.] Inflammation of the frontal 
Metopias (me-to'pi-as), n. [NL., < Gr. peru- 
nia^, having a broad forehead, < piru^or, 
forehead.] 1. A genus of labyrinthodont 
Amphibia from the Keuper of Wiirtemberg, 
attaining large size and having a broadly 
triangular skuU with anterior orbits, weak 
dentition, and slightly infolded dentin: the 
pectoral plates are large and the ribs very 
heavy. — 2. A genus of Silurian trilobites 

nietapt<TVi{oj.l, or t.i the fact that m-";/!.!/./*/.!/;!/ represents metOpiOn (me-to pi-OIl), ». ; pi. mctopta (-a). 

' '■ ■ ■ ' "" ■' [NL., < Gr./jfTumoi', forehead, prop. neut. adj., 

< piroTTov, the forehead.] In antlirop., the 
point in which a line connecting, the tubera 
of the frontal bone intersects the median line. 
Amer. Anthropologist, Jan. -March, 1901, p. 3.5. 

[Gr. ptTu- 

a inorph"l(.gical advance n\nm earlier moiles. 

Biol. Bulletin, June, 1904, p. 59. 

methystic' (me-this'tik), a. [Gr. pefhurnKd^, in- 
toxicating, < prflieiv, be intoxicated, < piUv, 
strong drink: see meorf'. Coxa^&re amethyst.] 
That intoxicates; intoxicating. 

methystic^ (me-this'tik), H. [NL. methyst- 
licum) + -ic] Noting an acid, a colorless 

ment of metric relations as projective 
P^-j absolute. 

1^ _» metriocephalic (met "ri-o-se-fal'ik), a. [Gr. 
pirptoi;, within measure, moderate, + Kttjxikli, 
head.] In craniom., having a length-height 
index between 72 and 77: said of skulls. 
Amer. Anthropologist, 1901, p. 40. 
metro (met'ro), «. [An arbitrary detached 
.use of metro-, combining form of meter.] One 
of a series of decimal submultiples of the 
meter: as, meiro-sixteen, the sixteenth of this 
series of metros. See the extract and *«ho. 
G. J. Stoney. 

A metro-ten is the tenth of the metros or decimal units 
of the metre. In other words it is lO" metres. 
Brp. Brit. Ass'n Advancement of Sci., 1901, p. 672, note. 

metrocace (me-trok'a-se), n. [Gr. p^rpa, 

uteiTis, + Kd/i?/, bad condition.] Gangrenous 

inflammation of the uterus. 
metrocampsis (me-tro-kamp'sis), n. [Gr. 

pr,Tf)a, uterus, + liapipi^, flexion.] Flexion of 

the uterus. 

'^*°?°^^,^+t;i:^S°'r N:;irSc pa(n metrocele (me'tro-sel), ,t. [Gr. pnrpa, uterus, 
in the forehead. '^ + .v/,/, tumor.] Same as ;<<,.v~^. 

metrodynia (me-tro-din i-a),^ n. _ Li^V'' ^ 

-p6-man-si), n. [Gr. 

Uterine colic. 

.,mpound,CH,< >C6H3CACOCH,COOH,inetopoman^^^^^^^^ 

prepared by the hydrolysis of its methyl ester, pavreia, divination.] Divination by means of metrol. An abbre|^ation («) of metrological : 
methysticin (kawain), derived from kawa-root the characteristics of the face. (6) ot metrology. 

S.— ."Vl 

metroncus 802 micranatomy 

metroncus (me-trong'kus), n. ; pi. mefroHCJ metrostyle (met' ro -stil), n. [Gr. /"rpoi-, a M. Hon. An nhhreviatioD ot Most HmtoraUe. 

(-trou'si). [NL., < Gr. /x^pa, uterus, + oyKog, measure, + E. sti/le^.} A speed-controller mhor (mor), «. An East Indian name of the 

mass.] A tumor of the uterus; also, metro- used in certain mechanical piano-players. It great whale-shark, fiAinodore JjrpicM*. 

phyma. consists of an index that can be moved to rSlorr (mor), n. [Ar.] A West African gazel 

metronenroBig (me'tro-nu-ro'sis), n. [NL., < right or left to correspond with a line traced named by E. T. Bennett Gazella mhorr, having 

Gr. fii/rpa, uterus, -I- NL. «f wrost's.] Any on the revolving music-roll, its movement horns annulated with ten or twelve prominent 

neurosis originating from uterine disease or affecting a lever by which the tempo of the rings. A'. £. I). 

pregnancy. music may be increased or diminished. M. H. R. An abbreviation of Member of the 

inetroiiyin(me'tro-nim), H. [Gr. /i^T;?p, mother, inetr08ynizesis(me*tro-sin-;-ze'sis), n. [NL., House of Representatives. 

+ bio/ia, ivvfia, name. Compare metronymic.\ < Gr. fi-hrpa, uterus, -t- avmCvai^, collapse, M. H. S. An abbreviation (a) of Massachu- 

A personal name derived from the mother or shrinking.] Adhesion of the uterus to neigh- setts Historical Society ; {b) of Member of the 

from the maternal family. boring structures, the result of inflammation. Historical Society. 

The acceptance of melronymg in the gen«alogie8 as HietrO-ten (met'ro-ten), n. A unit of length mi. An abbreviation (a) of mile; (b) of mill 

proofs of female kinship, while patronyms are reject«(i. equal to 1 X 1010 meters. See*melro. OT mills; {c) ot milliampere. 

JNaftire, May 6, iiMM, p. xiii. metrotomy (me - trot 'o- mi), n. [Gr. fiijTpc, miam (mi'am), b. Same as *mia-mm. 
metronymic, a. 2. In nJi^Arop., relatingto that uterus, -I- -Tofua, < ra//fj>, cut.] Same as mia-mia (riii'mi),M. [Also mi-mi, my-my, miam; 

form of society in which the child takes its hysterotomy. a native name.] A native hut or shelter of 

name from the mother's family, or in which metuloid (met'ii-loid), a. and n. [L. metula, the Australian aborigines. 

the child is reckoned as a member of the a small pyramid, an obelisk, + -oirf.] I. a. The word is aboriginal, and has been spelt varionsly. 

maternal family. Resembling a small pyramid or obelisk. Mia-mia is the most approved spelling, mi-tm the most 

The older [group] may be named metronymic. In a II. n. An object that resembles a small "PPro^e'l pronunciation. £. E. Moms, Austral English. 

m^troni/nitc group all the relationships are traced through pyramid. miasmatology (mi"az-ma-tor6-ii), n. Same 

mothers; relationships on the father^s side a^^^^^^ ilfrt„;„fd«. modified cystidia,*d with lime, US miasmology. 

. ^ "'««"'»*.*'"'">• "' SO""'-. P- 188- which project from the hymenium of Peniophora, giving miasmic (mi-az'mik), a. Same as miasmatic. 
metronymy (me-tron l-mi), n. [metronym + it a velvety appearance. J^acJrson, Glossarj'. H.E.D. Miauli eSSenCe Of See *f«seHCe 

-.V».] The system of tracing name and kin- metzograph (met'zo-graf), n. [Metz, a sur- miazin'(mi-az'in), ». S&me as^'pyrimidine. 

ship m the femaie line. name, + Gr. ypa^tiv, write.] A form of Mic. An abbreviation of JficaA, a book of the 

Metronymy and Patronymy.— It is necessary to dis- screen, for process-work in photography, in Old Testament. 

?iSn'.t,eof:S';:"orr"thi5.X''X'^^^ ^l^i«^ ]-«« 9^ dots are avoided and an ir- mica^. «. -Water-mica, a tradename for clear, color- 

Giddinga, Hem. of Sociol., p. 187. regularly grained effect is produced by the less muscovite. 

metrOD Same as *me< (c) use of glass with a wavy surface. The clear kind is known to the trade as "wnfer mica," 

iriPtronathia I'me-tro-Dath'i-a') « FNL <• meuse, ». See >«M«e3 Jj. and this, as a rule, contains no iron but much of the 

meiiropainia ^me-iro-pain i-a;, n. \_s^i-i., \ T4<r._ '.„ „v.ii^o„i„*;L, i^\ „» ir„™-„-.„ . rt.\ large-sized muscovite is unfortunately colored to some 

Gr. /ir/T/ia, uterus, -f Tdeof, disease.] Uterine ■"'•ex. An abbreviation (a) of Mexican; (fi) extent, which detracts greatlv from itJ value. 

disease. Also metropathy. ot Mextco. Jowr. Franklin Jmt.. iiey,t.,i{m, p. 200. 

metrophlogosis (me'tro-flo-go'sis), H. r^l, <:^TOaexca,l, ». bame as mescal. _„ , micacious (mi - ka ' shins), a. [L. micare, 

Gr. Mrpa. uterus, -1- «>.d,L,a,f, inflammation.] "SS^c&^SmckirbTg'^^i K^;7,^.'^^ «bine.] Shining; sparkling; glittering. 

Severe inflammation of the uterus. ■weevil, *weeva, etc.— Mexican coca. S^imuas Mexican There is the Cyclopean stile, ot which Johnson is the 

metrOphotOgraphiC (met"r6-f6-to-gl'af'ik), a. clover. See /iic/iard»n)H«.— Mexican coral bean, great example; the sparkling, or iniVreeiou*, possessed 

Pertainintr to or ohtftineH hv mnnna of mef-pn luster. See *6ea»il, *(ii«(<"ra.— Mexican snapper, by Hazlitt, and much affected in Reviews and Magazines ; 

l-erlaining 10 or ODtainea Oy means ot metro- g^^easred gnapper. See tnapperl M (3).-Mexlcan the oleaginous, in which Mr. Charles Butler tears the 

pUOtOgrapuy. sole, stinkwOOd, strips. See *«o/c2, irgtinfcwood, palm, or more appropriately the olive branch. 

A most useful variation on ordinary metrophatographic *'trip2. — Mexican walnut. Same as rock-walnut Southey, Doctor, interchap. xxiL 

observations, for it is obvious the representation of T^f'^^'f' f„^' ""'"f"™''"'''' J*JL"if *""''""'• micacization (mi"ka-si-za'shon), «. [micacize 

orctftraphic features as enected by this well known process i]l6ZlC3>I13i uDCr. iSC'} *po€r^. _i_ ^- t t„ 7" iU " £ \ 

comejs a far more readable impression to the eye of the Mexicanize7mek'8i-kan-izrt' f Dret and + -"""«•] .In ?<■?'•, the process of becoming 

natiireofthecountrjphotographed, theriseand fall of „„ i>^°;f .A™, ^ v^^^ pret. auQ charged With mica during metamorphism. 

undulations, the gradation Sf slopes, &c., than any flat PP- .^exicrtjnrerf ppr i/c:>;wa,!iz(»flr. [Mexican fie,-;(-L Text-book of Geol , p 790 

photograph can possibly convey w"'?- li, T % t^e Mexicans; assimi- micacize (mi'ka-siz), v. i.; pret. and pp. mica- 

Ao(urc, Oct 8. 1903. p. 546. late to the Customs and institutionsof Mexico. ^^^^^ ^ micacizina flrree < mica'i + -c- 

metrOphotOgrapny (mefro-fo-tog'ra-fi), «. These Indians, now practically Jfeiicnmzcd. . ,'.J-^ ' t„ „„, (.' l^o^^r^o „I,„,„.:>^ „;♦», 

[Gr. /^rpop, measure, + E. phStograply.f 1. An. Rep. Bur. AnJ. Ethnoi., im-9S, p. xvi. +. -'•''^•-l^ il If-' *H ^f.'^o'^^charged with 

(h, '^_r i I • ' J. ^ ,. ^ ' ' -■„ ■ -J. , -, -is nr / J J! % mica, as in the production of raiea-schists 

The art of making topographic maps from meymacite(ma ma-sit), >i. [il/f^?wnc (see def.) from shales 

measurements of stereophotographs of great -I- -ite^.l A hydrated tungstic oxid derived .r^ ^. ■',_,,_ , . ... 

interobjeetive distance. Nature, Aug. 18, from the alteration of soheelite, found at ''^''^ ^ ^ ^ GeihL^^TexuZ,kZt"G^\ -p. S03. 

1904, p. 392. — 2. The taking of stereophoto- Meymac, Corr^ze, France. _.. _-i , -/, -^.^ ' r • o _l _l' .. o i 

graphs for use in map-making. ^ mezure, n. and t; A simplified spelling of micanite (mi k^mt), «. ['«'«'2 + .„. + .,,^2 i 

metrophyma (me- tr6- fi'mf), «.; pi. me<ro- »«<-«s«»T. A t'-ade-name of mica in sheets of considerable 

phymata{-ma-t&). [NL., < Gr. /.i/rpa, uterus, mezzano (raed-za'no), a. [It. mezzano (pi. ^'Z" made by cementing together a number 

+ Ipvfxa, a swelling.] Same as ^metroncus. mezzani), middle, medium, < L. m^dianus, mid- °* ^."'^^ ''}P^^ P^-'f «. «P^i* ^^ry thin : used as 

metropolitanship (met-ro-pol'i-tan-ship), ». die: see',«e«a«i:] Of medium size : applied Ti'Tf^Oor^-my^Vl " ''' 

[metropolitan + -ship.-] The office or jurisdic- to a macaroni larger than spaghetti aud . ,J „ •' J;^,,- ' ,. ' P-^V -g. . 

tion of a metropolitan. smaller than the largest macaroni. micareue (mi ka-rel), n. [mica- . trom its ap- 

^,>*— «».«1tt««o /^5 t-A „,vi'i «„<,^ «. rxTT / ™ .,.,., , . , pearance.] A micaceous mineral which has 

metropolypUS (me-tro-pol l-pus), ». [NL., < The macaroni called "Mezmni," which is a name de- ivternallv the form of scanolitp and rphults 

Gr. ,ir,Tpa, uterus, -I- 7roA£,7ro„f, polypus.] A signating size, not quality, is the preferable khul for ^^l^^flZli^Z^^ 

DohTius of the uterus macaroni dishes made with cheese. irom irs aiieration. L nesret . 

~-4.-i.-l™*,«».v z™;;**,!;; tA'„J„^ .. rwT Century Cook Book, p. 2i5. M. I. C. E. An abbreviation of J/emftfr o/ fAe 

TGr°^,'°^?tirs ;'TX™Jc klliBSrl mezzeria (med-ze-re'a), n. [It., < mezzo, mid- Institute of Civil Engineers. 

ward, prolapse.] Same as ^'metroptosis ' ^le half, < L. medius half : see ,nedium.:\ In Micellian water. See *v.ater. 

metroptosis (me-trop-to'sis), ». [NL., < Gr. I**}-^ » ^^^^V" "J ^''l^'"^ *■}« 1]°^^^ °* ^^^ Mich. An abbreviation (6) of Michigan. 

pfirpa, uterus, -f ■ktIov^, falling.] Falfing of s«»' between landowner and landholder: same Michelangelo, bar of. See *6arl. 

the uterus. Alw metroproptosis. a.% metayage, bee the extract. michron (mi'kron). «. [Gr. //((Kp<if), small 

metrorrharic.(me-tro-ra;jik), a. [metro- J^lt^-,.^^,'S^^^^:Z^:^J^lTl^^. (see »»«-on), -j- ^pd.^. time.] A unit of time 

rrhagi(a) + -tc] Pertaining to or suffering mo„_ jg called mezzeria and metayage or halving proposed by Lord Kelvin ; the time corre- 

from metrorrhagia or uterine hemorrhage. These expressions . . . merely signify that the produce is sponding to the period of vibration of an ether- 

metrorrhezis (me-tro-rek'sis), n. [NL., < divisible in certain definite proportions, which must wave whose length in vacuo is one micron. 

Gv.pvrpa, uterus, -t- p^|«c, rupture.] Rupture ^h'i^iThtlSVd-'s^tr^t^el'V'^S'^asIn^^^^^ Mick (mik), «. [An abbreviation of J/,VA«W.] 

of the uterus dunng'chilabirth. thirds, sometimes as little as one-third. A slang name for an Irishman. See micky. 

metrosalpingitis (me-tro-sal-pin - ji ' tis), n. Uncyc. Brit., I. 41.1. jnicr-. In phys., etc., a prefix used instead of 
[NL., < Gr. //^rpa, uterus, + NL. salpingitis.] mezzograph (mez'o or med'zo-graf), ». [mez- micro- before a second element beginning 
Inflammation of the uterus and Fallopian. zo{tint) + -graph.] A photographic print with a vowel See wiVro- 
tubes, or of the latter alone, imitating the effect of a mezzotint. -V. £. X». ^ yj.'(^i,j.^g.^gg,;;]^) [micr(o-) + 

metrosalpinx (me-tro-sal pingks), «. [NL mezzotype (mezo-ormedzo-tip), «. [mez- acoustic] Ha^ig the property of rendering 

<Gr. //7T-,;n, uterus -1- cdAmy^, trumpet.] zoitmt) -^- type.] A kind of paper for photo- faintsoundsaudible; magnifvingweaksounds. 

Same as rallopmn tube. graphic printing. N. h. D. . +v + q * ■ u ,f 

metroscope^ (met'ro-skop), «. [Gr. phpov, mf. 2. In e/ecf., an abbreviation of wJcro/ornrf. micraestnete, ». »a.mea.smie> esthete. 

measure, -I- move'cv, view.] A speed-measur- mfd. An abbreviation (a) of manufactured ; micrallantoia (mik-ra-Ian toid). a. [micr(o-) 

ing device or tachometer which indicates both (6) in electrotechnics, of microfarad. 7"'. "!?.' ,j.^ l-t^^n Met * ^™^ allan- 

speed and distance traveled. mfg. An abbreviation of »(«M!(/Vfc<HrJH(7. t™**- '» . -/"»"«f'r, Anat.. 11. »bj. 

metrostaxis (me-tro-stak'sis), n. [Gr. /iT/rpa, mfr. An abbreviation of manufacturer. Micrampelis (nii-kram'pe-lis\ n. [XL. (Ka- 

womb, -I- arditc, a dropping.] Hemorrhage mg. An abbreviation of milligrcim. finesque, 1808), < Gr. piKpo^, little, -1- afimTd^, 

of the uterus. M. Or. An abbreviation (c) of Latin Musicx dim. of a//7rc/.or, a vine.] A genus of dicoty- 

metrostenosis (me'tro-ste-no'sis), n. [NL.,< Gfrod«fff««. Graduate of Music. ledonous plants belonging to the family Ca- 

Gr. iiirrpa, uterus, -^ artvuci^, narrowing.] M. G., M. Goth. Abbreviations of 3/(BSopo<fttc. curUtaceie. {See Echinocy.iti.').) Micrampelis 

Abnormal contraction of the cavity of the mgm. An abbreviation of milligram. Oregona is the wild gourd of Oregon, and M. 

uterus. B^. An abbreviation (J) [I.e.] of milligram; macrocarpa and M.fabacea are the chilicothe 

metrosteresis (me'tro-ste-re'sis), n. [NL., < (c) [I. c] of manager. and bitter-root of California. See *chilicothe. 

Gr. ^^pa,^uterus, + <7r^p)?a(f, deprivation.] 1. M. Gr. An abbreviation of Jfjrfdte Greefc. micranatomy (mik-ra-nat'o-mi), n. [NL., < 

Removal ot the uterus. — 2. Absence of the M. H. An abbreviation («) of ifoster o/ flbr- Gr. /j;Kp<5f, small, + E'.' anatomy.] Mieroseopi- 

uterus. ' ticulture; (b) ot Most Honorable. cal anatomy. 


nUCrandrOUS (mik-ran'drus), (U fGr. fiiKpo^, 
small. + avT/p {avfip-), male, + -o««.] In hot., 
of or pertaining to the dwarf male plants of 
the (Edoffoniacese. 

Micraster (mik-ras'tfer), n, [NL., <Gr. fiiKpd^, 
small, + aarr/p, star.] A genus of fossil sea- 
urehins or Echinoidea having a heart-shaped 
tumid test. It is very abundant in the Cre- 
taceous rocks and occurs also in the early 

micrencephallc (mik'ren-se-fal'ik), a. Same 
as nticoicephalotts. 

micrencephalisin (mik-ren-sef 'a-lizm), n. 
\jiiicrenc<phid{y) + -ism.'] Same as *micren- 

micrencephalus (mik-ren-sef'a-lus), «. ; pi. 

microia-jiludi (-W). [XL.] 1. A mioreneepha- 

lous individual. — 2. Same as *micrencepha1y . 

Tlie conditions kuowii as microceplwUus and micren- 

cfphaUis. Buckf Med. Handbook, I. 140. 

micrencephaly (mik-ren-sef 'a-li), V. [Gr. 
fiiKpu^, small, + £yKf^/of, brain, 4- -y^.'] In 
anthrop., the condition or character of being 
micrencephalous, or small-brained. 

micrergate (mi - kr^r ' gat), n. [Gr. fUKp6^, 
small, + ipyarrig, worker.] A worker ant of 
smaller stature than the typical worker form 
of the species. The workers of the first brood 
of offspring reared by a young ant-queen are 
normal mierergates. Wlteeler. 

jnicresthete (mik'res-tbet), n. [Gr. /uxpi^, 
small, + aiadr/roc, < <u<j0aiica6ai , perceive.] In 
chitons, one of the numerous fine branches 
given oflf by a megilesthete. Each branch 
ends in a swelling which occupies a micropore 
and carries a small chitinous cap. 

micrify (mik'ri-fi), T, t. [Gr. uiKp6^, small. 
See magnifj/.] To make small; minify. 

This power "wTiich he [the poet] exerts ... to nuguity 
the small, tu viUri/y the ^reat. 

:£tiierison. Nature, p. C7. .V. E, D, 

Micristodns (mi-tris'to-dus), n. [NXi., < Gr. 

/i/*:pof, small, + ia-d^ an upright projection, -i- 

odoif, tooth.] A genus of very la^e sharks 

of the family Rhinodontidse, found in the Gulf 

of California. 
micristologlcal (■mik''ris-to-loj'i-kal), <i. Be- 

lating or pertaining to micristology. 
micro-aSrophile (mx-kro-a'e-ro-fil), a. and n. 

[Gr. pmpik, small, + fi. aerophiie.'] L «. 

Same as *micrn-tiernphiloiis. 
H. n. A micro-aerophilous organism. 
micro-aSropllilic (mi"kro-a-e-r9-fil'ik}, a. 

Same as *micro-aeropkilous. 

CVj«tridrnrn Pasteurianilm, which WInognidfiky fonnd tu 
noaaefls niU>09ei>-as8iini)atinf? prol>erties, is an anaerolke, 
Pitt it also irrews in 8yn)bii:>8i8 with aerobic fonns; it i«, 
tiiereiore, micrtxtfrt'p'hilic. Science, Marcll<^ liX)3,p..37L 

mitaro-aerophilous (mi'kro-a-e-rof'i-lus), n. 
Iniicrij-fterdphile + -ouk.] Requiring but little 
free oxygen- a terra nsed to designate hac- 
terift and other organisms. See anaerobic. 

micro- am pere (mi'kro-am-par'), n. A unit 
employed in the measurement of very small 
electric cnrronts; one millionth of an ampere 
or 1 X 10-' e. g. s. units of current. 

micro-analTSiB (mi'kro-a-nal'i-si8),«. Ai^ 
alysis by means of the microscope. 

micro-anemometry (mi'kro-an-e-mom'e-tri), 
n. [Gr. i^Kpdc, small. + E. anemometry.] The 
determination of wind-velocity on a very 
small scale, gpeeifically by Barus's filar mi- 

microbacillar (mi-kro-bas'i-Wr), a. [Gr. /wtpd^, 
small, + E. bdcillus + -or^.] Same as bae- 
terial. Buck; Med. Handbook, VIL 88. 

micTObacillary (mi-kro-bas'i-la-ri), a. Same 
as hnctennl. 

micTobalance (mi'kr6-bal-ans), n. [GT,iiiKp6i, 
small, + E. balance.] A delicate balance for 
weighing 1 milligram or less. It consists of a 
capillary jzTasa tube 30 centiinetera long and 0.5 niilliineter 
thick, lient at a riKht ftngle so as to make one part a 
pointerDcentimeterelong. Thetuiw is attached, by water- 
glass, to a quartz filler 5 centimeters long and fastened 
to a prongefl support. The instrtmient is thus built on 
the principle of the torsion balance. A hmtked platinum 
wire melted into the end of the glass beant carries a plat- 
inum basket of 20 milligrams weight which holds the ol)- 
jects Ut be weighed. The deflection of the jKiinter is 
read from a scale, and platinuni-wire riders ser^'e as 
weighU. The me<:hanism was devised by Nenist. 

microbarograph (mi-kro-bar'o-graf), n. [mi- 
cro- + barograph .] A barograph designed to 
record minute and rapid ^nations in the 
pressure of the atmosphere. Nature, Aug, 18, 
1904, p. 368. 

microbicidal (mi - kro - bi - si ' dal) , a. [micro- 
hicxde + -«/'.] Destructive to microbes. 

803 microdiaene 

microbiOSCOpe (mi-kro-bl'o-skop), «. [Gr, microchiria (mi-kro-ki'ri-a), 

fimpd^, small, -I- E. bioscope.] An apparatus fimpo^, small, + x^'P, hand.] 
for showing or recording the movements of 

miero-organisms. Xature, Nov. 5, 1903, p. 18. 

Microbiotberiidae (mi''kro-bi-o-the-ri'i-de), n. 
pi. [_iIia-obiotherium, the type genus, + -id<e.] 
A family of small marsupial mammals, con- 
taining extinct species from the Miocene of 
Patagonia. Ameghino, 1887. 

microbism (mi'kro-bizm), n. A condition due 
to the presence of microbes. 

The various explanations of "return " cases were con- 
sidered, including, besides the ordinary ones of failure of 
disinfection or a true " return " of infection, the possibility 
of a relapse of the original disease, of latent microbimn, 
or of missed cases. Laticet, June 18, 1904, p. 1724. 

microblast (mi 'kro -blast), n. [Gr. /icKpdg, 
small, -1- l3?.aaT6c, germ.] An unusually small 

n. [NL., < Gr. 
_ A condition in 
which the hands are abnormally small. Also 
microcheirin . 

Microclioeridse (mi-kro-ke'ri-de), n. pi. [Mi- 
crocharns, the type genus (Gr. fiinpo^, small, 
+ ^"'pof, hog), + -idse.] A family of small 
lemur-like animals, comprising extinct species 
of small size whose remains occur in Eocene 
strata. Lydckker, 1887. 

microclase (mi'kro-klas), n, [Gr, /iiKpo^, small, 
-I- KAaai^, fracture.] A name given by Wiik 
to the feldspar usually called anorthnclase. 

microcnemia (mi-krok-ne'mi-a), «. [Gr./j(Kpof, 
small, -1- Kvi/iir/, tibia,] The condition of hav- 
ing the leg short below the knee. See *bra- 

Same as 

arm.] A condition in which tlie arms are ab- 
normally small. 

microbracllius (mi-kro-bra'ki-us), n. ; pi, mi- 
crobrachii f-i), [NL,]" One who has abnor- 
mally small, 'but not deformed, arms, 

microbranchiate (mi-kro-brang'ki-at), a. [Gr, 
finpoc, small, + fipdyxiov., gill, -I- -af«l,] Re- 
lating or pertaining to the small gill. Con- 
trasted with *macrobranchiate. 

In the body of the anima!i;[>'autilU8] two metameres are 
recognised — the vticrobraitchiate segment, containing the 
smaller gill, the outer osphradiuni, pericardial gland, 
kidney, ami kidney opening, with the generative opening 

nature of, a 
Micrococcus lanceolatus, ^ce irdiplococcvx pneimtonix 
(with cut)! — Micrococcus melltensis, tlie pathogenic 
micro-organism of Malta fever. — Micrococcus neofor- 
mans, an alleged pathogenic mici-o-organism of cancer : 
its existence is doubtful. 

Microcodon (mi-kro-ko'don), n. [Gr, iimpi^, 
small, + KuSuv, bell,] The typical genus of 
the family Microcodonidse. Ehrenberg, 1830, 

Microcodonidse (mi"kr9-ko-don'i-de), «, pi. 
[NL., < Microcodon + -tdse.] A family of il- 
loricate rotifers, of the order I'loima, contain- 
ing the genera Microcodon and Microcodides. 

on the right side and the opening of the pear-shaped body JUlCrOCOtyle (mi-kro-kot 1-le), n. [NL. (Van 

on the left; -and the macrobranciuate segment, containing 
the greater gill and the inner osphradiuni, pericardial 
gland, ksdDey.,-and renail 'Opening. 

Miiialiand Mag. Nat. Hist., Jan., 1903, p. 135. 

microcalory (mi-kro-kal'o-ri), n. [Gr, fUKp6i; 

small, + E, calory.] One thousandth of a 

small calory, 
microcaltrop (mi-kro-kal'trop), n. [Gr. /uKpdc, 

small, + K caltrop.] Same as microcaltrops. 
Microcampyli (mi-kro-kam'pi-li), n. pi. [NL., 

< (jr. /'M/wf, small, -i- KafinvAo^, curved,] In 

Beneden and Hesse, 1863), < Gr. iuKp6(, small, 
+ KOTv?.!}, a cup, socket.] The typical genus 
of the family Microcotylidse. 
Microcotylidae (mi" kro- ko- til 'i -de), n. pi? 
[NL., < Microcotyle + -idee.] A family of trem- 
atodes, of the order Heterocotylea, having 
two buccal and many small posterior suckers, 
borne on a variously shaped marginal cotylo- 
phore. It contains the genera Microcotyle, 
Gastrocotyle, and Axine. 

Hyatfs classification of the cephalopods, a microcranous (mi-kro-kra'nus), a. [Gr. ^«p<5f> 

Kuborder of the .JmmonoK/ffl. It is the primi- 
tive suborder of forms which possess a ventral 
siphuncle and are characterized by imdivided 
ventral lobes and very slightly developed 
micn)caiionioal(mi'kro-ka-non'i-kal), a. [Gr. 
/Jiapoi., small, + E. canonical.] In statistical 
meek.., of or pertaining to a distribution in 
phase sucb that all the systems of an ensemble 
have the same energy, J. W. Gibbs, Sta- 
tistical Mech,, p, 114.— Mlcrocanonlcal dlstrlbn- 
tlon, ensemble. See iedintrihutwn, ^tetutevible. 

microcanonically (mi* kro- ka -non ' i-kal-i), 
adr. In a mierocanonical manner, 

microcardia (mi-kro-kar'di-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
/luipi^, small, -f- Kap^ia, heart,] A condition in 
which the heart is abnormally small, 

microcardius (mi-kro-kar'di-us), n. ; pi, micro- 
eardid (-i). [NL,] A monster having a very 
small and imperfect heart, 

microcarpous (mi-kro-kar'pus), a. [Gr. fUKpd^, 

small, + Kpavlov, cranium.] In craniom., hav- 
ing a skull of small volume, from 1,540 to 1,630 
cubic centimeters in males, and from 1,420 to 
1,500 cubic centimeters in females, -<" 

ta-lin), a. [Gr, ficKpd^, small, ' -f E, crypto- 
crystalline.] In petrog., microscopically 
cryptocrystalline, that is, composed of crys- 
tals so minute that their form cannot be seen 
with a microscope, their presence being rec- 
ognized by the phenomenon of aggregate 

Tlie closest approach to typical andcsitic micrcetruc- 
ture occurs in the dike cutting shales in the ridge south 
of Winter Creek. . . . The transition from a groundmass 
of brown inicrocryptncrygtalline matrix with distinct lath- 
shaped feldspar microlites and magnetite grains to one 
that is gray in thin section with larger feldspar laths and 
a slightly niicropoikilitic structure can be obsened in one 
rock section. LT. S. (ievl. Sun., Monographs, XXXIL 64. 

microcrystal (mi-kro-kris'tal), n. [micro- + 

small, -^'/ca/Jffof, fruit.] In bot. : (a) Having '^*'fi°'^57^*r 
small fruit (h) Of mosses, having small urns. 
microcentrosome (mi-kro-sen'tro-s6m), «. 

[Gr. fjijiptjr, small, + KifTpov, center, -f ou/ia, 

body.] In cytnl., the central granule of the 

astrosphere in the dividing-cell ; the centriole 

of Boveri. Zi^gkr, 1898. 
microcentnim (mi-kro-sen'trum), n. ; ^]. micro- 
centra (-trii). [NL./ < Gr. /UKp6c, small, + 

nlvrpov, ceiiter.] In cytol., the centrosome or 

cluster of centrosomes united by a primary 

centrodesmus in the astral system of certain 

cells. Heidenhain, 1894. 
microcephal (mi-kro-sef'al), «. [mierocephal- 7""™"«"y"* 

(o«.*).] A microcephalous individual. Jour. DUCrodentOUS 

Amer. Folk-lore, April-June, 1902, p, 121, small -t- L,. de 

microceratous (mi-kro-ser a-tus), a. [Gr, 

/iiKpi'ir, small, + Kepai (Kepar-), horn, -I- -ous.] 

In entom., having small antennae. 
Microchaeta, ». 2. [l.c.-,-p\.microc}iatm{-te).] 

One of certain small bristles which occur on 

the body of a dipterous insect and are used in 

classification. See *chsetotaxy. 
The supra-alars are unusual ; the cephalic one is small, 

often so small as to be little or not at all distinguish- 
able from the microehaetae. 

Katuas Univ. Quarterly, July, 1900, p. 224. 

microchemic (mi-kro-kem'ik), a. Same as mi- 


crystal.] A microscopic crystal, 

tallography (mi - kro - kris - ta - log'- 
ra-fi), n. [micro- + crystallography.] 'Micro- 
scopic crystallogi'aphy. 
microcytase (mi-kro-si'tas), m. [Gr. fUKp6f, 
small, + E. cytase.] ' A cytase (complement) 
in the sense of Metchnikoff, derived from the 
polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 

microdactylism fmi-kro-dak'ti-lizm), n. [Gr. 
liiKpoi;, small, 4- ddicni/of, finger or toe, -I- -ism.] 
A condition in which the fingers and toes are 
abnormally short. Buck, Med. Handbook, TV. 

microdactyly (mi-kro-dak'ti-li), n. Same as 

(mi-kro-den'tus), a. [Or. fiiKp6c, 
dens (dent-), tooth, -I- -ous.] Hav- 
ing abnormally small teeth. 

Microdesmus (mi-kro-des'mus), n. [NL., < 
Gr, fiiKp6(, small, + fea/id^, band.] A genus of 
small fishes of the family Cerdalidie, found off 
the Pacific coast of tropical America. 

microdiactine (mi^kro-di-ak'tin), «. [Gr. 
fiKp(i(, small, -f i\i-, twice, -f- oktic (axTtv-), 
ray,] A small diactine sponge-spicule, 

microdiaene (mi-kro-di'en), «, [Gr, /uKp6(, 
small, + di-, two-, + -aiva as in rpiaiva, tri- 
dent,] In the nomenclature of the sponge- 
spieules, a triod of minute size having two 
arms of like curvature. 




microdichotrisene (mi - kro - di - ko - tri ' en), n. 
[6r. ."(■■i/xif, small, + ilix", i" two, + Ti>iaiva, 
trident.] A small or reduced dichotrirene. 

Spicules calthrops-like microtriienes and spined mi' 
croxeas; jHi'cnxiicAo/riwHC* absent, __ _ _ _^__, ^ ^ __ 

Pruc. Zool. Soc. London, 1902, II. 218. JlicrogobiuS (mi-kro-go'bi-us), » 
Microdiscus (mi-kro-dis'kus), «._ [Gr. /J«p<if, /iiKpo^, small, + NL. Gohins.] 

micrognathism (mi-krog'na-thizm), )i. Same microlophic (mi-kro-lof ik), a. [Gr. /icKpd;, 

as *micr<i(tiia1lda. " small, + 'Aixpo^, crest, + -jc] In craniom., 

micrognathous (mi-krog'na-thus), a. [Gr. having a low incisor crest in the anterior 

l^inpo^, small, + ymOof, jaw, + -ous.'] In nasal aperture and an indistinct alveolar line. 

anthrop., having small jaws. Harrison Allen, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

"■ ------ ■ [NL., <Gr. N. S., X. 419. 

A genus of microm (mi'krom), n. [An alteration of mi- 

small, + 6irrKo(;, disk.] A primitive Cambrian gobioid fishes found on the Atlantic coast of 

genus of trilobites of the family Agnostidse, the United States. 

with slightly segmented oephalou and pygid- microgram, ". 2. A photograph or a drawing 

ium. See J(7Hos<««. of a microscopic object. 

microdont, a- 2. In craniom., having a dental microgranitoid (mi-kro-gran'i-toid), a. [»»'- 

index less than 42. crogranit{c) + -oidJ] Resembling microgi-anite. 

microdontic (mi-kro-don'tik), a. \mierodont micrograph, «. 2. An instrument for photo- 

+ -If.] Same as *microdoiit, 2. graphing microscopic objects. — 3. Same as 

microdontism (mi-kro-don'tizm), n. [^micro- * microgram, 2, 

dont + -Ism.] The character or state of being 

microdont ; microdentism. 
microdontOUS (mi-kro-don'tus), a. [niiavdont 

+ -OK*-.] Same as microdont. 
microdyne (mi'kro-din), M. [Gr. fuKp6g, small 

(see micron), + t. dyne.] A unit of force 

equal to one millionth of a dyne. 
micro-ergate (mi-kro-6r'gat), n. See *micrer- 

microfauna (mi-kro-fa'na), n. ; pi. micro- 
fauna: (-ne). [NL.; < Gr. /^iKpo^, small, + L. 

The authors [of " Alloys of Copper and Cuprous Oxide "] 
studied by nietallographical methods the various alloys 
of copper and cuprous oxide and show that area measure- 
ment* of enlai-ged micrographs of pure coppere contain- 
ing less oxygen than the eutectic give good valuations 
of the oxygen contained. 

a'on.] Same as micron : proposed as a sub- 
stitute for micron by Lord Kelvin, to avoid 
confusion with the unit of time, the micltron, 
also suggested by him. 

micromagnetometer (mi-kro-mag-ne-tom'e- 
tfer), n. [Gr. fiit^pog, small, + E. magnetom- 
eter.] An instrument devised by Pender and 
Cremieu for the determination of very weak 
magnetic fields. It consists essentially of a 
horizontal bar carrying a vertical bar-magnet 
at one end and suspended by a torsion-fiber. 
A field of 0.00001 c. g. s. unit gives a large de- 
flection. Elect. Jl'orld and Engin., Apnl 18, 
1903, p. 666. 

Elect. H'orid and Engin., March 12, 1904, p. !>32. micromania (mi-kro-ma'ni-a), n. [Gr. lUKpd^, 

Same " ' ' ' ' 

micrographical (mi-kro-graf'i-kal), a. 

as iiiicrograpliic. 

micrography, ". 2. The art or process of 
photographing or depicting microscopic ob- 
jects ; photomicrography. 

fauna.] A fauna in which all the animals are microgyne (mi'kro-jlii), «. [Gr. fuKp6q, small, 
of minute or diminutive size; a congeries of + yvvi), a female.] A female or queen ant of 
microscopic animals, or sometimes a depau- smaller stature than the typical female form 
perated fauna. Geog. Jour. (E. G. 8.), X. 323. of the species. Wasmann. 
microflora (mi-kro-flO'rji), K. ; pi. microfloree microgyria (mi-kro-jir'i-a), m. [NL., < Gr. 
(-re). IGt. fiiKp6i,sma,\\, + h. flora. Seeflora.] ^(/cpdf, small, -(- )'i>pof, a turning (see 3i/r«s).] 

A flora in which all the plants are of minute 
size ; a congeries of microscopic plants : op- 
posed to *macroflora. Smithsonian Sep., 1904, 
p. 351. 

microform (mi'kro-fdrm), n. [Gr. fuKpdg, 
small, + E. form.] ' A microscopic organism, 
or one that is too small to be studied without 
a microscope. 

microfungUS (mi-kro-fung'gus), n. ; pi. mi 

A condition in which the cerebral convolu- 
tions are abnormally small. Jour. Med. Me- 
search, March, 1907, p. 104. 
microhemozoite, microhaemozoite (mi-kro- 

hem-o-z6'it), n. [Gr. funpdi, small, + a'lpa, 
blood, ■+- C^<"^, animal, + -ite^.] The smaller 
form of schizont in the development of the 
heraogregarine Drepanidium serpentium. Com- 

, __.,,. pare *macro}iemo:oite. Lutz. 

cro/MHiTi (^fun'ji). [NL., < Gr. /wxpi}?, small, + microhenry (mi-kro-hen'ri), n.; pi. microhen- 
ries (-viz). [Gr. fiiKpd^, small, + E. henry.] 

thousand c. g. 

s. units: a practical unit of 

L. 'fungus, fungus.] A minute fungus which 
must be magnified in order that its gross mor- 
phology may be discerned : distinguished from 
mushrooms and other large forms. 
microgamete (mi-kro-gam' ~ 
small, -*- E. gamete.'] 1. 

two conjugating cells or gametes of a colonial microhistology. 

rhizopod. See *macrogamete.— 2. A male microhistology (mi"kr6-his-tol'6-ji), n. 
git^.-ite^lL a spermatozoon. Encyc. Brit., ^^^^.^^ g^j^,,^ + g histology.] Microscopic 

small, + imvia, madness.] 1. A delusion that 
objects, especially the parts of one's own 
body, are growing smaller. — 2. An insane 
self -depreciation. 
micromaniac (mi-kro-ma'ni-ak), a. and «. 
[micromani(a) + -ac] I. a. Pertaining to or 
suffering from micromania. 

H. n. 1. One who is afflicted with micro- 
mania. — 2. One who has a mania for little- 
ness, weakness, or inefBciency. [Rare.] 

Alas, the Unity of Italy is undermined by the micro- 
maniacs who aim at shutting Italy in her shell, at isolat- 
ing her from the great nations, forbidding her to share the 
active initiatives on whose development her glorious des- 
tinies depend. 

Crispi (trans.), in The Nation, May 11, 1899, p. 350. 

micromanometer (mi"kro-ma-nom'e-tfer), n. 
[Gr. /iiiip6(, small, + E. manometer.] A very 
small, delicate manometer for measuring mi- 
nute differences of pressure. 
micromazia (mi-kro-ma'zi-a), w. [NL., < Gr. 
fiiKpd(;, small, + pa^oc;, breast.] A condition 
, . , _ _ in which the breasts are abnormally small. 

In elect., one millionth part of a henry or one micromelia (mi-kro-me'li-ii), n. [NL., < Gr. 

^r^^^' "■ n Ttu' microhistological (mi"kr6-his-tp-loj'i-kal), micromelic (mi-kro-mel'ik), a. 

Ihe smaller ot tne „. [)H/(.TO;i/6fo;o(ir()/) -4- -ic.J Of or pertaining to -t- -/c] Relating to or charaete 

'ametes ot a colonial microhistolocrv. tt,o1;o • V,Qi-iTi<T omnll o-rtromiti 

/uKp6(:, small, + pO.o^, limb.] A condition in 
which the limbs are abnormally small. 

characterized by micro- 
melia ; having small extremities ; dwarfish. 
[Gr. micromembrane (mi-kro-mem'bran), n. [Gr. 
piKpo^, small, + E. memirane.] A very thin 
layer of finely porous material, such as is used 
in experiments on osmose. 

hand, the conjugating gametes are of equal size. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., June, 1901, p. 192. 

Encyc. Brit., 
XXXII. ..09. histology; mieristology. 

Coccidium differs further from Monocystis in that the microjoule (mi'kro-joul), n. [Gr. fltKp6(, small, 
coniugatinggametesaresexually differentiated, the small, •»"**'* vjy"*^ v a * i- i 'x i, V i . « /-, c ai. ii x,i a 

active one, or microgam^ite, functions as the male cell, + E. joule.] A practical unit of work equal micromere, n. 2. One of the small blasto- 
and the larger quiescent one, or macrogamete, as the to ten ergs. 

female or egg cell, while in the gregarine, on the other rTnT"kvo-Vi-Tipt'ik'> n FOr WKn6r 
hand, the nonimjatimr irametes are of equal size. miCrOKineilC (,mi Kro Kl net IK;, a. L«r. HlKprK, 

small, + t. mnettc] Pertaining to or consist- 
ing of minute, continued, and rapid motions 
or movements, such as those of tremor, titilla- 
tion, formication, etc. [Rare.] 

The aimless and archaic movements of infancy . . . 
in the form of isolated automatic tweaks or twinges, and 
perhaps even the still more microkinetic gleanings of 
fibrillary formications, are ... by slow processes of com- 
bined analysis and synthesis . . . ma<le over into hab- 
its and conduct that fit the world of present environment. 
G. S. Uatl, Adolescence, I. 163. 

microlecithal (mi-kro-les'i-thal), o. [Gr. 

ptKpoc, small, + leKidog, yolk of an egg, + -«/l.] 

In embryol., having very little food-yolk : 

applied to certain ova, such as those of sponges, 

marine worms, echinoderms, etc. : opposed to 

*macrolecithal or *bradylecithal. 
microlepidotous (mi"kro-lep-i-d6'tus),n. [Gr. 

piKpdr^, small, + ?.eiTiS(JT6Q, scaled.] Having 

minute scales. 
Microlepidotus(mi"kro-lep-i-d6'tus),n. [NL., micromerozoite (mi"kro-mer-o-z6'it),n. 

microgametocyte (ml"kr9-gam'e-t6-sit), n. 
[Gr. luKpik, small, + E. gametocyte.] In sporo- 
zoans, the mother-cell of a microgamete or 
male element : contrasted with *macrogame- 

Another interpretation would regard this as the male 
element {mother-microgametocyte), in which the falciform 
bodies represent the microgametocytes and from the latter 
the microgametes may arise somewhat as described by 
Siedlecki for Adelea ovata, i. e. after the microgameto- 
cyte has reached the macrogamete. 

Jour. Exper. Med., March 17, 1902, p. 310. 

microgametophyte (mi-kro-gam'e-to-ftt), «. 
[Gr. fuKpoc, small, + E. gametophyte.] A male 
gametophyte when the sexes are dioeciously 

microgameto phytic (mi" kro-gam-e-to-fit ' ik ) , 
a. [Gr. |Ui/iYJ<5f, small, •+ IE,.' gametopliyt(e) + 
-ic] Of the nature of or relating to a micro- 

The question here arises if we are to regard the rich 
prothallial endowment of the Podocarpineie as the reten- 
tion of a feature possessed by the ancestral Coniferales or 
as a recent cenogenetic adaptation, which has arisen at a 
later stage of evolution. This question can only be air 

< Gr. uiKpog, small, + Aemiurdq, scaled, < 
/ETTif {AeinS-), scale.] A genus of fishes of 
the family Hxmulidie, found in the GuU of 

meres, or cells, which result from the early 
cleavage of the egg : opposed to *macromere 
or *megamere. 

The eggs undergo a total, but unequal segmentation, 
with small cells (micromeres) at one pole, and larger, 
yolk-laden cells (macromeres) at the other. 

J. S. Kingsley, Vertebrate Zool., p. 222. 

micromerism (mi-krom'e-rizm), n. ^micromere 
+ -ism.] A collective term for the theories 
that assume that livingprotoplasm is made up 
of a great number of excessively minute 
units, or biomolecules, each endowed with 
the peculiar properties of living substance, 
namely, assimilation, growth, and reproduc- 

These [speculative] theories have been ably brought 
together and discussed by Delage, who has included them 
all under the term " »«i>rr*»)en'S7n," since they agree in 
the assumption that the living substance contains, or con- 
sists of, a vast number of excessively minute particles — 
t. €., aggregates or combinations of molecules, which give 
to the protoplasm its specific properties and tendencies 
(" idioplasm" of >'ageli). Encyc. Brit., XXXIL 41. 


swered by a consideration of the OTtcrosramBfopAi/dc con- MicrolestCS (mi-kro-les'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. 

ditions found in the Gymnosperms in general, particularly 
the more ancient of those still living. 

Ayner. If at., June, 1907, p. 361. 

microganss (mi'kro-gous), n. In elect., one 
millionth part of a gauss or of a c. g. s. unit: 
a practical unit of magnetic induction. 

microgllbert (mi-kro-gil'bert), n. In elect., 
one millionth part of a gilbert or of a c. g. s. 
unit: a practicalunit of magnetomotive force. 

micrognathia (mi-krog-na'thi-a),_w. [NL., 

piKp6(, small, + hjaT^c, robber.] A genus of 
small marsupial mammals from the Triassic 
rocks of England and Germany. 

ptKpoQ, small, + pepo(, part, + fipoi', animal, + 
-ite^.] In sporozoans, a microsporozoite : con- 
trasted with *macromerozoite. 
micromesentery (ml-kro-mez'en-ter-i), M. [Gr. 
piKpoi;, small, -f E. mesentery.] In some 
anthozoans, a small, incomplete mesentery 
devoid of gonads and filaments. Compare 
*macrom<:sen (cry. 

the condition of having small jaws. 
micrognathic (mi-krog-nath'ik), a. 
*microgna thous. 

microline (mi'kro-lin), n. [micro- + line^, n.] micrometallurgy (mi-kro-mot ' al- er-ji), «. 

A proposed unit' of measurement of micro- [Gr. piupdc, small, + E. metallurgy.] The 

scopic objects. See the extract. study of metals, particularly as to structure 

The size of microscopic objects could ... be recorded and crystalline form, under the microscope. 

simply, by saying they were one, two, three, or more micrometer, « Dioptric micrometer, a form of 

jf,,.,„;,„.. ,-„ .iio„..t„,. double-image micrometer having the divided lens in the 

eye-tube.— Electric micrometer, a micrometer for the 
precise measurement of lengths, in which contacts are in- 
dicated electrically, thus permitting .an accuracy of de- 
tenu ination to within less than one micron.— Micrometer 
caliper. See *ca(i>pr.- Micrometer eyepiece. .Ve 
ocular *micro7nc(cr.— Ocular micrometer, au eyepiece 

Microlines in diameter. 

Rep. Brit. Ass'n Advancement of Sci., 1857, p. 115. 

< Gr.7"'(por, small, + yva^or, jaw.] Inanthrop., micrologic (mi-kro-loj'ik), a. [microlog(y) + 

-ic] 1. Marked by minute investigation; 
Same as micrological. — 2. Of or pertaining to microl- 

ogy ; microscopical. 





or devours other cells, bacteria, etc. 
to *macrojphage. 

Metchnikoflf has attempted to show that the chief func- 
tion of the poljiiuclears or "microphages" is to take up 
bacteria and inert particles, whilst for animal cells they 
show negative chemiotaxis, remaining inactive ; the ma- 
crophages doing all the work of phagocytosis when for- 
eign animal cells or fragments of cells are introduced 
into the peritoneal cavity. 

Jour. Med. Research, July, 1906, p. 9. 

-sit), n. [Gr. 

fiiKpo;, small, + TTuyati, beard.] A genus of 
scisenoid fishes found in the warmer parts of 
the Atlantic and Pacific in America. 

micrometer which consists usually of a cross-hair or set cyte, or wandering leucocyte, which engulfs MlcropOgOn (mi-krop 0-gon), n. [NL., < Gr 

of cross-hairs mounted upon a slide in the eyepiece of a -• ^< "- i — i___i_ _.._ . j „.-_ ii _l _.<:.,... i j -i \ ,.i 

microscope or other optical instrument, and moved 

through the field by means of a micrometer-screw.— 

Repsold's transiting or registering micrometer, 

a mici-ometer fitted to a transit-instrument and so ar- 
ranged that with it the observer can follow a star with 

the wire, keeping it contiiuially bisected. The pjissage 

of the wire across certain definite points of the field is 

auwuiatically registered on the chronograph by electric- 
ity, and the resulting observation is iiciiily, if not quite, 

free from personal equation. — Ring-mlcrometer, an 

opaque, accurately circular ring, supported by anus or microphagOCyte (mi -kro- fag' 6 

bv beins cemented upon a glass plate, m the focal plane ""^^"*'""o„'V'X,^ , ■ .„ ? w„ 

of thTSw^t-gliis of a telescope. It is used to deter- fiiKpoc, SmaU, + E. Jihaoocytc.^ Sa 

miTie the difference of declination and right-aacension be- pliaijc. 

twecn two or more b<Hlies by observations of thetrtransits uucrophitic (mi-kro-fit ' ik), a. [Gr. filK(i6(, 

acn^s the ring. I\h- the^ad^ntag^^ ,^,„_+ E ophite + -ic.:i In petrog mi.vo- 

' - . . . scopieally ophitic; noting a texture of igneous 

rocks, which have crystals of lime-soda feld- 
spar inclosed in crystals of augite, as some miCTOpoikilitic (mi-kro-poi-ki-lit'ik), a. 


does not require an equatorial 
curate than the filar micrometer. 
an instrument devised by 
Riess for the detennination 
of large differences of electri- 
cal potential by means of tlie 
length of the spark in air be- 
tween adjustable knobs of 
metal. The spark passes be- 
tween the balls a and 6, the 
distance between which is 
varied by means of the mi- 
crometer-screw w.— Sc^uare- 
bar micrometer, an mstru- 
nient similar to the ring- 
niicrometer, except that the 
ring is replaced by a square 
composed of four parallel- 
sided strips, crtjssing at right 
angles and so placed that one 
of its diagonals is exactly east 
and west, thus requiring an 
equatorial mounting of the 
telescope. It has an advan- 

t,age over the ring-micrometer in the easier redaction of 
observations and in the accuracy of results. 

micrometer-cock (mi-krom'e-ter-kok), n. A 
valve capable of delicate adjustment by means 
of a micrometer-screw. 

micro-microfarad (mi"kro-mi-kro-far'ad), n. 
In elect., a practical unit for the measurement 
of very small capacities; one millionth of a 

Mifrofo^oii uniiuliitHS. 
(From Bulletin 47, U. S. Nat. Museum.) 


diabases (ophites) or basalts. 
microphone, ».— Pencll-mlcrOphone, a microphone 
the cont;icts or which are fomied between rods or pencils 
of carbon.— Rousselot microphone, in exper. peychol. 
and phonetics, a 
microphone, de- 
vised by the 
Abb^ Rousselot, 
which consists 
essentially of a 
metallic mouth- 

Eiece connected 
y rubber tub- 
ing to a cylin- 
drical metallic 
box in which 
three carbon tips 
are suspended. 
The adjustment 
is effected by 
means of a screw- 
set in the oppo- 
8it« end of the 
box. The screw 
is connected 
with a metallic spring to which oneof the carbon tips is 
attached, and thus regulates the distance between the 
tips. The wires ny which the carbon tips are included 
in an electric circuit enter through the top of the box. 


fiiKfio^, small, + E. poikilitic.] In petrog., 
microscopically poikilitic ; noting a texture 
in igneous rocks produced by the presence in 
one crystal of many small crystals of other 
minerals variously oriented. 

The microstructure of the groundmass is "micropoi- 
kilitic," with more minute feldspars maintaining a fluidal 
arrangement, i'. S. Geot. Surv,. Monographs, XXXII. 63. 

micropolariscope (mi"kro-po-lar'i-sk6p), n. 
[Gr. /iiKp6(, small, + E. polariseope. ] A micro- 
scope with a polarizing attachment. The 
polarizer is placed beneath the stage and the 
analyzer above the objective or at the eye- 
piece. It is used in the examination of crystals, 
tissues, and other objects. 

Micropora (mi-krop'o-ra), n. [NL., < Qr. 
/iiKpo^, small, + 7r(5pof,"poro.] The typical 
genus of the family ificroporidse. Gray, 1848. 

micropore (mi'kro-por), n. [Gr. /Jinpog, small, 
-f- TTopof, pore.] A small pit or pore in the 
shell of a ehitinoid moUusk containing a mi- 
croscopic sense-organ: opposed to *megalo- 

microfarad, or 1 X IO-21 of a e.g. s. unit of miCTOPhon^ic' a." Sr'of' airiiit^^^ small Microporidse (mi-kro-por'i-de), «. j>?. [NL., 

Kousselot Microphone. 

the electromagnetic system. 
micromil (mi'kro-mil), )i. [Gr. p-iicpii:, small, 

+ E. iiiH(}ion).'\ A unit of length equal to 

one millionth of a mil ; 1 X 10-* inches, or 

about 2.540 X 10-* millimeters, 
micromorph ^mi ' kro - morf ), «. [Gr. /u«p<if, . .,-,-,-/- a*n 

small, + twp<^, form.] A specimen of a size microphonograph (mi-kro-fo np-grftt), h. 

smaller than the normal. innpk, small, + E.plwnograph.^^ .„;_?., 

Micrtmwrphs . . . occur ... in many parta of the In- 
ferior Oolite. 

UudUfton, Gasterop. (Palseont Soc.X p. 112. 

micromotoscope (rai-kro-mo'to-skop), n. [Gr. 

uiKpuc, small, + E. molosco/ie.'^ In pliotog., an 

instrument for photographing microscopic or- 

gani.sms in motion. 
micromyelia (mi*kro-mi-e'li-a), n. [NL., < 

Gr. uiKpnr, small, + /jvt'/.d^, marrow.] A con- 

as to be audible only by the aid of the micro- 

At a time when Vesuvltts became active. Rocca di 
Papa was agitated by microseisms, and the shocks were 
found to be accompanied by the very same microphonic 
noises as before. G. U. Darwin, The Tides, p. 117. 



grapii to the membrane of which a microphone 

is attached, thus intensifying the sounds. — 2. 

See *telegraphone. 

The telephonograph, or, as it is sometimes called, the 
"telegraphone," the " microphonograph." 

W. J. Uammer, in Smithsonian Rep., 1901, p. 307. 

microphony, n. 2. In physics, the art of en- 
hancing or magnifying the intensity of sound ; 
the tise of the microphone. 

dition presented by a small or imperfectly microphotogram (mi- kro- fo' to -gram). 

developed spinal cord. 
microne (mi'kron), n. Same as micron. 
micronephric (mi-kro-ncf'rik), a. [Gr. /impo^, 

small, + I'f^Jpft/, kidney, + -io.] Pertaining 

to or characteristic of a micronephridium : 

as, the micronephric type of nephridia in an- 
nelids. Compare *meganephric. 
micronephridium (mi"kr6-nef-rid'i-um), «. ; 

pi. iiiicriinephridia (-ii). [NL., < Gr. fimpi'i;, 

small, + NL. nephrirlium.'\ A diplonephridium. 

Compare *meiiO)irphrifliiini. 
micronnclear (mi-kro-nii'kle-ar), a. [micronu- 

cleiis.] Pertaining to, or oi the nature of, a 

micro-organismal (mi'kro-or-ga-niz'mal), n. 

[mirro-i'riiii)ii><m + -«n.] ' Of or pertaining to micropia (ml-kro'pi-ii), n. [NL., < 

micro-organisms, such as bacteria and Pro- gmall, + ui/' (""-)> eye.] Defect o 

The microorffanimnal differences between fresh and 

Same as micrtijihotiigraph 

microphotographic (mi-kro-fo-to-graf'ik), a. 
lmicrnphoti>graph(y) + -i.-.] Pertaining to, 
or of the nature of, microphotography. 

microphthalmous (mi-krof -thai ' mus), a. 
Same as tiiicniphthalmic. 

microphysical (mi-kro-fiz'i-kal), a. [Gr. 
p.iKp6r,, small, + E. physical.'^ Of or pertaining 
to the physics of the ultimate particles of 
matter: opposed to *macrophysical. 

microphysics (mi-kro-fiz'iks), n. [Gr. /ii»pof, 
small, + E. physic.^.'] The physics of minute 
masses or of the ultimate particles and struc- 
ture of matter: opposed to *macrophysics, 
which deals with bociies taken as a whole. 

Gr. funpii;, 

of vision in 

which objects appear of smaller size than 

stale sewage are also dwelt uj,,„^^_ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ I^c/oplankton (mi-kro-plangk'ton), n. [Gr. 
Microperca (mi-kro-ptr'kii), «. [NL., < Gr. mx'C, small. + ah.plaukto,,-] The micro- 
luKi^umnM, + nfpKn, perch.] A genus of scopic animals and plants that float or swim 

percoid fishes confined to the fresh waters of m tlie water. 

tbr. f.ii«t..ri, T'liited States Tlie rnicroplanklon of the Sicilian coast has not been 

thr- ca-StMuL intert States. included. "^ Jour. Jioy. Micros, .'ioc., Oct. — " 

microperthlte (mi-kro-p6r thit), n. [Gr. ,.,",-,..., 

uiKpdu small, + E. perthite.] A perthite in microplasia_(mi-kro-pla Bi-a^ «^ 

which the interlaminated structure of the /unpii 

orthoclase (or microcline) and albite is only 

distinctly discernible by aid of the microscope 

in a thin section. See ■'•cryptoperthite. 
micropetalons (mi -kro - pet ' a - Ins), a. [Gr. 

iiiKp/u;, small, + ■xira'/xyr, a petal.] Having 

minute jietals. 
microphag (mi'kro-fag), n. Same as *micro- 

microphage (mi ' kro - faj), «. [Gr. fitKp6(, 

small, + -•?a;of, < ^ajtir, eat.] A small phago- 

1903, p. tXiii. 

[NL., < Gr. 
small, + T/tdrnf, formation.] 

A con- 

< Micropora + -irf«.] ' A family of chilostoma- 
tous polyzoans, of the order Gymnolseniata, 
having zooecia in which the front wall is 
wholly calcareous and the margins elevated. 
It includes the genera Micropora, Setosella, 
Caleschara, Sfeganoporella, and Vincitlaria. 
microprojection (mi'kro-pro-jek'shgn), n. 
[Gr. //(K/wf, small, + E. project ion.} In physics, 
the art of projecting upon a screen greatly 
enlarged images of minute objects by means 
of a lantern with a microscopic attachment. 
Jour. Soy. Micros. Soc, Oct., 1904, p. 582. 
microprosopOUS (mi'kro-pro-so'pus), a. [Gr. 
ftiKpoi;, small, + TrpiJouTToi', face, + -<)««.] In 
craniom., said of a skull which has a small 
face, with a volume of from 470 to 510 cubic 
centimeters in males, and from 405 to 435 
cubic centimeters in females. 
microprosopus, n. 2. In the Cabala, the ' les- 
ser face'; a cabalistic name which includes 
all the Sephiroth below Kether (crown) and 
denotes the workings of the Adam Kadmon in 
the universe : opposed to macroprosopon, the 
name applied to the Kether Sephira. 
micropterism (mi-krop'te-rizm), n. [microp- 
ter{ous) + -(.s-m.] The character of being mi- 
cropterous or short-winged or short-finned; 
specifically, the condition of having the wings 
reduced in size or vestigial, as in certain 
dimorphic bugs (Hemipteru) and in some 
insular insects and birds. 
micropterygid (mi-krop-ter'i-jid), n. and a. 
I. »(. A member of the lepidopterous family 
Microp tcryg idic. 

II. a. Having the characters of, or belong- 
ing to, the family Micropterygidie. 
Micropterygida fmi-krop-te-rij'i-de). n. pi. 
[XL., < Micropteryx (-ptcryg-) + -idae.'] A 
notable family of lepidopterous insects, form- 
ing, with the family Hepialidie, Conistock's 
suborder Jiiqatse. They are very small moths 
which resemble the tineids in appearance and 
habits. Their larvaa are usually leaf-miners. 
See ■'•Jugate. 

litionin which the size normal to the species Mlcropteryx (mi - krop te -nks), n. [Wii. 

is not attained ; dwarfism. 
micropodal (mi-krop ' 6-dal), a. [Gr. /impd^, 

small. + ffoi'f (ffotS-), foot, + -an: see Mia-o- 

poda.] Having small — especially abnormally 

small — feet; micropodous. 
micropodous (mi-krop'6-dus), a. [Gr. //(/(p<if, 

small, + ?r"i'f (tod-), foot, + -0M«.] Having 

small — especially abnormally small — feet; 


(Huebner,"l8]6, as Micropierix ; Zeller, 1839, 
as Micropteryx), < Gr. fUKpd^, small. + irrfpif 
{TTcpvy-), wing.] The type genus of the lepi- 
dopterous family .Jf«crojp(er.v.(/iV«. The species 
are small, posse'ss no mandibles, have a short 
tongue, moderate labial palpi, and posterior 
tibiffi thinlv hairv aljove. The genus has few 
species and is confined to southern and cen- 
tral Europe. 


Micropus, «. 4. [(. c] A person with ab- 
normally small, but not necessarily deformed, 

micropyle, «. 2. In zool. : (c) In certain 
sporozoaus, a minute opening in the oocyst 
through \Yhich the microgamete enters to 
fertilize the macrogamete. 

microrefractometer (mi-kro-re-frak-tom 'e- 
ter), n. Imicro- + refractometer.'l A retrac- 
tometer specially constructed for the detection 
of differences in the minute structure of blood 
corpuscles. X. E. D. 

micrqrlieometer (mi'ki-o-re-om'e-tfer), n. [Gr. 
ftiKfio', small, 4- E. rheometer.'] A galvanometer 
for small cuiTents. 

micros. An abbreviation (a) of microscopic, 
microscopical ; (b) of microsc<rpy. 

Microsauri (mi-kro-sa'ri), n. pi. [NL.] Same 
as Micriixauria. 

microscelic (mi-kro-sel'ik), a. [Gr. /iiupdc, 
small, 4- UKi/Mc, leg.] Having short legs. 

What is more, in a race like the French, there are two 

distinct types, each having the same measurement, but 

the one class is long-legged (macroscelic, in the term of 

the anthropologists), the other short-legged (microscelic). 

Smithsonian liep., 1901, p. 528. 

miCTOSclerometer (mi''kro-skle-rom'e-ter), n. 
[Gr. ftiKpoc, small, + aK?.rip6c, hard, + phpov, 
measure.] An instrument for measuring the 
hardness of minerals ; a delicate form of 
sclerometer. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1897-98, p. 511. 

microscleron (mi-kro-skle'ron), v. ; pi. micro- 
sclera {-r'a.). [NL.] ' Amicrosclero. 

microscops, n — Metallo^apMcal microscope, a 
fonn of microscope for the iitvestigation of metals and 
alloys. Light admitted above the objective from the 
side is reflected down through the objective, which acts 
as a condenser, to the object which is viewed under this 
illumination. — Projection microscope, a form of magic 
lantern adapted to the projection of enlarged images of 
minute objects. The projecting lenses of tlie lantern are 
replaced by high-power micmscopo lenses. — Reading 
microscope, a vernier- or scale-reading microscope : 
used "11 instruments of precision. 

microscope (mi'kro-skop), V. t. ; pret. and pp. 
micrdncopcd, ppr. microscoping. To enlarge 
with or as with a microscope ; examine very 
minutely as with a microscope: as, to micro- 
scope one's faults. 

microscopize (mi-kros'ko-piz), V. i. ; pret. and 
pp. microscopized, 'pTpr. microscopizing. To use 
the microscope ; work with a microscope. 

I may read, draw, or microgcopise at pleasure, and as to 
books, I have a carte blanche from the Captain to take as 
many as I please. Iluxley, in Life and Let., IL 29. 

microsecond (mi-kro-sek'und), w. [Gr. pixpS^, 
small, + E. second.'] One millionth of a sec- 
ond: a unit employed in the measurement of 
exceedingly small intervals of time. 

microseismology (mi " kro - sis - mol ' 9 - ji), n. 
[microseism + -ology.] The scientific itudy of 
microseisms or small earth-tremors. 

microseismometer (mi"kr9-sis-mom'e-ter), n. 
[(iir. pitipor, small, -1- E. seismometer.'] An ap- 
paratus for detecting slight earth-tremors, and 
showing their direction, intensity, and dura- 

microsiphuncle (ml-kro-si'fung-kl), w. [micro- 
+ siphuncle.'] Same as microsiphonula. 

microslide (mi'kro-slid), «. A glass slide 
upon which an object for observation under a 
microscope is mounted. 

microsmatic (mi-kros-mat'ik), a. [Gr. /i«pdf, 
small, -t- uapij, smell, -I- -atic] Having the 
organs of smell small or feebly developed: 
opposed to *megosmatic and * macrosmatic. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1894, p. 9. 

microsmatism (mi - kros 'ma - tizm), V. [Gr. 
piKpor, small, -I- oapi/, smell. + -t- + -ism.'] 
The fact or condition of having the organs of 
smell small or feebly developed : contrasted 
with *macrosmatism. 

microsomatia (mi"kro-so-ma'shia), n. [NL., 
< Gr. piKpir, small, + aCipalj-), body.] Same 
as microsomia. 

microsomatOTls (mi-kro-s6'ma-tus), a. [Gr. 
piKpor, small, + ciopa (aupar-) , body.] Having 
a small body ; being of minute size. 

microsome, n. 3. One of the minute granules 
found in the protoplasm of animal and plant 
cells and by some biologists regarded as the 
ultimate units of living matter. The micro- 
somes of the nucleus are known as karyomi- 
erosomes, those of the cytoplasm of the cell as 
eytomierosomes. See cut under *astecl, 7. 

Microspathodon (mi-kro-spath'o-don), n. 
[NL., < Gr. piKp6(, small, + airaO?!, sheath, -t- 
oSoi/i {bdovr-')i tooth.] A genus of fishes of the 


family Pomacentridee, found about rocky is- 
lands of the American tropics. 

microspectral (mi-kro-spek'tral), o. [Gr. 
/M«p<5r, small, -I- NL. spectrum +"-al^.] Of or 
pertaining to the spectra of objects in the 
field of the microscope, or to microspectro- 
scopy. Science Abstracts, \^. Sec. A, p. 110. 

microspectroscopic (mi-kro-spek-tro-skop'ik), 
a. lmicrospeclroscop(e) + -ii.] Pertaining to, 
or observed by means of, the mierospectro- 

microspectroscopy (mi"kro-8pek-tros'ko-pi ), 
n. \_microspcctroscope + -y^.] The scientific 
use of the microspectroscope. 

microspermous (mi-kro-spfer'mus), a. [See 
Microspermm.] Having min«te seeds; per- 
taining to or characteristic of the Miero- 

microsphere (mi'kro-sfer), n. [Gr. pcKp6^, 
small, -1- effialpa, sphere.] 1, A microscopic 
spherical organism : applied by Cohu to the 
micrococci found in vaccine lymph and in 
small-pox pustules. N. E. D. — 2. In the 
calcareous Foraminifera, the small primordial 
chamber of the test: an index of the dimor- 
phisni expressed by these bodies, as with like 
exteriors some have a microsphere and others 
a large primordial chamber or megasphere. — 
3. In cytol., the central portion of the astro- 
sphsre in the dividing cell. The center of the 
microsphere is occupied by the centrosome. 
Kostanecki and Siedlecki, 1896. 

microspheric (mi-kro-sfer'ik), a. [Gr. piKp6c, 
small, + a<palpa, sphere.] Pertaining to or of 
the nature of a microsphere, in any sense; 
specifically, having a small central chamber 
and a large number of small nuclei: as, a 
microspheric individual in some dimorphic 
foraminifers. Compare *megalospheric. 

microspherulitic (mi-kro-sfer-o-lit'ik), a. 
Iniicro- -f sjiherulitic] In geol., minutely 
spherulitic in structure. 

microsphyxia (mi-kro-sfik'si-S,), n. [NL., < 
Gr. piKpoi, small, -t- (r^tfic, pulsation.] A state 
in which the pulse is very small. 

microspined (mi'kro-spind), a. [Gr. ptKp6(, 
small, -t- E. sjiincd.] Covered with or bearing 
minute spines or spinules. 

Microspira (mi-kro-spi'ra),?;. [NL. (Schroter, 
1886), < Gr. piKpdg + cTveipa, spire.] A genus 
of bacteria, with cells mostly comma-shaped 
or short spiral, sometimes 
united in chains, and usually 
provided with a single polar 
flagellum, rarely 2 or 3. M. 
comma, the comma 
of Koch, is the most 
tant pathogenic species 
ing generally accepted as 
the specific cause of Asiatic ,„5 (.,/„^„^,„ „„,. 
cholera. M. Metschniliori is >"<>)■ Highly magni. 
associated with fowl-cholera. ^.^i^lT "-"TfZ, 
Other species occur in sea- i-ischers"Voriesungen 
water, sewers, and rivers "''"' """■"""" 

na bacillus V^ fl '^e*>i) 

lost impor- r ^ ^\ 

ipecies, be- "^ \ 

»cpntfif) na ' 

Koch's Comma Bacil- 

uber Baktehea.") 

Asiatic Cholera Bacillus {.Wicro.'-fn\i < ■.■riini.r i. Magnified 

1. 000 times. 

(From Buck's " Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences.") 

microsplenic (mi-kro-splen'ik), a. Imicro- + 
splenic] In patliol., not accompanied by en- 
largement of the spleen. K. E. D. 

microsporange (mi-kro-spo'rauj), n. Same as 

Microsporidia (mi''kro-spd-rid'i-a), ». pi. 
[NL., < Gr. piKp6c, small, + an6poc, seed, -I- 
dira. -iSiov.] Same as *Cryptocystes. Nature, 
Aug. 27, 1903, p. 408. 

microsporozoite (mi*kro-sp6-ro-z6'it), n. [Gr. 
pinpii;, small, + E. sporosoite.] ' In sporozoans, 


a small endogenous sporozoite; a micromero- 
zoite. Compare *macrosporozoite. 

In 1894, the present writer discovered that in this schi- 
zogonic phase ^then considered as a seiwrate specific 
form) there existed cysts with macrosporozoites and 
others with microsporozoites. and he (like .Schuberg) pro- 
^junded the theory of a sexual dimonihism and of a 
fertilization. Eticyc. Brit., XXXII. 815. 

mierostat (mi'kro-stat), n. [Gr. piKp6^, small, 
-I- crrarof, < laTa'adm, stand.] The stage and 
finder of a microscope. 

Microstomatidse (mi'kro-sto-mat'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL.] Same as Mio-ostomidse. 

microstomatous (mi-kro-stom'a-tus), a. [Gr. 
piKpdc, small, + oTopalr-), mouth, + -ous.] 
Having a small mouth or aperture, as a uni- 
valve shell. 

microstomia (mi-kro-sto'mi-S), n. [NL., < 
Gr. piKpog, small, + trrA/m, mouth.] Unusually 
small size of the mouth. 

Microstomus (mi-kros'to-mus), n. [NL., < 
Gr. ptupo^, small, -f- ardpa, mouth.] A genus 
of flounders found in rather deep water in the 
northern seas. 

microstrongyle (mi-kro-stron'jil), n. [Gr. 
piKpdg, small, -t- arpoyyijfj);, round (see stron- 
gylc).] In sponge-spicules, a small or reduced 

The microgtrongyUs,'yiliK'ti are 18 x 2 n in size, are oc- 
casionally cenlrotylote. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1900, p. 131. 

microstrongylon (mi-kro-stron'ji-lon), n. ; pi. 
microstrongyls (-VA). [NL.] A microstrongyle. 

microstructural "(mi-kro-struk'tu-ral), a. 
[inicrostructure + -ai'.] Of minute or micro- 
scopical structure ; of or pertaining to micro- 

micrOStrUCture, «. Applied especially to metals and 
alloys, the study of the microstructure of which is now a 
very important department of engineering. 

A brief statement of the effect on the microstructure of 
nickel steels of tempering, annealing, working, chilling, 
etc. The tempering and workiRg produce very similar 
results. Juur. Phys. Chem., April, 1904, p. 305. 

microstyle (mi'kro-stil), n. [NL., < Gr. piKpAc, 
small, --f- aTv?.og, pillar.] A minute monaxial 
sponge-spicule with sharp ends. 

microtechnic (ml-kro-tek'nik), n. [Gr. piKpd;, 
small, -t- E. techtiic] The handling or construc- 
tion of the microscope and its accessories; the 
manipulation of minute objects, as in micro- 

microtetrod (mi-kro-tet'rod), m. [Gr. piupdc, 
small, -h Tcrpa-, four, + orfdf, way ] A small 
tetraxial sponge-spicule. 

microthermic (mi-kro-ther'mik), a. [micro- 
therm + -ic] Having the character of a 
microtherm ; composed of or characterized by 

Microthoracidae (mi-kro-tho-ras'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., <Microthorax(-tho'rac-) +-idse.] Afamily 
of holotrichous ciliate infusorians, consisting 
of small asymmetrital forms, with the mouth 
in the hinder part of the body, the ciUa scat- 
tered and sometimes limited to the oral re- 
gion, and sometimes one or two undulating 
membranes. It contains several genera, 
among them being J/(cro(Aorax, Cinetochilum, 
and Ancistrum. 

microthorax (mi-kro-tho'raks), n. [Gr. ptKpog, 
small, + Uupa^, thorax.] 1. In entom., a fourth 
thoracic segment anterior to the prothorax, in 
the Vermaptera. — 2. [NL.] [cap.] The typical 
genus of the family Microthoracidse. Engel- 
mann, 1862. 

Microthyriacese (mi-kro-thir-i-a'se-e), n. pi. 
[NL., < Microthyrium + -aces.] A family of 
ascomycetous fungi of the order Perisporiales, 
named from the genus Microthyrium. It con- 
tains 21 genera, most of which are tropical or 

Microthyrium (mi-kro-thir'i-um), n. [NTLi. 
(Desmazi^res, 1840), < Gr. pixpoc, small, + 
dvpiov, door.] A genus of ascomycetous fungi 
having membranous peritheeia, with a shield- 
like covering on the surface of the host. The 
spores are elongate, 2-celled, and hyaline. 
The species are mostly tropical. M. micro- 
seopicum occurs on leaves of various trees and 
shrubs in Europe and America. 

microtia (mi-kro'ti-a), «. [NL., < Gr. piKpSc. 
small, + oi'f (u7-), ear.] The condition of 
having abnormally small ears. 

Microtinae (mi-kro-ti'ne), «. 1)1. [NL., < ilicro- 
tns-i- -ina\] Asubfamily of mouse-likerodents, 
containing a large number of species and 
forming one of the most important divisions 


of the iliiridie. By the law of priority this 
uame replaces the familiar Arvicolinse. 

microtinel (mi'kro-tin), n. [G. mikrotin, < Gr. 
fUKpdrr/c, littleness, + -in^.'i A name sometimes 
given to the glassy forms of the plagioelase 
feldspars oceurring as minute phenocrysts in 
igneous rocks. 

microtine- (mi-kro'tin), a. IMicrotus + -iwel.] 
Kesembliug, or having the characters of, the 
small rodents of the genus Microtus. Smith- 
sonian litp.. 1900, p. 86. 

microtome (mi'kro-tom), V. t. ; pret. and pp. 
microlomed, ppr. microtoming. Imicrotmiie, 
n.] To cut (a tissue or organ) into thin sec- 
tions with the aid of a microtome. 

The following nerves of mtiscles were iiUcrotomed for 
detection of some fibres. 

Philnt. Tram. Roy. Soc. (London), ser. B, 1898, p. 95. 

miCTOtrixne (mi-kro-tn'en), H. [Gr. fiKpoc, 
small, + rpiatva, trident.] In sponge-spieules, 
a small or reduced triaene. 

microtriod (mi-kro-tri'od), n. [Gr. ftiKpS^, 
small, + rpi-, three, + orfof, way.] In the 
nomenclature of the sponge-spieules, a triod 
of minute size. 

Microtus (mi-kro'tus), n. [NL., < Gr. /iiKpS;, 
small, + oi'f (<Jr-), ear.] The typical genus of 
the subfamily Microtinee, containing those 
species of small rodents long placed in the 
genus Arricola. There are over 20 synonyms 
for this genus. See Arvicola. Schranl; 1798. 

mlcrotylostyle (mi-kro-ti'16-stil), n. [Gr. 
/iiKpd^, small, + ri?.of, knot, knob, + otv/mc, 
pillar.] A minute monaxial sponge-spicule 
with one knobbed end. 

microtylote (mi-kro-t5'16t), n. [Gr. fiicpdf, 
small, -I- E. tylote.~\ ' A small tylote. Sollas, 
in Encye. Brit., XXII. 417. 

microtypal (mi'kro-ti-pal), a. {microtype + 
-a/l.] Pertaining' to or characteristic of a mi- 
crotype : as, the microttjpal arrangement of 
mesenteries in the Zoanthidie. 

microtype (mi'kro-tip), n. [Gr. /ttKpS;, small, 
+ riTOf, tyi*.] The normal arrangement of 
mesenteries in certain Xoanthidea, each couple 
comprising a macromeseutery and a micro- 
mesenterv. Compare *ni«<TO<ype. Annals and 
Mag. Xai. Hist., llay, 1902, p. 393. 

microwatt (mi'kro-wot), n. [Gr. /wip6(, small, 
+ E. wdtt.'i A unit of power or activity 
equal to ten ergs per second ; a millionth of a 

microzea (mi-krok-se'a),n.; pi. microxese (-e). 
[NL., < Gr. /uKp6(, small, + o(e}a, fem. of oiic- 
sharp.] In sponge-spieules, a small or re- 
duced oxea. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1902, 
II. 218. 

microxycyte (mi-krok'si-slt), «. [Gr. piKpic, 
Hm.'ill, -f- o^ir, sharp, -f- Kvroq, hollow (cell).] 
A finely granular oxyphil or eosinophil blood- 
corpuscle, or leucocyte. Durham, 1897. 

microzoogonidiom (mi-kro-zo'o-go-nid'i-um), 
n. ; pi. microzoiigonidia (-a), [micro- -(■ zoii- 
gonidium.^ A minute zoogonidium. 

micrOZOdSCOpiC (mi'kro-zo-o-skop'ik), a. 
[Gr. uixp'jr, small, + f^v, animal, -r OKo-ttv, 
riew, -t- -ic] Of or pertaining to the seeing 
of microscopic organisms; characterized by 
the seeing of tiny animals. 

In a recent study of the dreams of hysterics and epilep- 
tics De Sautis found that those of the fonnur were most 
frequently of pain, next of fear, and were less often erotic. 
Dreams r,f lan;e animals predominate, while in alcoholism 
those of tiny animals or microzoi'mrofjir dreams were 
nujst fre(|Uent G. S. Hall, Adolescence, I. 276. 

microzyma (mi-kro-zi'mii), «.; pi. microzymse 
(■-me). (NL.. < Gr. /i'Kpdc, small, -I- ii'/'i, 
ferment.] One of the very minute bodies 
which, according to some biologists, repre- 
sent the ultimate elements of living sub- 
stance, or protoplasm, like the pangen*, 
plasomes, gemmules, etc. 

Micrurae (mi-kro're), [NL., < Gr. piKpt^, 
small, -I- oi'pa, tail.] A group of Xemertini, 
forming a sulxlivision of the family J.incidie, 
characterized by a small filamentous tail. It 
contains the genera Micrura, Ccrcbratulus, and 
Lnngia. See *Amicrurse. 

Mida2 (mi'da), n. [NL. (Cunningham, 1838), 
stated to be from a native New Zealand 
name.] A genus of dicotyledonous trees or 
shrubs beloiiging to the family Santalacex. 
See Fu.ianiis. 

midas-fly (mi' das-tli), n. Any dipterous in- 
sect of the family Mididx or Midasidm or 
Midaidx, as it is variously spelled. Comstock, 
Manual of Insects, p. 461. 


midazillary (mid-ak'si-la-ri), a. Situated in 
tue center of the axilla.' Buck, Med. Hand- 
book, I. 452. 

midbody, «. 2. 

The cell-plate ; 
a structure 
almost in- 

variably foiuid 
in plant- and 
often in ani- 
mal-cells, as a 
series of deeply 
staining thick- 
enings or 
granules in the 
equate rial 
plane of the 
achromati c 
spindle toward 
the end of mi- 
totic Cell-divi- Midbody in embryonic cells of X(>»ajr. 
Sion (Hofl-mann.) 
.,*,, ,, - A. earlier sta^e, showing thickenings 
miU-dlgltal along the line of clearage; B. later stage, 
/'TYiid dii'i foH showing spindle-plate andcytoplasm'ic plate, 
l^miu. U.1J ' "-di;, (From Wilson-s ■■ The Cell.") 

71. One of the 

two primaries attached to the first phalanx of 
the second digit of a bird's wing. Parker 
and Maswell, Text-book of Zool., II. 356. 

middle, » — Middle of the road, an epithet applied, 
especially in the presidential campaign of 1896, to those 
members of the Populist party who urged the nomination 
of a Populist by their party convention and opposed the 
acceptance of the nominee of the Democratic party : said 
to be derived fi-om the habit, in some parts of the South- 
west, of keeping in the mid<ile of the road, the better to 
protect one's self from enemies lying in ambush. [V. S. 
political slang.] — Persian middle, in the Arab-Persian 
musical theory of the early Middle Ages, a central tone 
in the system of t^jiies wliich 9er\'ed as a pointof reference 
in the calculation of intervals : the -kjnege of Greek musi- 
cal theory.— To break out middles, to open lengthwise 
with a double mold-board or a scooter-plow the middle 
of an existing cott^m bed. Also to burst or burst out mid- 
dles. Compare irmidtUe-buxter. [Southern U. S.] 

middle-body (mid'l-l)od'"i), «. In naval arch., 
tiie part of a ship's form in the middle of the 
length where the cross-sections are all of 
nearly the same size and shape. The parallel 
middle-body is that part in which they are of 
exactly the same dimensions. 

middle-breaker (mid'l-bra'kSr), n. A double 
mold-board plow, used to break out the mid- 
dle of a cotton bed and for similar purposes. 
It is steadied by a land-bar bisecting the 
angle made by the two mold-boards. [U. S.] 

middle-buster (mid'l-bus't^r), n. A middle- 
breaker. Sometimes corrected to middle- 
burster. [Colloquial, Southern U. S.] 

Or by means of a middle " buster," which is a double 

mold-board plow. 

T. F. Hunt, Forage and Fiber Crops in America, p. 362. 

middle-piece (mid'1-pes), n. A differentiated 

region of the spermatozoon between its ' head,' 

or nucleus, and ' tail,' or flagellum. 

It is clear, however, that the 
term middle-piece has been ap- 
plied to structures of quite dif- 
ferent m(»rphological nature, 
which agree only in lying be- 
hind the nucleus. Thus in the 
salamander the inner centrosome 
gives rise to the main body of 
the middle-piece ; in the rat or 
in man it gives rise only to the 
small disc-shaped body lying in 
tile "neck" in front of tlie so- 
called middle-piece ; while in 
llelix or tlie elasmobranch it is 
transformed into a long filament 
traversing a cytoplasmic "mid- 
dlf-piece " which forms a con- 
siderable part of the flagellum. 
The term middle-piece has thus 
become highly ambiguous and 
should only be employed, if at 
all, as a convenient descriptive 
terra which has no definite mor- 
phological meaning. 
K.B. Wilson, The Cell (ed. 1900), 
[pp. 170, 171. 

Middlesex shale. See 


middleshot (mid'1-shot), 
(I. In hydraul., receiving 
water at its circumference 
about opposite the center 
or middle : said of a'water- 
wheel with a horizontal 
axis, in which the relation 
of the diameter of the 
wheel to the available 
heail makes the type 
intermediate between the 
breast-wheel and the 


middletonite (mid'l-ton-it), «. IMiddleton 
collieries, near l^eeds, + -ite'^.] A hydrocar- 
bon occurring in minute rounded pea-like 
masses of a yellowish-brown color between 
layers of coal at the Middleton collieries, near 
Leeds, England. 

middle-'Watcher (mid'l--woeh'''er), n. The 
lunch served to the officer of the deck during 
the mid-watch. This is customary in the navy 
and on board passenger-steamships. [Slang.] 

middling, n. 6. pi. The finest kind of wheat 

The bran known as "middlings" Is usually considered 
the best to use, because it is finer and contains more 
flour than the coarse grades. 

Flemming, Practical Tanning, p. 9. 

mid-door (mid'dor), n. In mining, the middle 
one of three landing-places in a shaft. Also 
called mid-working. [Scotch.] 

inlde (me'da), n. [Ojibwa midewin.'] A relig- 
ious society of the Ojibwa Indians, consisting 
of a number of persons initiated by supernat- 
ural powers. The members are grouped in classes and 
a record of the initiations of each member is kept by him 
on birch-bark charts. The traditions of the mide tell of 
the initiation of the society by the creator or transformer. 
Tile ceremonies are perfonned in a rectangular open lodge. 
The members of the mide order are believed to possess 
supernatural powers and to be able to cure disease. 

Among the Indians of North America there are also 
special healers (medicine-men) who are held in great es- 
teem, and who sometimes form a corporation (Mide), 
into which admission can only be gained after a profes- 
sional examination in the "doctors' cabin." 

Deniker, Races of Man, p. 227. 

mide'wi'Win (mf-da'wi-win), n. [Ojibwa.] 
A religious society of the Ojibwa Indians, 
the members of which are imagined to 
have the power to converse with spirits and, 
after death, to reach the land of the spirits. 
See *mide. 

midfacial (mid-fa'shal), a. Situated in the 
middle of the face. 

midfllial (mid-fil'yal), a. Imid + fdialj Of 
or pertaining to a statistical offspring of com- 
posite sex which is the statistical mean of the 
sons and the transmuted daughters. 

The proportion between the Mid-Filial and the Mid- 
Parental deviation Is constant, whatever the Mid-Paren- 
tal stature may be. 

Francis Gallon, Natural Inheritance, p. 97. 

Midford sands. See *sandi. 

midfrontal (mid-fron'tal), a. Situated in the 
center of the forehead. 

mid-galley (mid'gal"i), «. The middle of a 
vessel; the galley or caboose, situated amid- 
ships below decks (midway between the upper 
deck and the hold) in old-time vessels. 

midge, «.— Oray miage, a kind of artificial fly.— Net- 
veined midge. See -k lilepharoceridm. — Ket-Wlnged 
midge, .Same iKsnet-veined irmidffe. — Pear-mldge, ace- 
cidomyiid fly, Cantarinia pyrivora, indigenous to Europe, 

— d 

Human sperniatozua. 
The two at the left alter 
Retzius (8i); the one at 
the extreme left is seen in 
profile; the other in sur- 
face view; the one at the 
right is drawn as described 
by Jensen, a. head; d, 
terminal nodule: c, mid- 
dle-piece; <^, tail; ^, •-nd- 
piece of Retzius. {From 
Huber's trans, of BOhm- 
DaTidofTs "Histology.") 

Pcir-raidge i^Coutarinia pyrivora). 
a. fe^nale flv ; *. genitalia ^ ; c, pifpa ; d, antenna J ; e. an- 
tenna \ . All greatly enlarged. (Riley, U. S. D. A.). 

and accidentally introduced into the Fnited States. Its 
larvie injure young pear fruit.— Solitary midge, Orph- 
nephila tcntacea, a minute dipterous insect: no called 
by i'oinstcHjk becau&e it is the only Anieiicun repiesen- 
tative of its family, the Orphn^philidx — VlOlet-mldge, 
a cecidomyiid t\y, Contarinia violicola, whose larvje f'Jd 
the leaves of the violet, bringing the upper surfaces of the 
Uyivea together bo as to fonn a kind of gall. Also called 
violet !7ftll-Jlif.— 'Winter midge, a trypetid tly, TrirJwcera 
hu'inalin, uccasionally lonini Hying in winter and occur- 
ring as far north as fireenland. 
mid-gear (mid'ger), «. That position of a Ste- 
phenson link where both the eccentrics have 
the same effect on the valve, that is, where 


the link-block is at tlie middle of the link; 
that position of the valve-gear of an engine in 
which the engine will run neither forward nor 
mid-grandparent (mid-grand'par-ent), n. An 
ideal person of composite sex who is the 
algebraical sum of the grandfathers and 

It is doubtful . . . whether the parthenogenetie grand- 
mothers ought not to be treated as "midffraiidparentit." 
Biometrika, April, 1902, p. 384. 

mid-heaven, «. 3. In octroi., the degree 

culminating on the cusp of the tenth house. 
mid-intestine (mid-in-tes'tin), n. In ciitom., 

that portion of the digestive tract of an insect 

which lies between the proventriculus and 

the ileum. Also called chylifie stomach and 

mid-iron (mid'i'fem), «. A golf-club with an 

iron head, in form between that of a cleik 

and that of a 

mashy : used for 

mid- kidney 

(mid-kij'ni), n. 

The Wolffian 

body; the meso- 

nephros. Parker 

and HasweJl, 

Text-book of Mid.iron. 

Zoologv. II. 110. 

midnightly (mid'nit-li), a. and adv. I. a. Oc- 
curring at midnight or every midnight. 

II. adv. At midnight; every midnight. 
X E. I). 

mid-orbital (mid-6r'bi-tal), a. Of or relating 
to the center of the orbit of the eye ; relating 
to the center of the superior boundary of the 

From the mid-orbital region onward it [the frontal] be- 
comes band-shaped, ultimately being produced into an 
outwardly directed and blunt angle underlying the nasal. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903, I. 270. 

mid-parental (mid-pa-ren'tal), a. [TO7dl -f- 
parental.~i Of or pertainingto statistical mid- 

This value of two thirds will therefore be accepted as 
the amount of Kegression, on the average of many cases, 
from the Mid-Parental to the Mid-Filial statuie, what- 
ever the Mid- Parental stature may be. 

Francii Galton, Natural Inheritance, p. 98. 

mid-periphery (mid-pe-rif'e-ri), n. InphysioL 
and psijchol. optics, the middle zone of the 
retina, colors falling upon which are all seen 
either as blue or as yellow. Baldwin, Diet. 
Philos. and Psychol., II. 791. 

mid-product (mid'prod"ukt), n. A substance 
formed in the course of chemical decomposi- 
tion which stands between the original 
material and the end-products. Also inter- 
mediary product. 

midriatic, «. and n. Same as mydriatic. 

Midship beam, the breadth of a vessel amidships ; the 
ln.rizontal timber at the broadest part of a ship. 

midshipman, n. 2. Inl902, congress abolished the 
title of naval cadet in the United States navy and re- 
stored the title of midshipman. These otlicers are not 
commissioned officers, but receive appointments on pro- 
bation, on the nomination of the President of the United 
States, of senators, or of congressmen, and the passage of 
an entrance examination to the Naval Academy. The 
course of instruction at the Naval Academy lasts four 
years and is followed by two yeai-s at sea, after which 
midshipmen are promoted to ensigns or second lieuten- 
ants of marines upon passing a final examination. — 
Midshipman apprentice, a cadet on board certain 
nR-ri:h!int ami revenue-service vessels ; a title given to a 
niidsiiipinan of the F.ast India service who was serving 
his first year, after which time he became a full midship- 
man, and after two years as such became eligible for 
promotion to the office of fourth mate. 

midship-section (mid'ship-sek"shon), n. In 
naral arch., the line formed by tfie intersec- 
tion of a transverse vertical plane at the 
middle of the length of a vessel with the 
surface of the hull ; also, a plan of this trans- 
verse section on which is delineated the ar- 
rangement of the structural parts of the 
vessel, and on which are marked in great de- 
tail the sizes or scantlings of all the structural 

mid-shore (mid'shor), n. That strip of a shore 
which lies between ordinary high-tide mark 
and the dunes ; the middle beach. A. F. Jf. 
Schimper (trans.), Plant-Geog., p. 180. 

mid-spoon (mid'spon), n. A wooden golf 
club, with a lofted face, of which the capacity 
in distance is between that of a long and 
that of a short spoon. 

mid-stroke (mid'strok), n. In steam-engines, 
the middle point or position in the stroke or 
travel of a piston or valve. 


mid-tarsal (mid-tar'sal), a. Relating to the 
central portion of the tarsus. 

If they act alone they either turn the foot inwards 
(tibi.alis posticus), or turn it outwanls (peronei), and thus 
invert or evert the foot at the mid-tarml articulation. 

Lancet, July 4, 1903, p. 5«. 

mid-ventral (mid-ven'tral), a. Situatedin the 
middle of the ventral surface. 

The median vein lies along the mid-ventral line of the 
swollen abdomen, scarcely noticeable posteriorly, but in- 
creasing anteriorly as it picks up several lateral branches. 
Amer. Nat., Feb. 1901, p. 123. 

mid-ventricle (mid-ven'tri-kl), n. The cavity 
of the midbrain, or mesencephalon, in the 
embryonic vertebrate. Its medioventral por- 
tion becomes the iter, or aqueduct of Sylvius, 
while its dorsolateral jiortions become the 
optic ventricles, or optocceles, of a more ad- 
vanced stage of development. 

midwall (mid'wal), a. and n. \mid^ + wall^.l 
I. a. lu arch., placed in the middle of a wall. 
— Midwall shaft, a shaft or baluster placed in the 
middle iif the thickness of the wall, in an early type of 
English belfry-windows. N. E. D, 

tl. H. In mining, a close wooden partition 
dividing a shaft. 

midway, ". 3. A middle way or path : also 
attributively: as, 'the Midway Plaisance,' a 
part of the exhibition park at the World's Fair 
in Chicago (1893), projecting from the park at 
a point midway between the north and south 

Considerable areas were devoted to "side-shows," and 
the midway Plaisaunce, as it was termed, resembled a 
gigantic fair. Encyc. Brit., XXVIII. 361. 

Hence — 4. A place for booths and side-shows 

at a fair. 
midweek (mid'wek), n. and a. I. n. The 

middle of the week. 
II. a. Set for or occurring in the middle of 

the week : as, the midweek sailings ; a mid- 

weck holiday. 
mid-working (mid'w6r''king), n. See *viid- 

midyear (mid'yer), n. and a. I. n. The mid- 
dle of the year : as, rents due at the midyear. 
II. a. Set for or occurring in the midcUe of 

the year. 

To teachers the series of meetings is a series of mid- 
year institutes. Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1901, p. 154. 

midzu-ame (med'zO-ii'ma), B. [Jap. midz- 
ame, < midz {mi-dz), water, + ame, a kind of 
jelly made from flour.] A syrup made in Ja- 
pan by the addition of water to ame. See 

M. I. E. E. An abbreviation of Member of the 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

miemite (me'e-mit), n. [Micmo (see def.) + 
-jte2.] A variety of the mineral dolomite, of 
pale asparagus-green color, from Miemo in 

Miersiidae (mer'si-i-dee), «. pi. [NL., < Mier- 
sia, a genus, -I- -idse.] See *Acanthephyridie. 

miersite (mi'er-zit), ». [Named from Prof. 
H. A. Micrs of Oxford, England.] Silver iodide 
(.^golo) which occurs in yellow tetrahedral 
crystals at the Broken Hill mines. New South 

miesite (me'sit), n. \_Mies (see def.) -I- -i>2.] 
A brown variety of pyromorphite containing 

■ a small amount of calcium : from Mies, Bo- 

mifevrerie (myev-re-re'), n. [P., < mih-re, arch, 
roguish (of children). Childish piquancy or 

The ivory Madonnas of the late thirteenth and early 
fom-teenth centuries gradually lose their austere dignity, 
relax into elegance and luii^vrerie. 

Ji. E. Fry, in Burlington Mag., V. 280. 

mignonette, ".— Mlgnonette-Tlne. (6) .See *Bom- 

mignonette-disease (min-yo-net'di-zez"), «. 

See *lcaf-hlight of mignonette. 

migraine, « — Ophthalmic migraine, severe paroxys- 
mal headache due to eye-stmin. 

migrainine, »«. See *migranine. 

migrainoid (rai-gra'noid), a. Resembling mi- 
graine. Buck, Med. Handbook, VI. 243. 

migranine (mi-^a'nin), n. A mixture of 90 
parts of antipyrin, 9 parts of cafifein, and 6 
parts of citric acid : said to be specific in mi- 

migration,". 5. In phytogcog., the mOYement 
of plants from one area into another. Ac- 
cording to F. E. Clements this is properly a 
narrower term than invasion. See *invasion, 4. 
— Arctic migration, a supposed migration of animals 
from the arctic region into Europe. 

One of the most important problems, as far as the origin 
of the European fauna is concerned, is the question 


whence came the animals which Doctor Scharff has termed 
the ''Arctic miyration." He, with many others, ci»ntends 
that until toward the end of the glacial period there ex- 
isted a continuous latid connection between America and 
Europe, far noith between Greenland, Spitzbergen, and 
Scandinavia, the latter being again connected hv a land 
bridge with Scotland across tile North .Sea, ami England 
with France. Across this continuous land bridge tliese 
animals are supposed by him t^j have wandered int^i cen- 
tral Eui-ope. Smithsonian Hep., 1902, p. 255. 
Law Of migration, segregation or isolation in space 
blought alxjut Ijy migration, considered as an explanation 
of the origin of species. Eimer {U-aw^.), lirganic Evolu- 
tion, p. ".— Ontogenetic migration, the successive 
changes of locality that take place in the normal life-his- 
tory of many fishes before they reach their adult stage. 
yat. Science, June, 1897, p. 390. [Rare.) 

migrational (mi-^ra'shon-al), a. [migration 
+ -alX.I Pertaining to or characterized by 

In the case of freely moving animals, the psychological 
guidance is an essential :factor in the success of the in- 
dividual ; while in the case of plants and low types of 
animal life, the suitable situation is reached by a wide 
distribution of a vast number of seeds. siMjres, or germs, 
and the same situation is maintained by a loss of migra- 
tional power as soon as the germs begin to develop. 

J. T. Oulick, in Linnean .Soc. Jour. Zool., XX. 223. 

migrative (mi'grS-tiv), a. Migratory. 

Tlie Blackcap is a migrative species, visiting us early In 
the spring, and retiring in September. 

Montagu, Ornithological Diet. (ed. 1831), p. 42. 

migratorial (mi-gra-to'ri-al), a. Same as mi- 
grn tory. 

mihanere (me-ha-na're), H. [A Maori pro- 
nunciation of the E. mi.'isionary.'] A convert 
to Christianity. [New Zealand.] 

mijakite, «. Same as *miyakite. 

mika (me'ka), «. [Aboriginal Australian.] 
An operation, practised by the natives of Aus- 
tralia, consisting in a partial opening of the 
lower side of the urethra of the male, result- 
ing in an artificial hypospadia. 

Mikado yellow. See *yellow. 

mikadoate (mi-ka'do-at) n. The office of 
mikado. N. E. D. 

mikrom, n. See *mierom. 

mikron, n. See micron. 

mikveh (mik ' ve), n. [Also viikvah ; Heb. 
miqweh, miqwah, a bath, lit. 'a gathering,' 
especially of water (Gen. i. 10.).] Among 
orthodox Jews, a bath for the purpose of 
ritual purification. 

mill (mil), n. [L. miUe, a thousand.] A unit 
of length used in measuring the diameter of 
wires, equal to 0.001 of an inch.— circular mil, 
a unit of area used in measuring the areas of cross-sec- 
tions of wires, equal to 0.7854 of a square mil. 

miP (mil), n. [L. miUe, thousand.] A copper 
coin of Hongkong, the thousandth part of a 
dollar, corresponding to a Chinese 'cash.' 

mil, n. and v. A simplified spelling of mill. 

miladi (mi-la'di), n. A French or Italian 
form of the English my lady : applied on the 
continent of Europe to titled Englishwomen. 
Also spelled milady. 

Telescopes were being used, and loud statements made 
that the boat held somebody who had been drowned. 
One said it was the milord who had gone out in a sailing 
boat; another maintained that the prostrate figure he 
discerned was miladi ; a Frenchman who had no glass 
would rather say that it was milord who had probably 
taken his wife out to drown her. 

George Eliot, Daniel Deronda, Iv. 

milady, n. Same as *miladi. 

milammeter (mi-!am'e-ter), II. See *miUiam- 

milampere (mil-am-pSr'), n. Same as milliam- 

milcher (mil'ch^r), n. An animal that gives 

milk; a milch animal, as a cow or a goat. 

More commonly milker. 

mildew, ».- Beech-seedllngmlldew, afimgus. Phy- 

tophthora mnnicora. which attacksthe seedlings of beech 
and other trees. — Com-mildew. -See •krorn-uiildetc. — 
Cucumber-mildew, (n) A disease of cucmnbers, usu- 
ally contined to greenhouses, due to Eryaiphe Cichorace- 
antm. (tf) A disease of cucimibers. melons, pumpkins, 
and similar i)l.'int.s, caused by Mavmopara Cidteniig. — 
Downy mOdew. See grape-mildew and *Plaitmojiara. 
— European surface-mildew, a disease i>f various 
plants (fuc to tile fungus Oidium Titckeri. See mildew, 
1, nxni grape-ouldeii: — Filbert-mildew. See *Jitbert- 
mildew.—Trosty mildew, a fungous disease of the peach 
caused by Cercogporella persica. — Peach-mlldew, a dis- 
ease of peaches which produces white i«>w.lery patches 
nixm the fruit : due to the fungus Pi>(h».phtera Oxy- 
acanthje. Compare cherry-blight. — Rose-mildew, a fung- 
ous disease of the rose, due to either Pir'nu-yp'^ni sparsa 
or Sph/rrnlheca /innnosn.— Strawberry-mildew, a 
fungous disease which attacks the leaves ol ;,ti-a wherries : 
due to Sphjerotheca Castagnei. 

mile, « — International geographical mile, one 

fifteenth of a tlegree of the earth's e<iuator. etjual to about 

4.61 statute miles of 6,2so feet.— Passenger-mlle. See 

itpas»enger-mile,—T0U-IXiil9. See itton-mile. 


mile-hunter (nnrhun'ter), «. A bicycler or 
automobilist who is eager to increase the dis- 
tance he has traveled or can travel. [Slang.] 

milen (mi'len), n. [Origin obscure.] In glass- 
niHiiuf., the scar left by the pontil, as on the 
bottom of a blown-glass bottle. Sometimes 
called pwHt. 

miler (mi'ler), n. In track-athleticn, one who 
runs the mile distance. Similarly, half-miler, 
qimrtrr-miler, and iwo-milcr. [Colloq.] 

mil-foot (mirfiit), II. A wire one mil (or one 
thousandth of an inch) in diameter and one 
foot in length : a practical unit used in de- 
scribing or specifying the properties of wire or 
other electric conductors. 

milhenry (mil-hen'ri), II. See *millihenry. 

miliaceous (mil-i-a'shius), a. [L. milia + 
-aceous. See milm and ililium.] Of the na- 
ture of, or characteristic of, millet or millet- 

miliaria, n. 1. (b) An eruption of minute 
vesicles due to obstruction of the sweat-glands. 
Also called jiriekly heat. 

miliary, «. II. n. in the Echinoidea, one of 
the very small tubercles on the surface of the 
test which serve as bases for the lesser 

milieu (me-yfe'), n. [F., < mi (< L. medius), 
middle, + lieu (< L. locus), place.] The mid- 
dle place or point ; the mean ; a point equally 
removed from extremes; also, smTounding 
conditions ; social environment. 

militaristic (mil'i-ta-ris'tik), a. [militaruH + 
-ic] Of or pertaining to. militarists or militar- 
ism ; military. 

A political oivanization and a raoral t«ndency that are 
common to all nascent civilization of the viUitarigtic 
order. Atbemeum, July 1.S, 190.'t, p. 73. 

militarize (mil'i-ta-riz). r. t. ; pret. and pp. 
militarized, ppr. mititariziiig. 1. To render 
military in character, feeling, bearing, or con- 

He waa bronght up in Germany, becoming more and 
more militarited. Spectatur, Sept, 1, 1900, p. 268. 

2. To place under military control; subject 
to military methods : as, to militarize the 

Military top. See *fo/(i. 

militia, » . - Naval mllltla, ."'Ute forces in the United 
states wliich form a part of, and are on a footing with, 
the national guard. The general duties of the former 
are similar to those of the latter, but in addition they 
are supposed to exercise a special supervision along the 
wftter.frunU both on shore and afloat, and in time of war 
t^» be eligible for absorption into the regular naval forces 
of theco'nitry. 

milk, 1. 5. An emulsion ; any liquid which 
holds small particles of solid matter in suspen- 
sion. I'hiUips and Bauernian, Elements of 
Metallurgy, p. 385.— Bitter milk, milk which has 
been made ijitter by the growth of bacteria, especially of 
Bacillun H'fiV/i/Mii 111— Fortified milk, milk rendered 
more nutritious tiy tlie addition of tlie white of egg or 
cream.— Laboratory milk, niilk in which the essential 
conip<inent8, namely, fat, allniinins, and lactose, have 
been adiled acconling to a siiecial formula. — Medicated 
milk, niiik containing medicinal substances Urst given 
ti) the mother that they might be excreted in the milk, 
and mi exert a therapeutic action on the child. — Hilk 
Of ma^osia, a milk-white a<|ueoU9 liifuid holding 
niagiiesnnn hydrate in perma'^ent suspension : it is 
antacid. — Modified milk, cows" milk the conifiositlon 
of which has been altered by the addition of water, 
salts, sugar, etc., in fixed proiKirtions, so as to adapt it to 
the needs of the infant at different ages. Also called 
rrrtified mitk.— Separated milk, milk from which the 
cream has been removed by means of a separator. See 
*n'nfri/ufrfit mflhmi and irseit/iratiir, 2 (f). — Slimy 
milk, milk which has become slimy by the growth of 
iiacterift (Harteriuni Kuhvincosum). — Soapy milk, fer- 
mented milk wliich appears to b« frothy and has a soap- 
like taste.— Sour milk, milk containing lactic acid 
wliicii irt preiiuccd by the growth of certain bjicteria, 
'"ijit'cially lificieriuin aciAi-lnctiri, and related forms. — 
Starch milk, water which contains in suspension enough 
^rart;li gmiinles to give it the apiwarance of milk. — 
Vegetable milk. .See the extract 

In a recent number of a .Japanese Journal a Mr. T. 
Kalajama descrilie<l a process for the manufacture of a 
rffiftahU miik, the properties of which would render it 
highly suitable for use in tropical countries. Tlie prepar- 
ation Ig obtained from a weil-known member of the 
leguminous family of [dants (namely, the .Soja bean), 
which is a very jiopular article of fiMKi among the Chin- 
ese. The beans are first of all softened by soaking, and 
are then pressed and boiled in water. The resultant 
lii|Uid is exactly similar to cows' milk in am>earance, but 
it is entirely different in its coinixisition. This Hfija bean- 
milk contains 92..'» jier cent water, 3.02 per cent pndeine, 
2. i;i per cent fat. o.o:j per cent fiber, 1.88 per cent non- 
iiitnigenoiis substances, and 0.41 per cent ash. 

SH. Amer., Nov. 2, 1907, p. 306. 
Witches* milk, a whitish fluid sometimes present in 
tin- hrcasls of new-lioni infant.'*. 

milk, I', t. -To milk the street, in Bt<Kk-exchange 
ttiiHiiiess. U} make a profit out of the smaller traders in 
ptiKks (known as 'the street") by first manipulating the 
market in such a way as to give promise of a rise in 


prices, thus inducing the smaller traders to purchase the 
particular stock attected, and after supporting it for a 
time, depressing the price suddenly before the smaller 
traders have had time to cover. 

milk-brother (milk'bruTH'fer), n. A foster- 

milk-bush (milk'bush), n. 1. Same as niilk- 
hedge. — 2. A shrub of the genus Wrightia, 
a native of India. — 3. A shrub, Wrightia 
salignn, a native of Queensland. E. E. Morris, 
Austral English. — 4. See the extract. 

The common milkhiish of the karroo and kan-oid re- 
gions of tlie interior [South Africa], viz. Euphorbia niau- 
ritanica. A'ature, Jan. IT, 1907, p. 288. 

milk-cell (milk'sel), II. The cell in which the 
milky juice or latex of plants is contained. 

y. E. D. 

milk-escU"tcheon (milk'es-kuch''gn), w. Same 
as esfiitclieoii, 2 (c). 

milk-fish, >i. 2. An Australian holothurian 
which emits a whitish, viscid fluid from its 
skin. Also known as tit-fish. E. E. Morris, 
Austral English. 

milk-flour (milk 'flour), n. Skimmed milk 
transformed by an exsiccator into a highly 
soluble powder which, when dissolved at a 
temperature of 60-70° C. above zero in a 
proper quantity of water, gives a solution with 
the same taste, smell, and other qualities as 
common milk. The flour, or powder, can be 
easily transported, and can be kept a long 
time without being spoiled. Sci. Amer. Sup., 
April 18, 1903, p. 22827. 

milk-fiingUS (milk'fung'gus), n. Any fungus 
of the genus Lactarius. 

milk-gowan (milk'gou"an), n. The dandelion. 

milk-grass (milk'gras)j n. The corn-salad, 
Vdhrianella oUtoria. 

milking, n. 4. In card-playing, same as ♦/«r- 

milk-ipecac (milk'ip'e-kak), n. See *ipecac. 

milk-knot (milk'not), n. A condition in which 
there are small nodular swellings in the secret- 
ing breast, occurring especially where an ef- 
fort has been made to suppress the secretion ; 
also, one of the nodular swellings. 

milk-nucleon (milk' nu*kle-on), n. A sub- 
stance of the character of Siegfried's phos- 
phocarnic acid, occurring in milk. 

milk-plant (milk'plant), 71. Same as milk-pea. 
See Galactia, 2. 

milk-pO"wder (milk'pou'd^r), n. A powder 
prepared from desiccated milk. Evening Post, 
Feb. 10, 1906. 

milkpox (milk'poks), n. A disease, believed 
to be a modified form of smallpox, nrevalent 
among the Kafirs in South Africa. Also called 

milk-premolar (milk'pre-mo'lfir), n. Same 
as milk-molar. 

In this communication the author [Oldfield Thomas] 
suggested tlie use of the term " miik-premotarg," in lieu 
of milk-molars. Proc Zool. Soc. London. 1899, p. 924. 

milk-purslane (milk'pfers'lan), n. See piirs- 


milk-ranch (milk'ranch), w. A large dairy- 
farm. [Slang, western U. S.] 

milk-route (milk'rSt), n. The district or the 
round of customers served by a milkman or his 
employees, or the business built up by him in 
this round or route : as, to buy or to establish 
a milk-route. 

milk-scales (milk'skalz), n. pi. A spring- 
balance for weighing cans of milk. Onefonn 
employs a case for a carrl ruled in vertical lines, one of 
the spaces between the lines being assigned to each cow 
of a henl. The index travels over the whole front 
of the case and carries a series of knobs which when 
pressed record the weights on the card. The card is placed 
in the case, the milk from a particular cow ig weighed, then 
the attendant presses the button on the index and records 
the weight in the space assigned to the cow that gave the 
milk. When all the milk is weighed the card shows the 
actual and comparative weight of milk for each cow in 
the herd. 

milk-separator (milk'sep'a-ra-tor), n. See 
*s)pariit<>r, 2 (e). 

milk-shield (milk'sheld), n. Same as eseut- 
rhroii, 2 (c). 

milk-spot (milk'spot), n. In pathol.: (a) A 
whitish spot sometimes found on serous mem- 
branes, especially on the layer of pericardium 
attached to the heart. They are occasionally 
found post mortem in the aged. Lancet, April 
18, 1903, p. 1075. (i) A white mucous patch 
in secondary syphilis, (c) A kind of tooth- 
rash. Sijd. Soc. Lex. 

milk-tester, «. 2. A machine used to ascer- 
tain the percentage of fat in a sample of milk. 
Tile sample is placed in a standard glass vial which has 


a long, Blender neck graduated on the outside. The vial 
is then placed in a centrifugal machine and the fat is 
driven out of the milk, its position ::i relation to the 
graduated scale indicating the percentage of it in the 
milk. Several vials may he tested at once.— BabcOck'B 
centrifugal or milk-tester, an apparatus for detennin- 
iiig the percentage of hutter-fat in milk, used extensively 
in creameries. The test is made by adding acid to a 
weighed quantity of milk and separating the watery por- 
tion from the liquid fat by centrifugal force. The per- 
centage of fat is shown by the thickness of the layer of 
liquid fat as measured in divisions of the graduated neck 
of the test-bottle. 

Babcock Centrifugal or Milk-tester. 
a, centrifugal table; *, glass jar forinilk, cream rising in gradu- 
ated neck ; c, handle to operate machine ; (f, casing. 

mllk-tbrombus (milk'throm^bns), «. ; pi. 
7*1 ilk- thrombi (-bi). A nodular swelling in tbe 
breast arising from obstruction of tbe flow of 
milk in the ducts. 

milk-train (milk'tran), n. In railroading^ a 
train which carries milk, and is wholly or in 
part composed of milk-cars. 

Milk-tree wax. See *w.*aa:2, 

milk-vetch, n. 2. A plant of any one of the 
three genera PhacOf Orophaca, and Homalohns^ 
closely related to Astragalus and formerly in- 
cluded in that genus. 

milkweed, n. 3. (c) The tall blue lettuce, 
Lactuca spicaia.~-R\uniing' milkweed, the hairy 
angle-pod, 1 incetoxicuin /tirftutinn, of the eastern United 
States.— Wandering milkweed, the spreading dogbane, 
Apocy Ji V tn a n d ronnf in ifoliu m. 

milkweed-beetle (milk'wed-be'''tl), n. A beetle 
that infests the milkweed.— Red mllkweed- 
heetle, any beetle of the lamiid genus Tetraopes. They 
are bright red, usually spotted with black. 

milkweed-butterfly (milk'wed-but''''^r-fli), n. 
1, See archi}}pus. — 2, H&vae &s monarch ^but- 

miU^, «. 12. In leather-mamif.j an arrange- 
ment consisting of one or two large stone 
rollers which revolve vertically in a pit. C. 
T. Davis,Uanui. of Leather, p. 377.— 13. The 
raised or ridged edge or flange made in mill- 
ing, stamping, rolling, or pressing anything, 
as a coin or a screw.— Bogardus mill, a machine 
for grinding materials between two horizontal revolving 
plates, the upper of which is eccentric t^> the lower. 
— Chaser mllL Same as edije-mnuer will (wliich see, 
under wuVn).- Cheese^urd mill, in dairiiina, a smalt 
crushing-mill for breaking and grinding cheese-curd ; a 
curd-breaker or -cruslier.- Dry mill, any machine in 
which the abradant or cleaning material is dry. It is some- 
times steam-heated t^) keep tlie abnulant hot and to drive 
off moisture.- Exhaust mill. -See ittiitiihlin<hmilL~ 

Gastric mill. See *'/"^'r/f.— Glacial mill. See *';;«- 
cm/.— Hungarian mill, a rotating mill for removing 
small itiirticles of gold froni (juartz by mixing with mer- 
cury ; one of the many forms of pan-amalgaruiitors: so 
called because used in Hungary.— Huntington mill, in 
mini7ig, a crushing-machine in the form of a heavy cast- 
iron pan containing several rollers on vertical shafts hung 
like pendulums from a revolving frame, and crushing the 
ore by centrifugal force as they roll on the inside of the rim. 
— Lauth's mill, a three-high rolling-mill in which the 
middle roll has a diameter only about one half of that of 
the top and bottom rolls. The middle roll itnis loose, be- 
ing driven by the friction of the jiiece going through. — 
Merchant mill. («) A rolling-mill for rolling merchant 
burs, billets, angles, channels, beams, etc. (/>) The entire 
I>huit for pi-oducing merchant bare and sliapes, including 
the buililings, boilers, engines, mills, and accessories. — 
Pharyngeal mill, in rotifers. Same as viastax, 1. — 
Ramsbottom's mill, a rolling-mill in which the rolls are 
driven, without the intervention of a fly-wheel, by a pair 
of direit-acting horizontal engines, which are rever8e4l 
after eacli pass of the bloom or ingot, so that the rolling 
is i>erfonned alternately in opposite directions. — Wag- 
ner's mill, a rolling-mill consisting of two horizontal 
rolls mounted in the usual way, and a pair of vertical 
rolls working in bearings. The distance between the 
vertical rolls can be regulated at will, so that bare and 
flats of various sizes can be produced with the same rolls. 
It is a kind of universal mill. — Wet mill, a mill in which 
moist or wet abradants can be used. 


TtiilU r. t. 12. In sitgar-manuf., to pass (sugar- 
cane) through a cane-mill. See suqcir-mill. 

Millai (mil'a), n. [NL. (Cavanilles, 1793), 
named in honor of J. Milla, a Spanish court 
gardener of Madrid.] A genus of plants of the 
family Liliacex, closely allied to Hookera and 
Trifeleia : distinguished by the salver-shaped 
perianth with 3-nerved, nearly separate seg- 
ments, 6 nearly sessile stamens, and waxy- 
white, star-like flowers borne (from 1 to 5) on 
a slender scape. M. hiflora, the only species, 
a native of New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico, 
is a choice garden plant. It may be planted 
in the border In spring and the bulbs removed 
in autumn, or used as a jjot-plant under glass. 

milla" (mel'ya), M. [Sp. : see mite.] In Spain, 
a mile, especially a nautical mile or knot; the 
mile of some Spanish-American countries (as 
the Argentine Republic, Nicaragua, Salvador, 
and Venezuela), equivalent to 1.15 statute 

millage (mil ' aj), n. Rate (as of taxation) 
reckoned in mills per dollar. 

mill-beetle (mil'be'tl), n. The cockroach. 

mill-brow (mil'brou), n. Same as *mill-run. 

mill-bush (mil'bush), n. The iron lining or 
bushing placed in the eye of a millstone, where 
the shaft or arbor comes. 

mill-dog (mil'dog), n. A dog or clamp used 
to secure a log in a saw-mill. 

mill-dressed (mil'drest), p. a. Cut or planed 
in a mill or by mechanical power: said of 
atones, marble, etc., but more especially of 
boards, planks, clapboards, and the like, used 
for house-building. Also mill-planed. 

mille (mil), n. In certain card games, a 
counter representing ten 'fishes' or points. 
N. E. D. 

milled, p. «. 5. Worked in a mill or by ma- 
chinery: said especially of boards and planks 
which "are «ut and then planed by the power- 

millefleurs (mel-flfer'), «■ [F- eau de miUe-flettrs, 
lit. water of a thousand flowers.] Perfume 
made from several kinds of flowers. 

It was a Bad day for you, when you appeared in your 

neat pulpit with your fragrant poclcet-handkerchief (and 

your sermon lil«ewlse all millejieurB\ in a trim, prim, 

freshly mr.ngled surplice, which you thought became you. 

Thackeray, Jfewcomes, v. 

millefoliate (mil-e-fo'li-at), a. [L. mille, thou- 
sand, -I- foli{um), leafj + -ate'^.'] Having 
leaves that are very much incised, so as to 
resemble many smaller leaves. Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Ilillegrana (mil-e-gra'na), «. [NL. ( Adanson, 
1763), a name applied to the plant by some of 
the early botanists, in allusion to the many 
capsules and seeds produced by it: < L. mille, 
a thousand, + granum, a seed.] A genus of 
dicotyledonous plants of the family Linaceee. 
See Radiola. 

millenary, «. 4. A thousandth anniversary ; 
a celebration of an event that had happened 
one thousand years before. 

millenniad (mi-len'i-ad), n. [L. millenniium) 
+ -flrfl.] A period of a thousand years; a 
very long period of years. 

millennian (mi-len'i-an), a. and n. [millennium 
+ -rtH.] I. a. Same as millennial. 
II. «. A millennialist. 

millenniary (mi-len'i-a-ri), a. Same as millen- 

milleograph (mil'e-o-graf), n. [Also millio- 
graph ; irreg. < L." mille, thousand, -1- 6r. 
ypd(peiv, write.] A modification of Edison's 
mimeograph used in printing numbers of any 
special form up to 500. it utilizes a wax stencil- 
paper, the pressure of a stencil-point, or a type-writer 
stroke, and an inked pad below the paper when printing 
directly. The writing may be transf eired to a lithographic 
stone and more cojiies printed. 

milleporous (mirc-po-rus), a. [See millepore.'] 
Havint; the characters of themillepores; hav- 
ing numerous pores. 

miller, «. 7. A cicada. [Australia.]— to drown 
the miller (naut.), to put a generous quantity of water 
int^i the grog Ui make it go around. 

Millerian (mi-le'ri-an), a. Relating or per- 
taining to the English mineralogist W. H. 
Miller (1801-80), and specifically noting the 
system of crystallographic notation introduced 
by him.— Millerian axes, the three equal, obliquely 
inclined axes to which, following Miller, the forms of 
rhomhohedral ci^stals are sometimes refen'ed. See •si/s- 
tem.— Millerian Indices. Heeindex, 8.— BBllerlan no- 
tation or symbols. See -^gymboll. 

millet', w.— Ankee-mlllet. Same as ♦a»i«<!.— Ara- 
bian millet. ('') Same as Jahmon *(;ra»».— Arizona 
millet, Chietnchloa inacrostachya, a native American 
grass, closely related t« the foxtail-millets and making a 



gooil hay. It is common in central Texas and ranges to 
Mexico and South America.— Australian millet. Same 
as Johnson *<jra8g. — Bam-yard millet, any of tlie 
cultivated forms of Echinochloa Cntg-t/alti, the bani-yard 
grass. The best are of an upright habit with a close head, 

strument for the measurement of small electric 
currents, in which the scale is graduated to 
read in thousandths of an ampere. Also mil- 
the Japanese barn-yard milk-t, recently introduced into milUamperage (mil''i-am-par'aj), n. [L. mille, 

the Lnited States, bemg one of the most promlsmg. „ t-u^.,^^..A _i_ t? .....-^„-. n t„ ^j. ..* «, - 

(Compaie *a«te.) The name has been extended to the '>' thousand, -I- ^. amperage.^ In elect., <i\a- 
Shama millet, or jungle-rice, and the Sanwa millet, rent strength expressed m milliamperes, or 
species of the same genus, i^ee junf!U--knce ViwA Samva thousandths of an ampere. 
•mafef.-Broom-cpm millet, brown miilet, the true milliamperemeter (mU"i-am-par'me-t6r), n. 
miliet, Panicummiliaceum. — Cat-tall millet. ('<) Same """■'™"^i'»-'-^^.""»-i » j-» v. ,-.../, . 

as /oimfl-*7ni7(f^— Chaparral-millet, J'amcuHi He- »aiiie as "nwHjammefer. 

nercAoft^ an excellent pasturi-gniss of the highlands of millicalory (mil ' i-kal"6-ri), n. [L. mille, a 
CommonmlUet, a slender fonn of fox- thousand, + E. calory.'] The calory; a 

millicoulomb (mil'i-kS-lom'), n. [L. mille, a 
thousand, -I- E. coulomb.'] A thousandth of a 
coulomb, or 1 X 10^ c. g. s. units : a practical 
unit of electrical quantity or charge. 
milll^me (mel-yam'), n.' [¥., < L. mitlesimus, 
thousandth.] A current subsidiary coin of 

central Texas. 

tail-millet with narrow, nodding heads, affording the 
best hay. See foxtait-irmiUet.— Ditch-millet. Same 
as millet coda or kJioda (which see, under millet^). Tliis is 
cultivated in northera India as a rainy-season crop on 
poor soil, the grain supplying food chiefly to the poorer 
classes. A variety is called Ai/rf*^* (which see). — False 
millet. Same as Poliutt itmillet. — Foxtail-millet, any 
of the varieties of ChtetoctUoa Italica, as distinguished 
from true or broom-corn millet, the name refening t<j the 
cyllndrieal brushy heads. According to Hackel, the 
probable original of this cultural species is the common 
green foxtail. Millets of this class have long been grown 
as cereals as well as for forage in the Old World, but in 
America they are sown only for forage. Four standard 
varieties are known in the United States, namely, com- 
mon millet, German millet, <jnldcn wonder millet, and 
Hungarian millet.— GermUJl millet, a robust broad- 
leaved form of foxtjiil-millet, yielding an abundant coarse 
forage but not bearing drought. — Giant mlllBt, a veiy 
robust foxtail-grass, vKietochlna magna, found in water 
or wet ground on the Atlantic coast fnmi Delaware to 
Texas, also in the West Indies and in Central America. 
It promises to be serviceable in reclaiming swampy lands 
along the coast. — Golden millet. Same as German 
*jni7R'(.— Golden wonder millet, a stout and tall 
variety of foxtail-millet with a large head, yielding more 
seed than others: as forage it is coarse. — Hog-mlllet. 
Same as &room-cor?i -kmillet. — Horse- ' 

pearl millet (which see, under mv' , 

millet, a foxtail-millet resembling the common millet in sandT "t- qradus, step. See centigrade.] 
size, marked by the prominent brown or purple beards t^;,.;.i«.i ;«+X o fl,r.„or,^^ .l«.™«.^« . «a « *...'77/ 
of the heads : it is next t« common millet in quality of D'^lded into a thousand degrees : as, a mtlU- 
hay. Known as Chxtochloa Italica t,Vmiamca.— Indian grade Scale. Bentham. 
millet. (*) In the United .States, one of the various moun- millihenry (mil'i-hen-ri), H. ; p!. millihenries 

Egypt and the Soudan, equal to one tenth of a 

The subsidiary coinage consist* of pieces of 20, 10, 5, 2, 
and 1 piastres in silver; 5, 2, and 1 mifficm^ in nickel ; 
and J and J milliejne in bronze. 

Encyc. Brit., XXVIL 700. 

milligauss (mil'i-gous), «. [L. mille, a thou- 
sand, -I- E. gauss.] In elect., a practical unit 
of magnetic induction equal to a thousandth 
of one gauss or of one c. g. g. electromagnetic 
milligilbert (mil'i-gil-bfert), n. [L. mille, a 
thousand, -f- E. gilbert.] In elect., a practical 
^^ _ _ unit of magnetomotive force equal to one 

Be-mUlrtl*&«me"as thousandth of a gilbert or of one e. g. s. unit. 
iHc(i).— Hungarian miUigrade (mil'i-grad), a. [L. mille, a thou- 

tain-rices, Eriocmna cunpidala. It is a valued bunch 
grass of the Western arid country, thriving in soil too dry 
and sandy for most other grasses. Oryzojmn micrantbn , 
of the Dakotas and Montana, has been called smaU 
Indian jnii(e(.- Japanese bam-yard millet. See 
barn-yard *iniHe(.— Japanese panicle millet. Same 
as broom-corn •kmillet. — Morocco millet. Same as 
Johnson -kgragg. — Polish millet, tlie common crab- 
grass, Syntherimna sanguinnlia. In Bohemia (presum- 
ably also in Poland) this grass is grown as a cereal, the 
seeds being used for a mush or porridge. — Ragl millet, 
Elextsine coracana. See Eleii«ine and rai7,7<'*'. — Russian 
millet. Same as broom-corn iemiUet. — Sanwa millet, 
Echinochloa Crus-gatti frumentacea, a very quick grow- 
ingmillet,in India yielding forage and acheapfood. Ithas 

(-riz). [L. mille, a thousand, -I- E. henry.] 
In elect., a practical unit of inductance equal 
to ono thousandth of a henry. Also milhenry. 
millim (mil'im), n. [_millim(eter).] A milli- 
meter ; the third metret or decimal subraultiple 
of a meter in the scheme of magnitudes de- 
vised (about 1860) by G. J. Stoney, F. R. S. 
The decim or decimeter is the first metret, 
the centim the second. See *metro and *metret. 
The third subsection w, from millirns (millimeters) 
down to tenths of a micron, covera the entire range of 
the microscope. Smithsonian Hep., 1899, p. 213. 

been introduceci experinientally into the United States, millimeter, «.- Circular millimeter. See •crOM- 

See6arn-.i""-(f*mti;(f.— Shamamlllet. Sameaa.>«n(7ic- , ",7^7.;,, ,7« ' ^'"■-luai uixxxuuci,ci. 

•rice.— Swamp-millet, Isachne globosa, a slender ".-,,. ."'"■, . ., _ , „ .„ 

creeping grass with upn'ght stems and open panicles of miUimicrohm (mil i-mik-rom), n. [t,. millc 

very small spikelets, native in southern Asia and in a thousand, + E. microhm.] A C. g. S. unit of 

Australia. It grows on the hanks of rivers and in s« limps, resistance: 1 X 10-9 ohms. H, D«Uoi«, The 

and is well adapted by its running rootstocks to fixing Mnirnptip rirciiit, -n 306 

ana IS well aaaptea oy its runnmg rootstocks to nxmg Morrriotin Pivpnlf -n ^i 
soils exiwsed to washing ; it is also said to be liked by iuaKueii^ <...irouit, p. o 
cattle.— Texas mUlet, Panictim. Texanum, a leafy mUUmiCrOn (mil l-mi-kron), n. 

branching annual grass of nnich merit as a hay-gi-ass, 
native aiul abuiniant near the ('oloi-ado River of Texas. 
Also called Colorado graitg, Austin grass, concho-grass 
(which see), and bottom- or river-grass. — Water-millet, 
a stout and tall semi-aquatic grass, ZizaniopHs miliacea, 
of the southern United States, allied to the wild rice, 
Zizania. It grows from extensively creeping root- 
stocks, and inhabits both fresh- and sjdt-water marshes. 
— Wild millet. («) The millet-grass, Milium efusum 
(see Milium, 1). (M The green foxtail, Ch/etochloa 
viridis. (c) Same as Indian itviillet (ft). 
millet^ (mil'et), n. [Turk, millet (< At. mU- 
lah), people, community, sect, creed.] A peo- 
ple ; a nation. 

All Moslems, to whatever race they may belong, are 
eluded in the millet, or nation, of Islam. The Rflm, or 
Roman {i.e., Greek) millet comprises all those who ac- 
knowledge the autliority of the Oecumenical Patriarch. 
Encyc. Brit., XXX. 395. 

millet-grass, « — Many-flowered millet-grass, a 

European mountain-rioe, Oryzopsis miliacea, not highly 
esteemed at home, but proving to be of value on granitic 
soils in California. 

millet-ric6 (mil'et-iis), n. Same as jungle- 

mill-fever (mirf§"ver), «. A form of low 
fever prevalent among the young hands in 
linen-mills. A'. E. D. 

mill-gearing (mirger^ing), n. Gears ; belts, 
pulleys, and other forms of transmission ma^ 

mill-headed (mil'hed'ed), a. Having a milled 

mill-hole (mil'hol), n. An auxiliary shaft con- 
necting a stope or other excavation with the 
level below. 

mill-house (mil'hous), «. A mill ; a buUding 
for milling or grinding. 

milliad (mil'i-ad), M. [L. mille, thousand. See 
myriad.] A millennium ; a period of a thou- 
sand years. 

milliammeter (rail-i-am'e-t6r), n. [L. mille, 
a thousand, + E. amtnetcr.] In elect., an in- 

[L. mille, a 

thousand, + /itKpdg, small (see micron).] A 
unit of length (yu/i) equal to 10 Angstrom units, 
.001 microns, or .000001 millimeters: some- 
times employed in microscopy or in stating 
wave-lengths of light. C. Bering, Conversion 
Tables, p. 31. 
millimol (mil'i-mol), n. [L. millc, a thousand, 
-t- E. mol{eculc}.] In phys. chrm., the one 
thousandth part of a gram-molecule, an 
amount of any element or compound whose 
weight in milligrams is numerically equal to 
the molecular weight of the substance. C. 
Hering, Conversion Tables, p. 60. 
included m the millet, or nation, of Islam. The Rflm, or j^sxing blue, green. Orange, red, scarlet, yellow. See 
p-.„,»„ I. , ^.rp„^^ ,„,;;.,, ,.„,„„r,=„. „n th„.„ wi,„ »,.. "^wt^^^tc-Kocess mmlag, nulling ,>f wheat t,i make 

flour by ono of the processes invented for that purpose, 
milling-attachment (mil'ing-a-tach "ment), n. 
A milling-machine combined with other ma- 

Planer Milling-attachment, 
.-/.planer: A milling-cutter with inserted teeth ; a. housing of 

Claner; if. cross-iail ; c. trareling-bed ; d, milling-attachment 
olted to tool-saddle of cross-rail ; e, out-board support for sptudle 
of milling-attachiiient; /", milling-cutter; £-, work (slabs) iii »is«s 
secured to traTcling-table of planer: A, rises: i", temporary belt 
delirering power to milling-attachment. 

chine-tools, such as a boring-machine, a drill- 
ing-machine, or a planer. The most simple of these 



attachments is a bracket-table ftxeii U> the side of a lathe aire never tires of tellin-: vou how lie worked the multi- 
and next to the live-liead. Ihe latlie-spindle, extending plication table until cents" became umics 
•yer the work on tlie table, beconies the horizontal spindle £. Eggleston, Faith Doctor, v. 

of the miUing-machine to which any horizontal type of _,ini/«»i«iT.TT „ o t> • -n- , » 

cutter can be fixed. Combined boring-, drilliniz-. and mliUOnaxy, a. 2. Possessing millions (of 

cutter can be fixed. Combined boring-, drilling-, and 
milling-machines are of many forms, and among them are 
included many of the largest and most powei-ful machines 
used in nK)deni machine-shops. — Planer mllling-at- 
taclunent, a small milling-machine attached directly to 
;he planer-rail in place of the usual cutting-tool. The 
spindle may be horizontal or vertical, and within certain 
Umit« any fonii of cutter may be employed. The travel 

dollars, or pounds, etc). 

All this to feed the avidity of a few mittionary mer- 
chants. Jcferton, Writings, IV. 284. A'. £. D. 

He had a dread that these mittionary people, with 
wasteful private cars, might take undue interest in his 
companion. Jt. Kipling, Captains Courageous, ix. 

ing-bed of the planer is used as the feed-table, and as it millisavart (mll'i-sa-vart''), n. TL. mille a 

has a very long traverse several pieces of work may be 
placed upon it in a line to pass in turn under the cutter, 
with great economy of time and labor. Thin or long and 
narroW pieces of work can also be clamped together side 
by side and, with suitable cutters, all may be milled at 
the same time. These milling-attachments may also be 
in pairs on the same planer and cut two sides of the work 
at the same time. See cut. 

milling-cutter, n. 2. A cutting-tool adapted 
for use in a milling-maehine. Milling-cutters are 
made in a great variety of fofms and are used for many pur- 
pi»es. Many are in the form of cylinders, with the cut- 
ting edges placed in straight or spiral lines along the 
sides "' *^" —»■■--'— .-■...- .^ -L _ . _ _, 


on the 

.with the blades on the edge only, as in the screw-slot- 
ting cutter. Others, called /ace-c»((^r«, kave the blades 
placed radially at the end of the shank. 
milling-machine, «. 1. This name, originally 
given to a simple form of metal-finishing machine, is now 

thousand, -I- E. savart.'] In acoustics, an in- 
terval pitch equal to one thousandth of a 


tieular family. Ratzel (trans.). Hist, of Man- 
kind, II. 131.— 2. A cultivated field, especially 
a field of maize. [Mexico.] 
Miltonism (mil'ton-izm), n. A peculiarity of 
Milton's style or an imitation of it. 

Cowper'a blank verse detains you every step with some 
heavy Mittimism; Chapman gallops off with you his own 
free pace. Lamb, Letters, CXIX 238. 

Miltonist (mil ' ton - ist), n. A supporter of 
John Milton, especially of liis views on divorce. 
A party, distinguished by the name of JUiltonists, at- 
tested the power of his pen, and gave consequence to his 
pleading for divorce. Symynons, Life of Milton, p. 250. 

Inacousticsit is common to measure large intervals of MiltoTiiVB CTniI'fr.n 1,1 ,• t o^/i ,• . „-„<. j 
pitch in octaves and smaller ones in -conimas.' M. A. ■"•"•'O^lZe (mil ton-lz), )!. t. and J.; pret. and 

-- -- 'commas." M. A. 
Guillemin proposes t« adopt instead of these, units the 
savart and the iiiitlisavarL By the savart is "meant an 
interval of ten to one, which equals three octaves plus a 
major third. The millisavart, which is the thousandth 
part of the savart, represents the interval between two 
t'rench standard diapasons giving one beat per second. 
Nature, Aug. 21, 1902, p. 

pp. Miltonizcd, ppr. Miltonisiing. [Milton 
-ire.] To render Miltonic in character or 
style ; to imitate Milton's style. 

Mr. Johnstone has conscientiously gone to Milton for 
his model, and Miltoniset as best he may. The metre is 
a faint MUtonic echo. Tlus Acadtmy, April 4, 1903, p. 3^ 

s of the cylinder or radially at the eiui^, when they miUivoltmeter (mil' i -volt- me'^^^ [L. DliltoS (mil ' tos), n. FGr. uIItoc red lead 

called <iirf-mi««. Others are disks, with the blades mille a thmiunnH -1- V .in;*„,^<^v 1 T„ „7A* n,;,,;,™ l m- • j "f, V' ™". ^''^.a, 

;he edge and sides of the edge, or, a^ in circular saws, »«'««) a tHo"s»,nd, -t- k.. voltmeter^ hx elect., minium.] _ Mmium, a red earth found in the 

a direct-reading instrument for the measure- Cyolades", from which the anefents" made the 
ment of small differences of potential, in red paint so common in their decorations 
^„^H^.,*AV^J!lj' ^^^'^^^ted t° 'ead in thou- milt-pain (milt'pan), n. A disease of swine. 

milt-sickness (milt'sik'nes), n. A disease of 

the spleen in cattle. 
mimalBse (mim ' a -los), a. and n. [Chinook 
jargon, also viinialoose, memaloose, dead, to 

[L. mille, thou- 
The thousandth 

sandths of a volt. 

milliweber Cniiri-va''b6r), n. 
sand, -t- weber. See weber.2 
part of a weber. 

mill-lands (mil'landz), n. pi. Certain lands 
which by legal custom appertained to a corn- 
mill, especially in Scotland. N. E. D. 

mill-leat (mil ' let), n. An artificial channel 
for the conveyance of water to a mill. .N. E. I). 

millocracy (mi-lok'ra-si), n. [See millocrat.] 
Mill-owners as a ruling or dominant class. 

In hydra-wrestle, giant ' Millocracy ' so-called, a real 
giant, though as yet a blmd one and but half-awake, 
wrestles and wrings in choking nightmare. 

Carlyle, Past and Present, III. 1. 

mill-pick, n. 2. Same as pickax. 

mill-pile (mil'pil), ». A number of puddling- 
bars charged together into a reheating- or 
balling-furnace. They are heated to a weld- 

die (mimaluse illahee, a cemetery, a sepul- 
cher) ; < Chinook imemalus, a dead person.] I, 
a. Dead. [Columbia River, Washington, and 
British Columbia.] 
n. n. A dead body. 

M. I. M. E. An abbreviation {a) of Member 
of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers; (6) 
of Member of the Institute of Mining Engineers. 

M. I. Mech. E. An abbreviation of Member 
of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 

mimeograph (mim'e-o-graf), r. t. To mul- 
tiply (copies of a writing or document) by 
means of a mimeograph ; manifold by the use 

n^ suppo: 

/..c.b>. "'/°"°;«-J%/£f'^J,";g mill-power (mil'pou'er), n 

iignand or power control 

Large Vertical Mitling-nachine. 
a, frame supporting- spindle; *. rcrtical sliding support for 
spindle: f, spindle; rf. milling-cutler; <■. control of sliding sup- 
port to adjust cu!t«r to work ; /, cable lo counierwe' * " ' 
support, counicrwcight inside the frame; ^, table 
rotary, cru-is, and longitudinal feed ha 
A, A, control of (ced. 

applied to a larpe and important class of tools ranging in 
size fnun a siiiall btJiich-niachine to large and powerful 
machines employed u\nm the massive pieces of metal 
used in constructing motors and machinery. Milling-ma- 
chines having two spindles are called duplex millers. 
Sinifle-spindle machines may alno employ several cutters 
and are then fjan'j or multiple initlerg. Special forms of 
milling-machines are alwj niaile which employ the general 
form of the lathe and the planer. The milling-machine 
has lartfely ix'cupied the field of the planer, shiiner, and 
slotting-machine, and has maile itiKt&sihle U» orma- 
chiiie metal fcji-nis hitheito notatt;unablu at all or only by 
means of slower and more expensive UnA^ It has thus 

, , of a mimeograph, 

ing temperature and then passed through the Tninipniil CTni moo'^r^^ « <.^a « t « a 

ib^a?iSml''dTo-Th1tnr^*^--'^*' =^ 

mill-planed (mil'pland), a. Planed, as a rr ^ ti„^ ti, -u j. ^ ,. , 
board or plank, in a power-mill. A mill- ■ ■"; ":, -"2^? the characters of, or belong- 
planed board is not considered as finished for '°^ ***'. *'''' family ilf.wies, da. 
any purpose requiring smoothness, but should immesis, n. 3. The occurrence of symptoms, 
be worked ov'er by hand. without organic basis or in the course of some 

ttill-power (mil'pou'er), n. A unit of water- djsease, which simulate those of another 
jiower the value of which varies in different "'^^ase. 

localities. For example, at Holyoke, Massa- Mimetic resemblance. See *resemblance. 
chusetts, it is equivalent to 38 cubic feet of mi-ini (mi'mi), n. Same as *mia-mia. [Aus- 
water per second discharging under a head tralia.] 

of 20 feet; at Minneapolis, Minnesota, it is mimiambi (mim-i-am'bi), n. pi [L < 6r 
equivalent to 30 cubic feet of water per second fu/iia/ifiot, pi., < ^i^of, mime, -I- la/i/ioc, iambus.' 
discharging under a head of 22 feet. Trans. See iambic.'] Mimes composed in iambic 
Amer. tine. Mech. Engin., XXIV. 983. verse : as, the mimiambi of Herondas. 

mill-ran (mil ' run), n. 1. The work of an mimjambic (mim-i-am'bik), a. [mimiambi.] 

""" " °° '"° Pertaining to or having the characteristics of 
mimiambi ; being a writer of mimiambi : as, 

amalgamating-mill between two clean-ups. 

2. A test of a given quantity of ore by actual 

._ treatment in a mill. _ „„.„.^ 

greatly m«liliid all machine-nil. >p practice and made it mlU-SaW (mil'sA), »1. A straight saw placed mimicr^ T."^ i^^^^- 

jxwsilile t.. tinish the many novel and com]ilicated forms in a irntp or frftino which i« OTvpii a rpcinrncnt- '"''""'fy. "•— Aggressive mimicry, the resemblance 

-- • .... ', „„«;,„„, lu a, fc.iie or inuuovvun,u m given a reciprocal of certain predaceous and narasitic inaecta t^ the innert. 

a mimiambic poet. 

now demanded in the metal industries. "See vrofilinn. • „- .• * .u - 

m«<-Awi-.-Borlng-,(lrUlln«-,ana mlllln«-machine >"« motion; one of the saws in a gang-saw. 
See *i»i,rin;i-iiiiu:liine.~YiaiXi milling-machine,!! mill- See cut under saw'^, 1. 

iiiK-machme consisting of a 8laii.l;inl wljirh .supiM.rt.^ a mill-Staff (mil'staf), n. A staff used to test 
horizontal or vertical spindle (opei-ate.l hy suitjihle belt- .i,,, fjotnp'iti of the fnco nf n. millstonfi 
inji or K-i;iriiii-) to which some fonu of r.-volviMK cutter, ^"« "atuess oiine lace 01 a miiigione. _ 

called -.1. iinlling-cull^r, nmy be attached. Beneath the millStOne-nOlSt (mil ston-hoist), n. A hoist- 

spmdlc is a feed-table to wliich_the piece of metal t<> be iug-screw or -jack for lifting and handling miminy-piminy (mim"i-ni-pim'i-ni) 

millstones, ^. ... _ ._ 

certain predaceous and parasitic insecta to the insects 
on which they prey. Examples are abundant in the 
tropics, where certain spiders mimic the ants on which 
they prey. Volucella and I'sitluirus mimic the bees 
on which their larva! feed.— Bateslan mimicry. See 
*Ba(e«ian,— Miillerlan mimicry, synaposematic re- 
semblance. See "^resemblance. 

Same as *rollcr- 

milled or machiiie<l is fixed. The action of the machine 

is a combination of the revolution of the cutter and the — .jii ♦-vi« c™;l'ts,?>,l\ „ 

movement of the feed-table which pushes the work "llll-taDie (mil ta Di;, n, 

against it. The serrations or teeth of the cutter chip or t'l'ne. 

cut off minute shaviiiKSof metal asthe work passes under mill-WOlked (mil'wferkt), ». a. Same as *mill- 

it Since the cuttere have a Kreat variety of forms the dressed 

machine is adapted to a wide ranite of work. Such ma- _.i , '-n-\ r-rr •• j a -i 

chines are. livi,le<l intotwoclasses. th.«ehavin(rhorif.ontaI ™ll0 V^^ '°)) "■ [Hawaiian and Hamoan milo 

and th..4.- hivintr vertical spin. lies. .See *milliiigctitter. = Talutian, Mangarevan, etc., miro, name of 

— Universal mllUng-maclilne, a millinK-machine fitted - . _ - . _. 

with l.-nu-iliiilinal, cr..-..*. and revolving feeds, in which 

bori*itr. .Irillititr. Kear-cnttiiiK, milling, etc., can be done 

by rotatiiii.' cutters ut mills. 

- - . . » ., "• and 

n. [Arbitrary and imitative.] Absurdly pre- 
cise, delicate, or over-refined ; finicking; nim- 
iny-piminy; also, something that exhibits 
these traits. 

She went and dropped her curtsey at the parlour door, 
and in a viiminy piminy voice said she was come to 
make her submission, a»d would he forgive her, and 
give her another trial? C. Ileade, Hard Cash, xxx. 

milling-saw (mil'ing-sa), n. A milling-cutter 
resembling a large circular saw used in cut- 
ting hot or cold metals. Hot iron is cut at a 
high ..ind cold iron at a low speed. 

milliograph (miri-o-grif), n. Same as *mil- 
h'Otirdjtlt . 

millionairedom (mil-yon-ar'dum), n. Million- 
aires collectively; the state of being a million- 
aire; millionairism. 

millionairism (mil-yon-Sr'izm), n 
of being a millionaire. 

several trees.] In Polynesia, Thespesia popul- 
nea, a widely spread tropical tree belonging 
to the mallow family, with broadly ovate, 
entire, pointed leaves, and showy yellow hollv- 
hock-like flowers which change to a purplish- 
pink color on withering. The heart-wood, mimoceracone (mim-o-ser'a-kon^, n 

It is a tortuous, tottering, wriggling, fldgetty translation 
of every thing from the viilgar tongua into all the tanta- 
lizing, teasing, tripping, lisping vti^nminee-pimminee of 
the highest brilliancy and fashion of poetical diction. 

Hazlitt. English Poets, viii. 


which is hard, smooth-grained, and durable, 
is used by the Hawaiians for making bowls, 
or 'calabashes,' for holding poi. The Samoans 
use it in boat-building. Also called Poly- 
nesian rosewood. See Thespesia (with cut) 
and *batialo. 
The state milpa (mirpii), «. [Mex. Sp., < Nahuatl mil- 

pan, in the country; «J(W, a cultivated field.] mimoceran (mi-mos'e-ran), a. [Mimoceras 

cerus, a genus of cephalopods, + Gr. Kui'of, a 
cone.] A cone or shell like that of the cephal- 
opod genus Mimoceras, that is, loosely coiled 
in a spiral and straight for a short distance 
at the initial end : an elementary expression 
in the development of genera of the Ammon- 

Your millionaire, for example, — and million 'irinn Is 
irettint' ^.. (■..min..n as to be almost vulgar, — your million- 

1. Among the ancient Aztecs, a garden-bed 
assigned out of the communal land to a par- 

-I- -an.] Pertaining to or having the charac- 
ters of the genus Mimoceras. 




Mimoceras (mi-mos'e-ras), u. [NL., < 6r. 
fiifoc, imitator, + xfpiac," horn.] A genus of objects conveyed to the brain by functionally 
ammonoid cephal- sound organs of vision. 

opods regarded mind-CUlist (nnnd'kiu'"ist), n. One who be- 
as of extremely lievcs in mind-cure; one who holds the doc- 

primitive char- 
acter. Its shell 
is coiled in a spiral 
and the initial 

Lower DeTonian ; Wis&eubach, Nas- ^Jiorl is free from 
.1, natural cast: *, nepionic indi- the Bext, It IS Of 

Tiduai enlarged. Lower Devoiuan 

vFroin Ziltel s r.ilaeontologv. ) 

mimography (mi-mog'ra-fi), n. [Gr. fii/Joc, a 
mimic, + -ypa^ia, < ■jpa<feii; write.] 1. The 

art of writing gesture-language by means of mind-deafness (mind'defnes), 
conventional pictorial symbols: designed for tncntcd *(lc(ifiicfs. 
recording the gestures used by the deaf and jnindlessness (mind'les-nes), n 

dumb, or of primitive tribes that use gesture 
language. — 2. Writing which consists of sym- 
bols that represent gesture-language. 

mimophyre (mim'o-fir), «. [Gr. /ii/Mf, a mimic, 
+ E. {por)ph!/r{y'j.1 In petrog., a name sug- 
gested by Br'ongniart (1813) for porphyritic 
volcanic tuffs, and for porphyritic meta- 
morphic rocks which resemble porphyries or 

Mimosa, ». 3. [/. c] Same as thiazol *yeUmB. 

mimosaceous (mi-mo-sa'shius), a. Belonging 
to the plant family Mimosacem ; resembling or 
having the chai-acters of the mimosa. 

Mimosella (mi-mo-sers), n. [NL., < Mimosa 
+ dim. -cUa.] The typical genus of the family 
MiinoseUidx. Hincls, 1851. 

MimosellidaB (mi-mo-sel'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Mimosella + -idse.~\ A family of ctenostomat- 
oMS gymnolsematous polyzoans, having the 
movable deciduous zooecia contracted below, 
with an aperture on the ventral side. It con- 
tains the single genus Mimosella. 

mimosis (mi-mo'sis), n. [NL., < luiioq, a mimic, 
-t- -osis.'] Same as mimesis. 

mimotannic (mi-mo-tan'ik), a. [m.imo(sa) + 
tannic] Pertaining to the tannin derived 

from the mimosa Mimotannic acid, a variety of 

tannic acid found in mimosa, acacia, and similar species 
of pla>its. 

mimsey (mim'zi), a. Imim, a. Cf. flimsy.] 
Prim ; prudish ; contemptible. Eng. Dial. Diet. 

mimsy (mim'zi), a. [A nonsense-formation, 
< mi{serable) + {fli)msy.'\ Miserable and 
flimsy: a *blend-word, or *brunch-word 
(which see). Lewis Carroll, Through the Look- 
ing-glass, p. 128. 

Min. An abbreviation of minister. 

Mina» (mi'nii), n. [NL. (Cervantes, 1824), 
named inhonbrof Francisco Javier Jf«»a (1789- 
1817), a Spanish soldier, killed in Mexico.] A 
genus of plants of the family Convolvulacese, 
closely related to /poOTffiO and Quamoclit. Mina 
lobata of the gardens, a native of Mexico, is a 
twining herb with cordate 3-lobed leaves and 
small flowers in seorpioid clusters, the bag- 
shaped corolla of which is a rich crimson when 
it first opens, but changes to yellow. 

minacciando (mi-nat-che-an'do), a. [It., ppr. 

to recognize the visual impressions of external mineralize, t'. /. 2. To impregnate with min- 
eral substances, as metallic salts: thus, the 
water of a particular spring may lie spoken of 
as more or less strongly mineralized. — 3. In 
mining, to introduce, in solution or otherwise, 
a new mineral or ore into (surroundings wliere 
it did not previously exist, as, for example, into 
a fissure or into shattered or porous rook). 
The rock is then said to be mineralized. 

On the other hand, it is certainly most remarkable that 
so little aurifeitms (quartz has been fonnd ; at tlie time of 
my visit Iiiiiulreds tjf quartz claims had been staked, but 
very few had been shown to contain any ^^'-lUi whatever ; 
neither do the quartz boulders of the \Vhit« Channel ap- 
pear to be auriferous, or even tnincralized. 

Pop. Set. Mu., July, 19IH, p. 235. 
Mineralizing agent, in petrog., a volatile substance, 
such as water vapor, chlorin, fluorin, or ixjiic acid, which, 
while not actually entering into the comi>osition of a 
given mineral, facilitates its crystallization. It is believed 
by some petrographei-s, especially the French, that miner- 
alizing agents are necessary to the crjstallization of the 
highly Bilicious rocks, sucli as granite. The exact role 
played by the substances in question is not as yet under- 

miner alizer, K. 2. In pe^rojr., a dissolved gas 
in an igneous magma which promotes crystal- 
lization, or leads to the production of partic- 
ular minerals which contain the elements of 
the gas, such as boron, chlorin, fluorin, hydro- 
gen. Compare *erysiaUizer, 2. 

mine-run (min'run), n. The entire unscreened 
output of a coal-mine. 

trine that mental influence is the only or the 
chief cure for bodily ills. 

A clear and adequate reason may be given to explain 
why that psychophysiological transfonnation and the ad- 
vent of Faith should be conditioned, or at least greatly 
facilitated, by self-surrender tmderstood in the sense of a 
relaxation of the deeper, the unconscious, will — that kind 
of giving up, of relaxation, which the Mtnd-Curist, the 
Christian Scientist aiul the Hypnotizer, wisely attempt to 
bring alwutin their subjects by way of preparation. 

Amer. Jour. liclitj. Psychol, and Education, May, 1904, 

[p. 80. 

n. Same as 

The condi- 

tion of being devoid of mind or intelligence ; 
absence of mind. 

God created the world. The question between faith 
and science even now is not whether the universe was 
created by Mind. If it requires Mind to construe the uni- 
verse, coilld inindtenmieKs have constructed it? 

W. Alexander, Primary Convictions, v. 12. 
mine^, U. 1, Speclilcally, in Seotch inining : (a) The 
underground works of a colliery or metalliferous working. 
(b) A drift or roadway from the surface, either level or on 
the slope of the seam, (c) A mine passage in rock : usu- 
ally qtialifled, as stone-mine, cross-cut mine, etc. — Back- 
setmlne. Han irt)aclc-mine. — Buoyant mine. See *•?//;- 
vtarine -ttmine. — Contact mine. See tiutmtarine iemine. 
-Dormant mine. See sudmarine iemine. — ^lectrO' 

contact mine. See sulymarim •ininf.— Floating minervite (mi-ner'vit), w. [Minerve (see Aef.) 
mine,anexplosivemiiiethatfloat8onornearthesurfaceof + -ite^.~\ A hydrous aluminium phosphate 
the water.-Observa.tlon mine. See sKimaWnc*,,,,,!^. which occurs in soft plastic masses in the 
— Small mine, the dust and small fragments of iron ore ,, i* j -»•■ n ,« au » i -ci 

leftfrora calcining iron ore in Staffordshire, England. See t.rotte de Mmerve, Valley of the Aude, France. 
mine2, a— Submarine mine, in naval warfare, a large mine-tin (min'tin), ». Tin ore or tinstone ex- 
charge of explosive in a water-tight casing placed under tracted directly from the solid rock: opposed 

water at such a depth that, by its explosion, it may sink * • -- .^^ .. 

or seriously damage a vessel passing in its vicinity. Such 
mines are of two principal classes : contuct mines, de- 
signed to explode by contact with the vessel ; and ob. 
servation intnes, designed to explode, at the will of an 
operator on shore, by the closing of an electric circuit con- 
nected to the mine when he observes an enemy's vessel 
passing over it. An electro-contact inine is controlled by 

to Stream-tin, which is obtained by washing the 
gravel and sand of the beds of streams. 
mingles (ming'glz), n. pi. In mining, iron 
frames or standards carrying the pillow-blocks 
of pit-head pulleys. Also maider.s. Barrow- 
man. [Scotch.] 
anelectriccircuitby which its condition can be tested and mingO^ (ming' go), ?l. [Origin obscure.] A 
by which it can be made temporarily inoperative for the n^me of various fishes of the family Mona- 
passage of friendly vessels. Muies are also distmguished *j ■ 7 » * j, * 

as ijround-mineg, which rest on the bottom : and buoyant CflHWilrta?.— Long mUlgp, a common liame of AlvUra 
mines, which are anchored to the bottom but remain sua- punctata, a flsh of the family Munacanthtdx, known from 
pended in the water below its surface by their buoyancy, the West Indies to Brazil. 

Dormant mines are contact mines which are ordinarily mingO^ (ming'go), n. [A variant of mungo^.'} 
held down to the bottom, but which can be released at j^ Mnd of shoddy with short fibers. Encyc. 

Brit., I. 176. 

the will of an operator on shore, and then become buoyant 
mines. Submarine mines are airanged systematically in 
groups in harbors and channels, and such a group is Ming POrCClain. 

called a mine-^rfrf.— Submerged mine, 
tact mine (which see, under *mt«c3), 

mine-car (min'kiir), n. A small car used in 
mines for bringing ore or coal to the surface. 

mine-dust (min'dust), n. Screenings of cal- 
cined ironstone. [Scotch.] 

mine-field (min'feld), n. A body of navigable 
water in which submarine mines are anchored 
for the purpose of preventing an enemy's ships 
from entering a channel, harbor, or roadstead; 
also, the group of mines itself. The mines may 

See *porcelain'^. 

oi minacciare, menace: see menace, v.] In mine-master (min'mas"ter), «. 1. One who 

Same as con- mj^^a (min'ba, min'cha), n. [Heb., a present, 
an offering.] The second of the three daily 
services in the Jewish liturgy ; the afternoon 
minhag (min'hag), n. : pi. minhagim (min-ha'- 
gem). [Heb., < nahag, drive, go along the 
road, behave.] Conduct; usage; custom: 
applied to religious practices and customs 
which, though not based upon scriptural in- 
junctions, have come to be considered binding. 
be so arranged that they can be exploded from a statioii miniaceoUS (min-i-a'shius), a. [L. miniaceus, 
on shore or may be contiict mines which explode on being - "■ ,...,„ 

struck by a vessel. The mines are charged with guncot- 
ton or some other very powerful explosive. See sub- 
marine -kmine. 

music, threatening : noting passages to be so 
rendered. Also minaccioso. 

minaccioso (mi-nat-ehe-6's6), a. [It., < minac- 
cio, a menace : see menace, w.] In«iM*(c, same 
as *minacciando. 

minage (mf-nazh'), n. [F. and OF. minage, < 
mine, a measure of grain, < L. hemina, < Gr. 
Tjiilva, a Sicilian measure.] In French use, 
formerly: (a) Themeasurementof grain by the 
'mine' (a measure somewhat less than two 
bushels). (6) The selling of grain by the 
'mine.' (c) A tax exacted from the tenant 
by his lord upon the amount of grain produced, 
(f/) A tribute paid upon grain. Kidd, Social 
Evolution, p. 222, note. 

minah (mi'na), n. [E. lud.] In the peninsula 
of India, a stambha, especially one built of 
masonry. Compare lat^. 

minargent, «. 2. A trade-name of several 
alloys intended for ornamental use. One of 
them consists of copper alloyed with nickel, 
aluminium, and tungsten. 

minchiate (min-ki-il'ta), n. [It., pi.] A card- 
game chiefly played in Tuscany, a modifica- 
tion of tarot ; also, as plural (the original use), 
the cards used in the game. A'. E. I). 

mind^, « social mind, the concurrent feeling, agree- 
ing thought, and concerted volition of two or more in- 
dividual minds. Giddimjs, Prin. of Sociol., p. l:i2. 

mind-blindness (mind'blind"nes), n. Inability 

is charged with the laying of military mines, 
— 2. The superintendent of a mine. 

mine-pig (mln'pig), ». Pig-iron made from 
mine or ore, as distinguished from cinder-pig. 
.V. E. D. 

miner, ". 1. The term is sometimes limited to one 
who mines for minerals (jther than coal, a coal-miner 
being ciUled a cntiler in Cleat F.ritain. -Miners' anemia. 
See *nn«)it.(i.— Miners' asthma, lung, phthisis. 
Same as ff«'Arar-oKj>.— Miners* disease. Same as *<//(- 
r'//*wff/jHmx/x.— Miners' elbow, horn. See -keUunc, 
♦Aorit.— Miners' nystagmus. See iij/KfnaMw.— Min- 
ers' right. See*iv////. — Miners' worm. See*H'orm. 
-Miners* worm disease. See ■kancytostomiasis. 

mineral. I. »'. 3. In inining, ore. --Bathgate 
mineral. Same as Boifhead coal. — Contact mineral, a 
niineral characteristically developed along the contjict of 
an igneous intrusion and its walls, such as vesnvianite 
and garnet in limest^mes, andalusite in slates. — Critical 
mineral, in petroy., in the quantitative classification of 
igneous rf»cks, an abnonnative mineral present in a rock 
in notable amount, that is, in sufficient amount U^ render 
the mode of the rock *abnoi-mative (wliich sec). — Green 
mineral, malachite.— Orange mineral, an oxid of 
lead, of a bright orange color, wliich luis the chemical 
fonnula Pb;}(>4. It has the same chemical composition 
as red lead.'bnt is finer in texture and more brilliant in 
color. It is made by oxidizing white lead in a reverber- 
atory furnace, while red lead is made by oxidizing metal- 
lic lead in a similar way. 

n. a.— Mineral Jelly.ahydrocarbon obtained in the 
distillation of cruile iictroleum. 

The mineral jelly is a hydrocarbon having the formula 

cinnabar-red. ^ee minium &11A miniate.'] Ver- 
milion in color ; miniate. i>flHO, Zooph., p. 643. 

miniator (min'i-a-tor), M. \_miniate, r. t.] One 
who miniates or paints with vermilion, as a 
manuscript; an illuminator ; a miniaturist. 

minification (min-i-fi-kS'shon), H. [minify 
(-tic-) + -ation.] The act or result of minify- 
ing ; reduction in size : opposed to magnifica- 

In the instrument upon the table the eye-piece has a 
magnifying power of 10— that is to say, a magnifying 
power which exactly balances the ten-fold minijication 
before spoken of. 

Jour. Jioy. Micros. Soc., June. 1904, p. 2S1. 

minimal, ". 2. Relating to the minimus or 

fifth digit of the hind foot. 

The membrane attached to the ankle ... is disposed 
to cross it by an oblique, raised fold and be secured to 
the minimal, i. e. little t+)e side. 

//. Allen, Bats of North America, p. 2. 
Minimal basis, in Kronecter's method of treating 
the theory of functions, a basis from which all possible 
factors have been removed s<i as to reduce it t*) its lowest 
possible order.— Minimal surface. See mr/ace. 
Green minimetric (min-i-met'rik), a. [mini{m) + 
Gr. fierpav. measure, -I- -ic] In analyf. chem., 
relating to, or obtained by means of, the mea- 
surement of minims, as by counting the num- 
ber of drops required to complete a reaction. 
On the estimation of carbon monoxide and carbonic 
acid in vitiated air, by M. Ferdinand .lean. An applica- 
tion of the minimetric niethiHl to the examination of air, 
requiring no skilled manipulation in its use. 

Mature, Nov. 13, 1902, p. 47. 

CinH24, and is obtained by the fracti.mal distillation of Tuinimifidjan (min''i-mi-fid'i-an), a. and n. 
crude petroleum oil at a temperature of over 200" C. mmiiuiuuiau \^ i v:j„„ *.;;tK t l?.„l,iV>;f 

Encyc. Brit., XXXII. 23. [L. mintmus, least, -1- fides, faith.] txhibit- 


ing or requiring the smallest degree of faith : 
one who has the least faith. [Rare.] 

And as we agree in the opinion that the Minimi-Mian 
party err grievously in the latter point, so I must con- 
eede to you, that ttw many Piedivhaptists (assertors of 
Infant Baptism) have erred, thouuh less grossly in the 
former. Coleridge, Aids to Reflection, p. 284. 

mlnimism (min'i-mizm), H. [L. mimm(us), 
least, + -i,«»i.] In tlieol., the disposition to 
minimize the implications of an accepted dog- ^^rly 
ma; the minimizing view of what is involved j. Evan/<. in'iian Nov 
in a dogma, especially that of papal infallibil- See *pottery. 
ity. X E. D. TOir.«» T 

The doctrine of Minimi»m, adopted by Xewman from 

Bishop Fessler . . . gives liberty to the theologian to e.\- 

amine whether the Papal decree on any given point is or 

is not infallible. 

WUliam Patnwr, Xarr. Events, Suppl., iv. 278. A'. B. D. 

mining-case (rai'ning-kas), n. A frame in a 
^.'allery or shaft, made with four planks. 

mining-engine (mi'ning-en''jui), «. i. a 
man-engine.— 2. Any engine used about a 
mine, as a hoisting-engine or mine-locomotive. 

mining-locomotive (mi'ning- 16 -ko -m6"tiv), 
«. A small locomotive, built very low, 
usually operated by compressed air or elec- 
tricity, and used for hauling cars in under- 
ground passages and mines. 

mining-machine (mi'ning-ma-shen''), n. A 

channck-r : a machine for cutting coal. -jiv "•" ^^^^.o. 

mining-piece (rai'ning-pes*),«. A coin struck -"iinorcan (mi-nor'kan), n. and n. I. a. 
from gold, silver, or copper ore worked in or nertaunno' to lVf,„,>,.„o „„„ „f , 
France. Germany, Russia, and Sweden. W. 
C. Ha:Utt. 


of the periods of Minoan culture in Crete, from the close 
of the Neolithic to the early Iron age. To the period as a 
whole It IS proposed definitely to attach the name Minoan 
as indicating the probable duration of successive dynas- 
ties of pnest-kings, the tradition of which has taken abid- 
ing fonu m the name of Minos. It is proposed to divide 
this mnoan era into three main periods, early, middle 
and late, each with a first, second, and third subperiod. 

Nature, Oct. «, 190J, p. 6()3. 
Minoan period, that period of Cretan history and cul- 
ture which extended from the close of the Neolithic to the 
early iron age, or from about 3500 B.C. to 1100 B o A 
.r p,.„„. i„ x,„., V-.... 19^ p 172.- Minoan pottery! 

°^p°?. I. "--Minor arc, the arc on the opposite 
side of Its chord from the center of the circle. 

n. ".—Complementary minor. Same as compje- 
mentary determinant (which see, under determinant) 

minorat (mi-no-rii'), K. [F., < NL. mhioratus, 
< li. minor, younger.] The custom that pre- 
vailed in some European countries, and still 
survives in some parts of Germany and Aus- 
tria, by which the youngest rather than the 
eldest possible heir had the succession. 
Compare majorat. Similar to borough-Ennlish 
(which see). 

Minorca (mi-n6r'ka), n. [From the island of 
;^"'0''<"«-] A breed of domesticated fowls of 
the Mediterranean class, somewhat similar to 
the Leghorns, but longer-bodied and heavier. 
They are good table fowls, lay the year around, 
and are non-sitters. 

:-.-.-—---.-""''"•"•'"'"• I- "• Of 

or pertaining to Minorca, one of the Balearic 

II. H. An inhabitant of the island of Mi- 

mining-pump (mi'ning-pump), «. a pump M,""""'!}! A v., . 

adapted for taking water from deep mines „,• '^^^^- An abbreviation of Minister 

Minion chapel. See *chapel. Plcn,n,,t,niiary. 

ministrer (min'is-tr6r), n. One who ministers , °- "®^- ^^ abbreviation of Minister Besi- 

or serves. -V. E. D. ■ur''"-r' 

miniak, «. See *minyal: M- Inst. C. E. An abbreviation of Member of 

mini-frog (mingk'frog), n. A small spotted "!^' ^"■''"''''e "f '-'"•'l f^'if/ineers. 

frog, Jidiia septentrionalis, of eastern North I'Unst^r-houseCmin'st^r-hous), ji. The official 

America: so called from its peculiar odor. residence of the canons of a eatheHrBl .«//,«,» 

minkle (ming'kl), n. [An arbitrarj- modifica 
tion of minnow.] A minnow. [Rare.] 
The hum-bird shook his sun-touched wings around. 

The blueflnchcaroUd in the still retreat ; 
The antic squirrel capered on the ground 

Where lichens made a carpet for his feet : 
Through the transparent waves, the ruddy minkle 
Shot up in glimmering sparks his red fin's tiny twinkle. 
J. It, Drake, Bronx, st. 4. 

Minn. An abbreviation of Minnesota. 

minnie-bnsh (min'i-bdsh), n. A shrub, Men- 
ziesin jiilosa, of the heatli family, found in 
mountain woods from Pennsylvania to Georgia. 
It bears elliptical or obovate leaves, and 
greenish-purple urn-shaped flowers in terminal 
drooping umbels. 

minnow, «. 3. A name sometimes given to a 
very small fish of New Zealand, Galaxias at- 
tenttatus, of the family Galaj-idie. Also called 
whitebait. The Maori name is inaiiga. E. 
E. Jfrtrrw, Austral English.-Eaatemmnd-mln- 
now, ( mhra pyinmrn ut Atlantji- io;ist»i»e streams of 
the I nited .States. -Leather-sided minnow, (t) Leu- 
CUKUt (Uiriie^A the (ireat l!:i.«iM of I'tah. {ti) .See leather 

"ive minnow, /''»;i*/t//u« r 

• - oray minnows, species ^ gi^,.,.„ 

Cypnnodon, small (Islii-s f.Miiid in brackish water* of 
America.— Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variega- 


residence of the canons of a cathedral. 
M. Inst. M. E. An abbreviation (a) of Mem- 
ber or the Institute of Mechanical Engineers; 
(b) of Member of the Institute of Mining Entii- 

minti, "---Keeperoftlieexcliangeandmlnt. .Same 

as matter of the mint (which see, under mintl). 

mint^, »!.— Apple mint. See oppfe-minr.- Balm- 
mint, (a) See balm. 7. (I,) The crisped or curled mint 
Mentha cri«/xi.— Brandy-mint, peppennint— Brown 
mint, spearmint.— Cr0S8-mlnt, the crisped or ciiikd 
mint— Field-mint, (eri The coni-mint. (h) The cat- 
mint nr catnip, Xepeta Codin'a.— Fish-mint la) The 
water-mint, Mentha aquatica. (b) The horsemint, .V 
longt/otta. (c) The bcrganiot-minf, .V. citrata.—Lamb- 
mlnt (a) Peppermint. (I,) Spearmint— Mountain 
mint, (a) .See mountain-mint, (b) The Oswego tea, 
Monarda didi/ma. (e) The wixjil-calamint, Clinopodium 
Cn/amiiifAa.- Ronnd-leaved mint. Same as round- 
Uared hortemint. —VfOOUy mint, Mentha ataperuroideg 
a white-wix)lly, leafy-atcmuK-d perennial of the Old World, 
naturalized in the United States. 

mintage, «. 4. A coin bearing the initial of 
a particular mint: thus the San Francisco 
mint is represented by a small S on the re- 

"a^.— Mangrove minnow, Fundnlut bennuda of the . . . ' 

Bermudas. — Pursy minnows, species of the genus minting-null (nun'ting-mil), n. A press suit- 
nnudon. small (Isliis f.Mliid in brackish waters of able for i-iiiiiiiKr • iioo.l ir. .»>i.,«o ♦« «;„l.„ :_. 

Sheepshead MiiiTir.w - ^f 
(From BulletiD 47. V. 

. Nat, Mus«um.) 

tut, a pcecilioid flsh found In brackish water from Cape 
Cod to the Rio I iranrie.silver-slded minnow, Z.«Kcr»- 
C1U hydro]ihl,,x. a (.-ypriiioid llsli f.uiMd in the Salt Lake 
b««in. — Spot-tailed minnow, tlie spawn-eater, Xotropis 
hudtomoj,. -Star-headed minnow, Fundulut nottu, a 
pa3cilioid llsh inhabiting swaniiw and streams In Honda 
and the neight>orii)g States. 
Minoan (mi-no'an), a. [6r. Maoof, of Minos (< 
Miiur, Minos), ■+ -OH.] Of or pertaining to 
Minos, the traditional monarch and lawgiver 

of Crete, and especially to the palace of Mino.s. mg; mmjak- ; <, Malay mmyak; JJyak minyak, 
a prehistoric edifice on the site of ancient oil, balsam, resin.] Oil, fat, or resin: a 
Cnosus, in ("rete. the exeavation of which was Malayan word used in several phrase-names 
beinin bv Arthur.! F,ru.,= ir, lonn in different dialects, as minyak lagam, a bal- 

sam or oleoresin obtained from an unknown 
tree in Sumatra, and resembling gurjun bal- 

able for coining : used' in mints to make coins 
from bullion bars or blanks. 
minuscnlar (mi-nus'ku-lSr), a. Pertaining to, 
or of the nature of, a nimuscule ; written in 

Alpha . . . .Sometimes the two letters, of which the u 
Is almost always of that uncial form which resembles the 
mintiJicular, are hung by chains from the arms of the 
<='"'«•''■ Schttf-Herzoff, Relig. Encyc. L 

minute^, n. 2. (b) in aeom. : (2) The sixtieth part of a 
degree of a perig..n.— Centesimal minute. .Sec cen- 
teitinuil dieinun. under cmtrximnl.- Decimal minute 
See *d<ci»Mi<.— Horse-power minute, one si.xtieth of 
a horse-power hour.— Metric horse-power mlnnte, 
one metric horse-power exerted for one minute ; one six- 
tieth of a metric horse-power hour.— Mlnnte Of the 
equator, the sixtieth part of a degree of longitude mea- 
sured on the parallel of the iM|nat<ir : tin- maximum value 
of a minute of longitude.— Sidereal minute. See tide- 
real -kHeeond. 

Minyadidae (min-i-ad'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Minyas (-ad-) + -id/e.'] A family of actinarian 
zoantharians which have the pedal disk trans- 
formed into an apparatus for floating. It in- 
cludes the genera Minyas, Dactyloniinyas, 
Acerominyas, and PhyUominyas. 

minyak (min'yiik). n. [Also (in G. or D. spell- 
ing) minjak; < Malay minyak, Dyak minyak, 


samin character; minyak-tengkawang, a solid 
vegetable fat (also known as Borneo tallow) 
obtained from the fruit of various species of 
Boijea m Borneo and Sumatra, and used in 
soap- and candle-making. 
minyan (men'yan), n. ; pi. minyanim (men-ya'- 
uem). [Heb., < manah, count, reckon.] In 
Jewish use, count; number; specifically, the 
number of ten males above thirteen years 
of age required for pubUc worship and other 
religious practices in the synagogue. 
Minyas (min'i-as), n. [NL.,< Gr. MiWac a race 
of nobles at Orchomenos.] The typical genus 
of the tamily Minyadidie. Cuvier. 
Minytrema (mi-nit're-ma), n. [NL., < Gr 
fcix, small, + Tpjj/ia, iiole.] A genus of 
suckers found from the Great Lake region to 
^orth Carolina and west to Texas. 
Mioclsenidae (mi-o-kle'ni-de), «. ^?. [NL.] A 
family of small 'ungulate mammals, of the 
suborder Condylarthra, containing a few 
species from the Lower Eocene of New Mexico. 
Osborn and Earle, 1895. 
miogyrous (mi-o-jl'ms), a. [Gr. fieiuv, less, -I- 
yvpo^. See gyre.'] In bot., roUed inward a 
little. Jackson, Gloss. 
MioUthic (mi-o-lith'ik), a. [Gr. iidm, lesser, 
+ /'%, stone, -t- -ic] Relating or pertaining 
to the period intermediate between the Paleo- 
lithic and the Neolithic. 
Miona bug. See *6h(/2. 

miophone (mi'o-fon), n. [Gr. /leiuv, less, + 
cjiuivri, sound.] A microphonic instrument for 
the medical testing of the muscles. Houston. 
Elect. Diet., p. 426. ' 

Miopliocene (mi-o-pli'6-sen), n. [Gr. ficiav, 
lesser, -t- E. pliocene.'] In geol., a term at one 
time applied to the Bolderian and Anversian 
divisions of the Tertiary system in Belgium, 
the fauna of which was supposed to indicate 
a mmghng of Miocene and Pliocene forms. 
miosis, «. (c) In c!/(o<., the reduction-process in organ- 
isms, including niitapsi8(or synapsis) and the subsequent 
heterotypic and homotypic divisions. This process re- 
sulte in reducing to one half the number of chromosomes 
in the nuclei. Farmer and Moore. Improperly spelled 
?»mio»i«. (d) Used by error or substitution for myoris. 
miotherm (mi'o-therm), n. [Gr. /jeiuv, less, 
+ Oep/iT/, heat.] A plant which inhabits cool 
temperate regions. 
miotic (mi-ot'ik), a. [miosis (miot-) + -ic] 
Noting or characterizing the stage in the life- 
history of an organism at which miosis or re- 
duction occurs. Farmer and Moore. 
miquelet (mik'e-let), n. [F. miquelet, < Sp 
miquelete, < Miquelot, a bandit chief.] In 
Spanish hist. : (a) A member of a body of 
Catalonian banditti who infested the Pyrenees 
in the 17th century, (b) A Spanish guerrilla 
soldier in the Peninsular War; also one of a 
corps of irregulars employed by Napoleon in 
1808 against the Spaniards, (c) In modern 
Spain, the designation of the soldiers of cer- 
tain local regiments of infantry, chiefly em- 
ployed on escort duties. JV. E. D. 

Black Camisard and White Camisard, militiaman and 
Miquelet and dragoon, Protestant prophet and Catholic 
'*adet "***'" ^viii*Q (^ 41...... i.-j „ii 1 _.,._,_. . 

begun by Arthur 3 . Evans in 1900. 

Dr. Arthur Evans, F.R.S.. explained his preliminary 
«cheme for the cUMiflcatioii and approximate chronology 

— .J — ^. „..,.«, ..,^.^,,, ii...^D,.ni,i, pi^jmeL aiiu v_-atiloilc 
cadet of the White Cross, they had all been sabring and 
It. L. Stevenson, Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes, 

I p. 236. 

mirabelle (mir-a-bel'), n. [F.] A plum, the 
fruit of Prunus armenoides. The Corsican 
mirabelle is the fruit of Physalis alkekengi. 
Syd. Soc. Lex. 

miracidium (mi-ra-sid'i-um), n. ; pi. 
miracidia (-a). [NL., < Gr. fieipa- 
kUcov, a little boy, dim. of /ietpoKcov, a 
boy (pe'tpa^, a girl).] The free-swim- 
ming larva of the liver-fluke. The 
body is ciliated and the larva swims 
about seeking for a definite mollusk, 
its future host, into which it bores 
its way by means of the snout, which, 
in certain species, is armed with a 

The embryo . . ., which is designated a 
miracidium., is somewhat elongated in form, 
with a conical tip, and sometimes also a sharp 
boring spine at the anterir)r end. 

Buck, Med. Handbook, VII. SOS. 

Miraculous berry. See *berryi. 
miramoiin (mi-ram'o-lin), «. [Sp. mirama- 
moliii, a corruption of Ar. amiru'l mumimn, 
' Commander of the Faithful.'] The Emperor 
of Morocco. [Obsolete or archaic] 

Surely that grape-juice, bubbling at the stalk, 
Is some gray scorching Saracenic wine 
The Kaiser quaffs with the Miramoline. 

Browning, Sordello, iii. 212. 



mire-blob (mir'blob), h. The marsh-marigold, 
Ciiltlia paltustris. Also May-blob, horse-blob, 

miric (mir'ik), a. lm{agnfsium) + ir{on) + 
-if.'] lu petrog., in the quantitative classifi- 
cation of igneous rocks (see *rocii), a term 
iniieating that a rock magma is characterized 
by the presence of magnesia and ferrous oxid. 

mirid (mir'id), n. and a. I. n. A member of 
the heteropterous family Miridx. 

n. a. Having the characters of or 'belong- 
ing to the family Miridse. 

mirlTri (me-re-ke'), «• [Tupi mirikl, muriki.'] 
A woolly monkey, Eriodes arachnoides, of 
eastern Brazil, having the thumb absent or 
imperfectly developed. 

mirlic (m^r'lik), a. lm{agnesia), + ir(on) + 
l{ime) + -t'c] In petrog., in the quantitative 
classification of igneous rocks (see *rocl:^), a 
term indicating that a rock magma is charac- 
terized by the presence of magnesia, ferrous 
oxid, and lime. 

mirliton (mer-le-ton'),n. [F.; origin obscure.] 
1. A kind of toy flute. See kazoo. — 2. The 
chayote, Chayota edulis. [Louisiana.] 

mimyonf: (mem'yong), n. [Also mirrnyong ; 
aboriginal Australian.] A shell-mound or 
shell-heap of the natives of Australia and 
Tasmania. E. E. Morris, Austral English. 

Australia : numerous mirrnyovfjs (ash-heaps, shell- 
mounds, &C.) mainly confined to the eastern and southern 
regions. Keaiie, Ethnology, p. 94. 

miro^ (me'ro), n. [Maori miro.'] A bird of the 
genus Miro, two or three species of which are 
found on Chatham Island and in New Zealand, 
where they are called robins. Also called 

mirobia (mf-ro'bi-a), «. The local name in 
the harbor of Valetta, Malta, for an oscilla- 
tion with a period of 20 minutes and an am- 
plitude of 14 meters : probably a tidal seiche 
controlled by the average depth of the Medi- 
terranean Sea off the harbor. 

miro^aph (mir'o-"^af), n. [Irreg. < L. mirari, 
admire, + Gr. ypa(peiv, write.] In phoiog., a 
form of cinematograph in which the intermit- 
tent movement of the film is effected by means 
of a disk provided with an eccentric flange 
which engages a notch in the film. Rotation 
of the disk is secured by a crank and gearing. 

mirror, « Achromatic mirror stereoscope. See 

■*«(ereo8<;o/)«.— Dentists' mirror^ a small looking-ghass 
with a long handle for insertion into a patients mouth 
in the examination of the teeth. — Fresnel'a mirrors, 
mirrors for the production of interference of light by 
reflection. The usual arrangement consists of two plane 
mirrors, set at an angle with each other slightly less than 
180°, which reflect overlapping beams of light to a screen 
with such difference of path as to give interference 
fringes. Three mirrors, known as Fresnel's three mirrors^ 
are also used.— Laryngeal mirror, in phonetics, a small 
circular mirror set upon a light wtxKlen handle, used for 
observation of tlie larj'nx during action of the vocal cords. 
— Lloyd's single mirror, a min-or of polished metal, or 

. of black glass, for displaying interference bands by the 
mutual action of direct and reflected light The light is 


the presence or absence of seeds within the 
mirror-fork (mir'or-f6rk), n. A tuning-fork 
having a small mirror attached to one or both 
of the tines, used for the observation or pro- 

Lloyd's Single Mirror. 

^, direct light; ^, reflected light : .1/, plane of mirror ; 

P. interference band, 

(From Preston's "Theory of Light." ) 

reflected at a nearly grazing incidence. T. Preston, Theory 
of Liglit, p. 122.— Mercury mirror, (fl) A level surface 
of mercury : used aa a mirror in astronomical obser- 
vations. \h) A glass backed with an amalgam of tin or 
silver. — Revolvliig mirror, a device extensively used in 
the study at periodic plienomena of high frequency, such 
as the oscillations of an electric spark, the fluctuations in 
brightness of an alteniating-current arc, or the changes 
of pressure at the node of a set of standing sound-waves. 
It consists of a plane mirror or symmetrically arranged set 
of such mirrors capable of revolving about a central axis 
parallel to the faces of the mirrors. Tlie method depends 
upon persistence of vision.— Riidorflf mirrors, two small 
mirrors placed on either side of the screen in the sight- 
box of a photometer, at an angle to each other of 120-140°, 
and presenting the two sides of the screen simultaneously 
to the eye. Erroneously attributed to Riidorff. 

Dlirror-barometer (rair"or-ba-rom'e-t6r), n. 
A mercurial barometer with a small mirror 
which is moved by the mercury and indicates 
the height of the column by reflected light. 

mirror-box (mir'or-boks), n. A device used 
in testing many grass seeds, consisting of a 
box open on one side and fitted with an ad- 
justable mirror wliich throws the light upward 
through a pane of glass upon which the seeds 
are placed. This makes it possible to discern 

Mirror-fork and manometric flame. 

jection of Lissajous's curves, for the observa- 
tion of the flame of a manometric capsule, 
etc. Scripture, Exper. Phonetics, p. 270. 

mirror-glass ( mir'or-glas), n. Glass suitable 
for mirrors. See '^'mirror-plate. 

mirrorize (mir'or-iz), v. t.: pret. and gp. viir- 
rorized, ppr. mirrorizing. "To reflect in, or as in, 
a mirror. [Rare.] 

mirror-knob (mir'gr-nob), n. A head or disk 
of glass, metal, or pottery attached to a long 
screw or spike, formerly inserted into a wall 
to form a rest for a mirror or picture-frame. 
The metal knobs were frequently embellished 
with painted or enameled medallions, while 
those of glass were usually pressed into dec- 
orative patterns. 

mirror-pnotography (mir'or-fo-tog'ra-fi), n. 
Same as *muUiphotography, 

mirror-plate (mir'or-plat"), m. Plate-glass of 
lino quality suitable for miiTors. 

mirror-pseudoscope (mir'ar-sTt'do-skop), «. 
In exper. psychol., an instrument in which the 
pseudoscopic effect is produced, not by prisms 
or lenses, but by an arrangement of plane 
mirrors. E. B. Titchener, Exper. Psychol., 
I. ii. 296. 

mirror-scale (mir'or-skal), n. A scale etched 
in millimeters on the surface of a strip of 
glass about 5 millimeters in thickness, which 
is then silvered on the second surface: used 
in reading barometers, manometers, etc. 
See Jolly's *halance. M. TV. Travers, Exper. 
Study of Gases, p. 56. 

mirror-speech, (mir'or-spech), n. Pronuncia- 
tion of words as if the syllables or letters 
were reversed: as 'lamina' or 'malian' for 
' animal.' 

mirror-thermometer (mir ' or - th^r - mom ' e - 
ter), n. A thermometer constructed on the 
same principle as the *mirror-harometer (which 

mirror-velvet (mir'or-veVvet), n. A soft, 
pliable velvet with thie pile pressed down, giv- 
ing the surface a high gloss. 

mirror-writing (mir'or-ri'ting), n. Same as 

mirthsome (merth'sum), a. Mirthful ; joyous. 

Mis. An abbreviation of Missouri. 

misandry (mis'an-dri), Ji. Man-hatred; a bad 
opinion of man, as being unfair or oppressive 
toward women. 

misanthropia (mis-an-thro'pi-a), n. Same as 

misarchism (mis'iir-kizm), n. [Gr. /iiaelv, hate, 
+ apxn, rule, -I- -ism.'] Hatred of or opposition 
to government in any form ; the doctrine that 
government as such is evil or an evil. 

misarchist (mis'ar-kist), n. [misarch(ism) 
+ -ist.] One who regards government as in- 
herently evil, or at best a necessary evil, yet 
without going to the extreme position of the 

These niisarckistg see the beneficent influence of natu- 
ral law in the industrial world interfered with by what 
seems to them an extraneous power. 

L. F. Ward, Outlines of Sociol., p. 228. 

misbecom, v. t. An amended spelling of mis- 

misc. An abbreviation (a) of miscellaneous ; 
(b) of miscellany. 

miscegenate (mis'e-je-nat), r. i. ; pret. and 
pp. miscegcnated, ppr. miscegenating. Imiscege- 
nation.] To enter into sexual relations with 
an individual of another race, especially of a 
race of another color (black or white). 

miscegenate (mis'e-je-nat), n. A person be- 
gotten by miscegenation. 


miscegenationist (mis ' o - je - na'shon-ist), n. 
One who favors miscegenation, particularly 
the union of whites and blacks. 

miscegenator (mis'e-je-na-tor), n. One who 
miscegeuates or unites sexually with an in- 
dividual of another race. 

miscegenesis (mis-e-jen'e-sis), n. [L. miscere, 
mix, -1- genesis. See genesis. ] Same as misce- 

miscegenetic (mis*e-je-net 'ik), a. Imisce- 
genesis.] Pertaining to, or of the nature of, 
miscegenesis or miscegenation ; produced by 

mischarge, n. 2. A mixture of gas and air in 
an internal-combustion engine, introduced 
into the cylinder, but not ignited. The charge 
may fail of ignition either as the result of a governing 
action, because the speed is t^w high, or because the mix- 
ture was not of the normal proportion of fuel and air. 
Such mischarges oft«n ignite after leaving the cylinder 
either in exhaust- passages or -pipes, or beyond. 

The devices for changing the motor speed by varying the 
charge or by migcharge, work well above the minimum 
speed at which the motor will run, say alx)ut 200 revolu- 
tions per minute. Iliscox, Horseless Vehicles, p. 24. 

mischief, ?1.— painted mischief, the devil's plcture- 
IXKjks ; playing-cards. Fanner. 

There are plenty of ways of gambling . . . without re- 
course to the 'paitited migchief. ' 

Daily A'eit'd (London). March IS, 1879. N. K D. 

misconjunction (mis-kon-jungk'shon), n. 
[mi.s-l + conjunction.] A false or ei-ironeous 

There is no migconjunction so absurd as that of safety 
and wrong, because it is a mc»ral mijtconjunction, showing 
our mortal state itself to be out of joint, even down to ita 
lowest foundations. 

Bushiwll, Moral Uses of Dark Things, p. 128. 

misconvey (mis-kon-va'), r. t. [m«s-i -I- con- 
vey.] To convey a meaning other than that 
intended : used reflexively. 

I hope he has vugcmiveyed himself to H. E. Manning, 
for Manning identifies him in some very painful points 
with the Rationalism of Germany. 

K S. Purcelt, Life Card. Manning, I. xiiL 

miscook (mis-kuk'), v. t. [wis-1 + cool:] To 
cook badly ; spoil in cooking ; also, figura- 
tively, to mismanage. .V. E. D. [Chiefly 

miscorrection (mis-ko-rek 'shgn), w. [»iji-i 
-¥■ correction.] A false or erroneous correction. 

miscreate (mis-kre-af), V. t.; pret. and pp. 
miscreated; ppr. miscreating. [m/s-i + create.] 
To create faultily ; create erroneously ; mar 
or render monstrous in the making. 

The lesson is forcibly taught . . . that our life might 
be much easier and simpler than we make it . . . that we 
migcreate our own evils. Emergon, Essays, Ser. L iv. 

Seeing superb manly beauty in the place of the thick- 
featured sodden satyr of her miscreating fancy, the irre- 
sistible was revealed to her on its divinest whirlwind. 

G. Meredith, Tragic Comedians, iv. 

miscne (mis-ku'), "• '■ ; pret. and pp. miscued, 
ppr. miscuing. [intscue, n.] 1. In billiards, to 
make a miseue. — 2. In theat,, to miss one's cue 
or answer a wrong cue. 

misdateful (mis-dat'ful), a. lmisdate+ -/«?.] 
Full of misdates ; very inaccurate in chronol- 
ogy. [Rare.] 

Poor Bielfleld being in this Chapter very fantastic, mis- 
dateful to a mad extent, and otherwise, except aa to gen- 
ei'al ellect, worth little serious iielief. 

Curlyle, Frederick the Great, XIII. ii. 

misdemeanant, " — First-class misdemeanant. 

In Fn(i. tatt; jirisoners convicted of misdemeanor and 
not sentenced to liard labor are, by the Prisons Act ('2S 
and 29 Vict c. 126, s. 67), divided into two classes, one 
of which is called the first division. In the discretion 
of the court a convict can be placed in this division, 
and he is then not regarded as a criminal convict, but- 
is known as a Jirgt-ctagg misdemeanant, or a tmsdemean- 
ant of the first division. 

misdescriptiTO (mis-des-krip'tiv), a. [»(»«-! 
+ dcscriptU-c.] That describes erroneously. 

misenglisht (mis-lng'f-lish), v. i. [)hi>-i -I- 
Enqlisti.] To mistranslate into English. 

x ■/;. 1). 

miserabilism (miz'e-ra-bil-izm), n. [miserable 
+ -ism.] The state of being miserable ; mis- 
er.ablism ; specifically, a complaiiiingly pessi- 
mistic view of, or attitude towards, life. See 
the extract. 

The third ... of these unscientific species combines 
the characteristic evils of both wrathful and quietistic 
pessimism. It has been aptly termed Miserabilistn 
(Miserabilismus). The miserabilistic pessimist spends 
his life in sulky grumliling at his lot, without making the 
slightest effort to improve it He is not active, nor has 
the grace to be resigned. > t. r^ 

J. W. Barlow, I'ltim. Pessimism, p. 8. .^. E- D. 

miserabilistic (miz'e-ra-bi-lis'tik), fl. Per- 
taining to. characteristic of, or practising 
miserabilism. [Rare.] 


miserablism (miz'e-ra-bl-izm), n. Imiserable 
+ -(,<;«.] The state of being miserable ; mis- 

What was the mental state of Jesas's followers when he 
died and while he yet lay in the tomb ? . . . The truth 
they relied on was branded as folly and crime. . . . Dis- 
persion, denial, miserablism, and absolute despair must 
have followed, and the teachings of Jesus might have been 
f<»rgotten. G. S. Hall, Adolescence, 11. 335. 

mis^re (mi-zar'), n. [F-, lit- 'misery.'] In 
card-playing, as in solo whist, boston, etc., 
a declaration to lose tricks instead of to win 

them. Amer. Soyle, p. 248 Open'mlsire or 

mls^re Ouverte, in card-playing, a declaration to lose a 
certain number of tricks with the cards exposed on the 
table. Amer. Iloyle, p. 248.— Petite mlsire ouverte, 
in boston, the declaration to lose 12 triclcs, after having 
discarded a card which is not shown, the single player's 
remaining twelve cards being exposed on the table, but 
not liable to be called. 

misericorde, «. 4. Relaxation of monastic 

rule ; indulgence. 

" As we have," he said, "in the course of this our toil- 
gome journey, lost our meridian, indulgence shall be 
given to those of our attendants who shall, from very 
weariness, be unable to attend the duty at prime, and 
this by way of misericord or indulgentia." 

Scott, Monastery, II. ii. 

5. An apartment in a monastery in which 
certain relaxations of the rule were permitted ; 
especially, one in which those monks ate to 
whom special allowances were made in food 
and drink. X. E. D. 

misericordioas t (miz'e-ri-k6r'di-us), a. [OF. 
mlKiricfirdicux. See mwericorde.] Merciful; 

misery, «. 6. See *misire. 

misexpressive (mis-eks-pres'iv), a. [mw-1 + 
ejtpresmre.'] Expressing a meaning other than 
that intended. 

Law made by the supreme legislature is called pro- 
mulged law, and law emanating immediately from a 
subordinate source is called unpromulged law. But the 
terms pronmlged and unpromulged, as thus applied, are 
not less misexpresfdve than written and unwritten. 

J. Aitstin, Lect. on Jurisprudence, IL 542. 

misfeature (mis-fe'tur), n. \_mis-^ + feature, 
n.j A distorted feature; a bad feature or 
trait. A". E. D. 

He [man] has hia Winter too of pale misffature, 
Or else he would forego hia mortal nature. 

Keats, Sonnet, Unman Seasons. 

misfeature (mis-fe'tur), v. t,; pret. and pp. 
mijifeattired, ppr. misfeaturing. [wa«-t + 
feature, t'.] To mar the features of ; distort 
or misrepresent the features of. 
The strange misfeaturing mask that I saw so amazed 
me, that 1 
Stumbled on deck, half mad. 

Tennyson, The Wreck, ix, 

misferet, »■• »'■ [See misfare, v. «.] 1. To do 

wrong; misbehave. — 2. To be unfortunate; 

fare ill. 
misfignre (mis-fig'ur), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 

misfigured, ppr. misfiguring . [mw-l + figure, 

r.] To disfigure. [Obs. or dial.] 
misfire (mis-fir'), v. ». ; pret. and pp. misfired, 

ppr. misfiring, [mis-'^ + fire, c] 1*0 miss fire : 

said of a firearm. 
Tlie weapons were all exceedingly clumsy and unwieldy, 

tiresome to charge and discharge, and continually miss- 

Jirin;!. W. W. Greener, The Gun, p. 43. 

misglv, V. A simplified spelling of misgive. 
misncnp (mish-kup'), n. [Narragansett.] 

Same as *.>iciip'^. 
mishcuppanOK (mish-ku-p&'og), n. pi. [Nar- 
ragaii.sett misTikuppaiiog, plural : see *miKkcup, 
srnp^, and scuppaug.'] A plural of *>mshciip. 
misnwap (mish'wap), n. [Algonkin (of Lab- 
rador).] An Indian lodge. [Labrador.] 
misidentification (mis-i-den'ti-fi-ka'shon), n. 
False or inaccurate identification. 
The chief defects in practice were (1) frequent failure 
' to identify. (2) liability to mis-identijication. 

Encyc. Bnt., XXV. 468. 

misimpression (mis-im-presh'gn), n. [mis-^ 
+ impression.'i An erroneous impression or 

misinclined (mis-in-klind'), ^. a. [misincUne, 
!■.] 1. Wrongly inclined. — 2. Disinclined. 

misintelligence, "■ 3. Ignorance; faulty in- 
telligence or knowledge. [Rare.] 

The whole condition of things at the .South is shameful, 
and I am ready for a movement now to emancipate the 
whitea. No doubt the government is bound to protect 
the misintelligenee of the blai-ks, but surely not at the 
exjiense of the intelligence of the men of our own blood. 
Lowell, Letters, II. 174. 

mislocate (mis-16'kat), r. t. ; pret. and pp. 

mi'<lorut<d, ppr. mislocnting. {mis-^ + locate.^ 

To locate or place wrongly. 
mismay fmis-ma'), v. t. [mis- tor die-may. "] 

To dismay. [Obs. or Scotch.] 


mismove (mis-mov'), «. [mis-^ + move, ».] 
A mistaken move ; a false move. 

misnome (mis-nom'), v. t. ; pret. and pp. mis- 
nomcd, ppr. misno, 
misname. [Rare.] 

nomcd, ppr. misnaming. \misnom^(r)^ To 

This My Novel, or Varieties in English Life was mis- 
nomed and insulted as " a Continuation of the Caxtons," 
with which biographical work it has no more to do . . . 
than I with Hecuba. 

Btdwer, in Blackwood's Mag., LXXL 86. 
misocapnic (mis-o-kap'nik), a. [Gr. /uaciv, 
hate, T Kflirvdif, smoke, + -ic.^ Smoke-hating; 
disliking tobacco-smoke. 

Not having . . . before his eyes the fear of that Tniso- 
capnic Solomon James I. or of any other lying Stuart, 
that not to . . . Sir Walter Raleigh, but to Sir Amyas 
Leigh ; . . . does Europe owe . . . that age of smoke. 

Kingsley, Westward Ho ! vii. 

misocapnist (mis-6-kap'nist), n. [niisocapn^ic) 
+ -ist.'\ One who dislikes tobacco-smoke. 

misocatholic ( mis - 6 - kath ' q - lik ), a. [Gr. 
/uae'w, to hate, + E. Catholic.^ Hating Roman 
Catholicism. [Rare.] 

misogallic (mis-o-gal'lk), a. [Gr. fuaelv, to 
hate, + E. Gallic^ Disliking the French; 
hostile to the French. [Rare.] 

misogamic (mis-o-gam'ik), a. [misogam(y) + 
-ic] Pertaining to or exhibiting misogamy or 
hatred of marriage. [Rare.] 

misogynic (mis-o-jin'ik), a. {misogyn(ous) + 
-t'c] Woman-hating; misogynous. 

In the W'orks and Days ... we glean indications of 
Hesiod's rank and condition in life, that of a stay-at-home 
farmer . . . and an old-fashioned bachelor wiiose miso- 
gynic views and prejudice against matrimony have been 
conjecturally traced to his brother Perses having a wife 
as extravagant as himself. Encyc. Brit., XI. 777. 

misogynism (mi-soj'i-nizm), n. Same as mi- 

misomath (mis'6-math), n. [Gr. /ucreiv, to 
hate, + E. math(em<itics).'] One who dislikes 
mathematics. [Rare.] 

misoneist (mis-o-ne'ist), n. [misone(istn) + 
-(.v<.] One who hates or dislikes noveltv. 

misoneistic (mis'o-nf-is'tik), a. {misoneist + 
-ic] Averse to change or novelty; disliking 

Women have often stood in the way of progressive 
movements. Like children, they are notoriously misone- 
intic ; they preserve ancient habits and cust^jnis and re- 
ligions. C. Lombrom (trans.), Man of Genius, p. 139. 

misopedia, misopaedia (mis-o-pe'di-ii), n. 

[Gr. /iiceiv, hate, + ffaif (Tzaio-), child.] Ex- 
treme dislike of, or aversion for, children. 

misopedism, misopsedism (mi-sop'f-dizm), n. 
[misii}i(ii{ij) + -ism.'] Same as *misppedia. 

misopedist, misopsdist (mis-o-pe'dist), m. 

[Gr. fjiao-aig^ {iiiaonaif)-), a child-hater, -I- -ist.1 
One who dislikes children ; a child-hater. 

misopedy (mi-sop'f-di), n. Same as *miso- 

misopogonistically (mis-o-p6-go-nis'ti-kal-i), 
adv. [(jr. fi/amru^uv, beard-hater, < fitaelv, to 
hate, + TTuyuv, beard, -(- -istieally.'] Like a 
beard-hater; with dislike of beards. [Rare.] 
He and Basil read together poems and. philosophies, 
and holier things, or talked low and misopogonistically 
of their fellow-student Julian's bearded boding smile. 

Mrs. Browning, Greek Christian Poets, p. 236. 

misOSOphist (mi-sos'o-fist), «. [Gr. fitadatxpoc, 

< /iiaein. to hate, + co<t>ia, wisdom, + -ist.1 A 

hater of wi.sdom. [Rare.] 
misosophy (mi-sos'6-fi), n. [Gr. /iiaelv, hate, 

-t- aiKpiii, wisdom.] llatred of wisdom. €ole- 

ridgc. [Rare.] 
misotheist (mis'o-the-ist), n. [_misothe(ism) + 

-ist.] One who tates God. [Rare.] 
mispick (mis-pik'), H. [mi«-l -f-^irfl, «.] The 

omission of a weft-thread in weaving. 
misprizal (mis-pri'zal), n. Imisprize'^, v., + 

-fl/f.] The act of misprizing or undervaluing; 

contempt; scorn. 
misrefiection (mis-re-flek'shon), n. An illu- 
sory reflection. See the extract. 
Fallacies of retlection are fallacies of time and cause, 

and tliey may be classed as misre flections and myths. 

The misreflections are a fourth group of illusions and the 

myths a fourth group of delusions. 

J. W. Powell, Truth and Error, p. 374. 

misrendering (mis-ren'dfer-ing), n. A faulty 
or erroneous rendering. 

Retranslation into Greek is frequently necessary in 
order fo correct the mir.-enderings of the translator. 

Encyc. Bnt., XXV. 492. 

Miss. An abbreviation (a) of Mississippi ; (6) 
of mission, missionary. 

missal, n, — Hozarablc missal, the missal which con- 
tains the order of tiic Mass according to the Mozarabio 


rite, the use of which is now conltned to a chapel of the 
Cathedral of Toledo endowed by Cardinal Jimenez for 
the manitenance of that rite, 
miSS-and-OUt (mis'and-ouf), n. In trap-shoot- 
ing, a competition from which a contestant 
retires upon missing a target. 

I'he races were each at 10 birds per man, there being 
three of these, and finally a miss-and-out between the 
last two men up. Forest and Stream, Feb. 21, 1903, p. 169. 

missary t (mis'a-ri), n. [LL. missarius. < missa, 
mass.] A Roman Catholic or a Roman Catho- 
lic priest. [Rare.] 

missatical f (mi-sat'i-kal), a. [LL. missaticus, 
< missa, mass.] Of or pertaining to the mass ; 
Roman Catholic. 

missensation (mis-sen-sa'shpn), H. Lack of 
perception due to diversion of attention. See 
the extract. [Rare.] 

I do not hear the speaker because I am attending to a 
sight, or I do not see a sight because I am listening to 
what another person is saying. All of such missensations 
are easily corrected by ordinary methods of veritlcation. 
... I shall call all s«ch errors of j udgment missensations, 
and group them in a higher class which I shall call illu- 
sions. J. W. Powell, Truth and Error, p. 309. 

missey-moosey (mis'i-mo-zi), n. [English 
corruption of Amerindian mozemiee.'] The 
American mountain-ash, Sorhus Americana, 
See Indian *mozeniize. 

missible (mis'i-bl), a. [L. miss(tis), pp. of 
mittere, send, + -ible. See missile.} That may 
be sent or transmitted. 

This Custom-and-Duty Age would have made the 
Preacher on the Mount take out a licence, and St Paul's 
Epistles would not have been missible without a stamp. 
O that you may find means to go on ! 

Lamb, Letters, CLXIIL 310. 

missil, a. and «. A simplified spelling of mis- 

mission, m.— Military mission, an apparently diplo- 
matic and ostensibly friendly mission, accompanied by a 
large military force, sent by one country, usually a very 
powerful one, to a less powerful one. 

Persia had no regular army until 1807, when some regi- 
ments of regular infantry (sarbdz) were embodied and 
drilled by the first French military mission t<j Persia under 
General Gardane. Since then seven other military mis- 
sions (two British, two French, two Austrian, and one 
Russian) have come to Persia at the request of the Per- 
sian Govenmient, and many oflicers and non-commissioned 
oflicers, and even civilians, of various nationalities, . . . 
have been engaged as anny instructors. 

Encyc. Brit., XXXL 621. 

Mission furniture, a trade-name for a kind of dark 
stained furniture, usually of ashwood, characterized by 
great plainness and solidity and the prevalence of sti-aight 
lines. It was originated in 1894 by a furniture-maker of 
New York and is said to have been patterned closely after 
the general style of certain chairs from one of the Span- 
ish missions in California. 

mission-bells (mish'on-belz), «. In California, 
FritiUaria vniiiea, a species bearing a raceme 
of from 3 to 17 dark purple or greenish, spotted 
or checkered, bell-shaped flowers. Also cal led 
rice-root lily. Also, the related F. lanceolata 
or any Californian species. See "^FritiUaria, 1. 

mission-grass (mish'on-gras), «. See St. 
Augustine *grase. 

Mississippian, n. 2. In the scheme of classi- 
fication and nomenclature of the rocks adopted 
by the United States Geological Survey, the 
purely marine sedimentation of the early or 
Lower Carboniferous rocks of the interior or 
Mississippi basin. 

missi'V, a. and n. A simplified spelling of 

missourite (mi-zo'rit), «. {Missouri (river) -(- 
-ite-.] In petrog., a phaneric igneous rock 
composed of leucite, augite, and olivin, with 
smaller amounts of biotite, iron oxids, and 
apatite, occurring in the Highwood mountains, 
Montana. Weed and Pirsson, 1896. 

mistify(mis'ti-fi), v. t. ; pret. and pp. mistified, 
ppr. misiifying. {niisti + -i-fy.] To convert 
into a mist or a very fine spray, as by a fine 
spray-nozle. [Rare.] 

The nozzles for " mist^/ying " the wash most in use are 
known as the Vemiorel and Riley's, which can be fitted 
to any length of tubing, so as to reach any height, and can 
be turned in any direction. Encyc. Brit., XXVII. 635. 

mistpouffer (mist'p6f-6r), V. [Also mist- 
poejfr; < D. *mist-poffer, 'fog pistol,' < mist, 
= E. mist^, + poffer, pistol, < poffcn, pufi.] A 
mysterious noise heard over the ocean in tiuiet, 
foggy weather off the coast of Belgium and 
Holland. See Barisal *gtm. 

In the Monthly Weather Review for September, 1897, 
page 393, we have' given some account of the " barisal 
guns," the '' miiftpmtfcrs," and similar phenomena whose 
origin is as yet not certainly understcwd. ... It may be 
that the barisal guns have their origin in the escape of 
bubbles of gas just as do the " guns " of Seneca Lake. 

U. S. Monthly Weather Rev., July, 1903, p. 338. 


mistress, «. 7. In miiu)ig, a cover for sinkers 

in a wet shaft; a cover for a sinker's lamp. 

[Seotcb.] ^ 

mistura (mis-tn'rS), n. [L.: see »iixf!<re.] 

Inphor., same as mixture, 2. 
misurato (me-s6-ra't6), «. [It.] Measured; 

hence, as a direction in music, in a measured 

misuze, r. t. and «. An amended spelling of 


mitapsis (mi-tap'sis), n. [Gr. /iiroc, a thread, 
+ dil'ic, a joining.] The process of fusion of 



of conimandmenU, great and small, hare been compiled 
from the Hebrew scriptures to make up the mysterious 

mitsvoth, n. Plural of *mitsvah. 

mittelhand (mit 'cl-hant), n. [G. 'middle 
''»"d.'] In skat, the second player on the 
on'account of its high magnetic permeabiUtv' ^.'?'.*''''^'^ ' ^^'^ one who bids erst, 
for field-magnets in generators and motors! '?"*^?''^?'.u' h ^£? ^? "^^ ^"C- '"""• » "«'"* 
—2. A commercial product consisting of ^ which the sheriff of a county palatine was 

term indicating the presence of one or more 
of the normative minerals in the second sub- 
group of femic minerals. 
mitis-metal (mi 'tis- met 'al), ». [L. mitis, 
soft, + .E. metal.'] 1. A malleable cast-steel 
slightly alloyed with aluminium, chiefly used. 

wrought-iron which is fusible enough to east 
in molds. The fluidity results from the pres- 
ence of aluminium in the bath of metal. 

chromatin, the final stage in the reproductive mitochondria (mit-6-kon'dri-a), n. FGr uhoc 
process of cell-conjugation : essentially the thread, -t- xovipoq, cartilage.]" A body of iiii' 
same m meaning as '^Runnmti.s TIia Timno VT^r,-«T,i c,Tn^i«««««« .. ;..i.; .e _ •, , ... 

same in meaning as ■'•synapsis. The name 
mitapsis refers to the fact that at the time of 
fusion the chromatin gi'anules are strung out 
on long, slender threads. Cook and Swingle. 
mitchel (mich'el), n. [Perhaps from Mitcliel, 
a surname.] See the extract. [Eng.^ 

Mitchel, a name given by workmen to Purbeck stones 
of twenty-four inches by lifteen when squared for build- 
ing- OiMt, Encyc. Archit, p. 1318. X E. D. 

mitchellite (mich'el- it), n. [Named from 
Professor Elisha Mitchell, an American geol- 
ogist.] A magnesian variety of chromite 
from North Carolina. See *magnochromite. 

Mitcllillina (mich-i-li'na), n. [NL., named 
after Samuel Latham Mitchill, United States 
senator from the State of New York, 1804-09, 
the first to study systematically the fishes of 
New York harbor.] A genus of deep-sea 
fishes of the family Alepocephalidse. 


mite, E 

known significance, consisting of coiled fila 
ments, found outside of the nucleus in the 
cytoplasm of certain cells. Benda. 

FolIicul.-u- Epithelium in Birds.— Marie Loyez finds that 
in some birds all the cells of the follicular epithelium ex- 

required to summon a jury from the county 
for the trial of a cause, the record of which 
was inclosed or sent (hence the name) with 
the writ. 
mixedl, ;). a. 4. In geoh, technically applied 
to those Igneous rocks which under the micro- 
scope are found to consist of both crystalline 
and glassy matter, the two being intimately 
involved. Geikie, Te.xt-book of Geol., p. 152, 
note — Mlxedcurve. See*enrve. 

hibit, outside the nucleus, an almost spherical body of HUXer, n. 3. A receptacle for diluting a drOD o!.?.. ............ 1 .1.. _.* . ,. . -U. ^f I.!.....! 1 i 1. „ J_/J__.._ ... _ " ..~ . ^ 

considerable size, composed apparently of coiled fila- 
ments. It stains strongly with iron-ha;matoxylin, and is 
analoKons to the erftastoplasm of Gamier, the mitochon- 
dria of lienda, and the pseudnchromes of Heidenhain. 

Jour. Itoy. Micros. Soc, Oct., 1903, p. 694. 
mitokinetic (mit"o-ki-net'ik), a. [mito{sis) 
+ kinetic] Noting the force which has its 
seat in the kinoplasm of the cell and is sup- 
posed to produce the achromatic spindle dur- 
ing karyokinetic cell-division. Hartog. 

Third, there is the force which has its seat in the kino- 
plasm, and which produces the chains of force which 
Hartog calls "mitokiiietic" because of their analogies 
with magnetism. 

i>i.>»i>.-«r.^..<. »«.. Tj _■ V ., Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc, Dec, \W»,v.eS.l. 

— BlacK-cnrrant mite, a European eriophyid mii-nrvi /-«,;'+„»„ \ „ rAi -J 

ophiies ribis, which occui^ on the black cii-raiit ™ltOm (mi tom), n. \_Msoj)ntome 

. S. D. A.) 

. . . 1 currant 

and IS an especial pest in 
England.— Brown mite, an 
American acarid, Bryohia 
pratenitis, which occiu-s in 
enonnousnumbei-a inorchards 
in the Western St<at«9. Also 
called *clovcr.mitc (which see, 
with cuti.— Red mite, a small 
reddish mite of the family Tet- 
ranychidir, Tetrnnychua te- 
lariits, found commonly in 
hothouses and also commonly 
called red spider. — Red' 
spotted mite, one of the leaf- 
mites or 'red spiders' of the 
family Tetranychidie, Tet- 
ranychus sexmacutatus, found 
commonly on the orange in 
Florida and California.— Sli- 

spotted mite of orange. 

Same as red-spotted -kmite or Red-spoited Mite of 

California -kspider. Orange C Tetranychus 

mite2, n. 5. A copper stxm^cut^tus). 

or bi'llon coin of very x.^.lT'l "Ser^e".?,,^^: 
small value, current in '""^"' "' '""^ '• * "louth 
Brabant and Holland. P?'^'--":™" " '"'=" '-'"=• 

miter, v. t. 6. In organ 
huilding, to introduce one or more miter-joints 
into (a pipe), so as to adapt it to a contracted 
space: such a pipe is said to be mitered or 
mitcrcd over, 

miter-arch (mi'tfer-arch), n. The arch or 
angle formed by mitering, as in groining. 

miter-bevel (mi'ter-beVel), n. Same as miter- 

miter-bracket (mi't6r-brak"et), 11. An angle- 
bracket in the bracketing of a molded cornice. 
A". /;. /;. 

miter-gear (mi'ter-ger), n. A bevel-gear hav- 
ing an angle of 90° at the apex of its pitch- 
cone ; a bevel-gear whose teeth make an angle 
of 45° with the axis ; one of a pair of equal 
bevel-gears whose axes form a right angle. 

miter-snake (mi'ter-snak) , n. A small serpent 
of western Texas, Contia episcopa, the mark- 
ings of which are suppposed to suggest a bish- 
op's miter. 

miter-wheel, n. l. (6) A friction-gearing or 
-wheel of which the working face is at an 
angle of 45° to the axis. 

Mithratic (mith-rat 'ik), rt. IMithra(s) + 

- -., <NL.»(!- 
toma.] A term used by Flemmiug to desig- 
nate the reticulum of cell-protoplasm. Also 

mitoma (mi-to'mii), n. [NL., < Gr. /ictoc, a 
thread, a web, +' -oma.] The minute mesh 
composing the more solid part of the proto- 
plasm and inclosing the more fluid portion. 
Same as *mitom. 

mitome (mi'tom), «. See *mitoni. 

mitoschisis (mi-tos'ki-sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
^irof, thread, -t- cxiaii, splitting, cleaving.] 
Mitosis, or karyokinetic cell-division: so- 
called from the longitudinal splitting of the 
thread-like chromosomes peculiar to this form 
of division, as distinguished from amitosis, or 
akinesis. Flemminy, 1882. 

mitosis^ n — Heterotyplcal mitosis. See -khetero- 

of blood with a definite quantity of artificial 
serum preliminary to counting the blood- 
corpuscles.— 4. A person of a social temper- 
ament ; one who makes acquaintances readily 
and somewhat indiscriminately: as, he is a 
pood mixer. [U. S. slang.] 

mixer-valve (mik'ser-valv), V. A valve by 
which the proportions of the fluids or gases 
in a mixture are regulated ; specifically, a valve 
used to regulate the amount of external or 
unheated air supplied to a hot-blast in a blast- 
furnace, or to regulate the proportions of fuel 
and air in an internal-combustion motor. 
Elect. World and Engin., Jan. 2, 1904, p. 22. 

mixing-chamber (mik'sing-cliam''ber), n. 1. 
A volume or space within which a mingling of 
substances may occur; specifically, a vessel, 
stationary or revolving, in which the stone, 
cement, and sand which together form con- 
crete for building purposes may be intimately 
compounded.— 2. The chamber, space, or 
passage in a gas-engine or other internal-com- 
bustion motor in which the fuel, in atomized 
or vaporized form, is intimately mixed with 
the air which is to support its combustion. 

mixing-picker (mik'sing-pik'er), n. A ma- 
chine for opening and mixing wool prepara- 
tory to carding. 

mixing-stack (mik'sing-stak), n. A pile, as of 
cotton, made up of layers of the material from 
different packages, as bales, so as to insure i 

type diOTOTon.— Homotyplcal mitosis, a form of karyo- 
kinetic or mitotic cell-division occuninK in theseco ' 

■iuK in the secondary 

„ , , - a 

uniform blend in length and quahty of staple. 

^. _ ^ 7'«fi[.<7«»-', Cotton Spinning, I. 50. 

spermatocytes of certain aiiinials, such as tile salamander. mixing-SyTUp (mik'sing-sir"up), n. A trade- 
It dltfera from the common form in the shortness of the name for a thick solution of glucose-suear 

chromosomes and their irrpcyiilaT- an-a„.To,„..„* nft.... .^;.,: .„ i r . , '^ '""-'v" ^^ K'"^"»^ »ug»l , 

made from starch, sold to be mixed with, and 
so to cheapen, table syrup made from cane- 

mixing-valve (mik'sing-valv), n. Same as 

mixipterygium (mik-'sip-te-rij'i-nm), »!.; 

chromosomes and their irregular arrangement after d: 
sion into the daughter-chromosomes. Flemming, 1887. 
— Somatic mitosis, the fonn of mitosis, or indirect 
cell-division, found in the cells of the soma, or body, as 
distinguished from that which occurs in the germ-cells, 
or during spermatogenesis and oogenesis. 

mitosome (mi'to-som), n. [Gr. /iiVof, thread, 
+ aijfia, body.] In cytol., a body foi'med from 
the spindle-fibers of the secondary spermato- 
cytes, said to give rise to the middle-piece 
and tail envelop of the spermatozoon : proba- 
bly equivalent to the ' Nebenkern' ot La Valette 
St. George. Plainer, 1889. 

Mitra, ». 3. [_L c] In Gr. antiq., a long band 
of stuff, leather, or metal, bound about the 
head or loins : much used by women. It is 
mentioned in the Iliad and has been found on 
archaic statuettes discovered in excavations 
at Delphi, Olympia, and elsewhere. Although 
often made of metal not a single example has 
come down to us complete. 

Mitral insufSciency. See valvular insuf- 

Slitraster (mi-tras 'ter), «. [NL., < Gr. 
//iVpa, girdle, head-band, -f aarijp, star.] A 
genus of fossil starfishes or a subgenus of 
Goniaster (which see), from the Cretaceous 

[Jap. viitsu- 


atic^.] Pertaining to or concerned with the mitxnmatn Cmif'sn Tn>i'ta> 

worship of Mithras; Mithraie. ™„?^ 7 * . /° , ''-, ., - - , 

,jti,_,-j..i..- /„-... •,-.,• \ mata,mitsz-mata,<miisu,mitsz,ihree, + mata. 

a fork or crotch.] A low shrub, Edgeworthia 
papyri/era, of the family Daphnacem, native 
to China and Japan, and 
latter country for its bark. The bark is used 
in the manufacture of the best grades of paper. 

pi. mixipicrygia {-&). [NL., < Gr. 
mingling, copulatioii, -f ffrfpif, wing, fin.] 
Gegenbaur's term for the elaspers of male 
elasmobranehs, the long, cartilaginous pro- 
jections from the hase of the ventral fins. 
The forward shifting of the fin is partially 
arrested in the male owing to the develop- 
ment of the mixipterygium. 

Mixochoanites (mik-so-ko-a-ni'tez), n. [NIj., 
< Gr. iilici, a mixing, -f- ;r<'oiof, a funnel.] In 
Hyatt's classification of the cephalopods, a 
suborder of the Nauiiloidea comprising straight 
or slightly curved shells in which the older 
septa are curved orad or toward the apertures, 
and the siphuncle is highly modified. In 
specialized forms like Ascoceras the siphnncles 
have short funnels and collars and the geron- 
tic living-chambers are contracted by the 
formation of large septa developed on one 
side only. The group is wholly Silurian. 

Mixonus (mik'so-nus), n. [NL.] A genus of 
brotuloid fishes found in the deep sea, one 
specimen being taken in the mid-Atlantic at 
the depth of 2,500 fathoms. 

mithridatism (mith-ri-dat'izm), n. [Mithri- 

dates (see mithridate) + -ism.] Immunity _ _ _ 

against the action of a poison acquired by to" China and Japan, a'nd cultivated' iT'the mixoscope (mik'so-skop), «. [Gr. /i/fo-, mixed, 

taking the drug in constantly increasing doses: '" ■ - ^- '- - _. . ^ ^ j . _: — c.^ » ■, . 

a method said to have been conceived by 

Mithridates to protect himself against palace especially when mixed with tlie fiber of "the mixoscopia (mik-so-sko 
™i*i!^jt.*'+i„-> / -n.' ■ 1- t- ^ .. J. , kozo and the ganpi. Compare *(7anm. 

T,.*^^«**^®,-^"?"^ n-da-tiz) vt.; pret. and mitsvah (mitz'va), n.; pi. mitsioth (-vot ). 

PT?. mitlindatized,ppT. mtthndatizmg. [mithri- ■■"' ■ ■ • ■ ■' • ■ '^ y- '• 

dat(e) + -i:e.] To induce the condition of 

mithridatism in. See ^mithridatism. 

+ okottfIv, view. See scope^.] An apparatus 
for mixing colors. 

'pi-a), n. [Gr. /«fo-, 
mixed, + OKo-eiv, view.] A form of sexual 

mitic (mit'ik), a. [m{agnetite), + i(lmenite) + 
t(itanite) + -ic.] Znpetrog., in the quantitative 
classification of igneous rocks (see *rockl), a 

, ^_ ^ .__ ^. perversion in which libidinous pleasure is ex- 

[Heb. mitsvah {mitswah), < tsavah, command, cited by the sight, or mental picture, of the 

charge, order.] Among the Jews, a precept, cohabitation of the desired one with another. 

no'ip«i"thl^'«?-?ll^L®'j.';''"' "'^? 'L^r "'«?!«''-» Mos'^s mixoscopic (mik-s6-scop'ik), a. [mixoscop(ia) 

no less than 613 precepts, namely 36,f> prohibtions, corre- i ,-„ -i of ti,o ,,'„*„,.„„*„- „»„ t a iJ*i 

spending to the number of the days in the year, iiid 248 +.-"'-i V t^e nature of, or affected with, 

mandates, corresponding to the number of 'members' miXOSCOpia. Alien, and Xeurol., May, 1903, p. 

(bones) iu the human body. Upon this basis various lists 167. 


miXOtropllic (mik-so-trof'ik), a. [Gr. fn^o-, 
mixed, + 7po(;ir/. nourishment. See trophic.^ 
Imperfectly tropliiy: applied to ehlorophyl- 
beariiig plankton which, because of abundant 
organic matter in the water, has begun to lose 
chlorophyl and consequently the power of 
manufacturing food from inorganic substances. 

mixtion, »■ 3. In Uur, contusion of goods, 
that is, such an admixture of the property of 
two or more persons that it is impossible to 
determine the precise property of each. 

mixture, ». 9. The material for the charge 
of an internal-combustion engine. It usually 
consists of fuel, in a vaporized or finely pulverized con- 
dition, mixed with air.— A. C. e. mixture, a miiture of 
alcohol, chlorofonn, and ether, in 1, li, and 3 paits respec- 
tively : used to prtKiuce anaisthesia by inhalation.— 
Basham's mixture, a transparent reddish aromatic 
solution of iron and ammonium acetate. — Bordeaux 
mixture, a material largely used to destroy parasitic 
fuuKi, especially on fruit-trees and grape-vines, and 
applied in the fomi of spray. It is made in the propor- 
tion of 4 pounds of crystallized copper sulphate and 5 
p<mnds of quicl<-lime to 45 gallons of water. — Copper 
mlxttire of Glronde. See iteopperi. — Cornell mix- 
ture, a funjricide and insecticide preparation, made from 
Bordeaux mixture, kerosene emulsion, and an arsenite. — 
Johnson's mixture, a fungicide preparation, consisting 
of cupric sulphate, atnmonium carbonate, and a large 
pniportiun of water, iiiteniled for application to plants 
by spraying— Neutral mixture, a greenish-yellow 
solution obtained by nentnilizing fresh lemon-juice with 
bicarbonate of potassium : it is diaphoretic and sedative. 
— Schlelch's anesthetic mlxttire. See ■kawathetic.^ 
Single-tree mixture, in /oredry, a mixture in which 
trees of ilitterent specie* occur singly.- Thilorler'S 
mixture, a mixture of liquid ether with carbon dioxid 
in the solid state. By the rapid evaporation of this mix- 
ture under reduced pressure, as produced by an air- 
pump, a temperature of -110' C. may be obtained. 

miya (me'ya), n. [Jap.] 1. A Japanese Shinto 
temple or'strine. — 2. [cnp.'] The residence of 
the Mikado of Japan.— 3. \cap.'] The title of 
the Mikado's children. • 

miyakite (me'yU-kit), «. [Miyal-ojima, an is- 
land of Japan, + -itc'^.'] In pctroij., pyroxene- 
andesite occurring on Miyakojima, in which 
the pyroieue is a manganiferous babingtonite. 
Petersen, 1891. 

mizdeh (miz'de), n. [Ar. t] A fish, Morniy- 
rus oxyrhtfiichus, of the family Mnrmyridfe, 
found in the Nile. It was an object of ven- 
eration to the ancient Egyptians and there- 
fore frequently occurs in their emblematic 

mizzen, ».- BUxzen clne-llnes, the purchases for 
hauling up the clues of the mizzen-topsail, topgallantsail, 
and royal. 

TT , a. Noting the hindmost pair of horns 
in a five-homed giraffe, a small pair of pro- 

FiTC'horned Giraffe fthowioK Mi22«ii Horns. 

jectlons arising from the lambdoid crest, back 
of the larger frontal horns. 

These stnieturea. on the analogy of the masts of a ship, 
it may be convenient U> speak of as "miuen" honis. 

I'roc. Zool. SiK. London, 1901, 477. 

mizzen-backstays (miz'n-bak'staz), n. pi. 
The backstays of the mizzen-topmast and 
mizzen-topgallantraast ; also the backstays of 
the mizzon-royalmast. 

mizzen-braces (miz'n-bra'sez), n. pL The 
braces on the yards belonging to the raizzen- 
mast; the braces of the cross-jack, topsail-, 
topgallant-, and royal-yards; also the skysail- 
yard, if that spar is carried. 

mizzen-Jjnntlines (miz'n-bunt'linz), ». pi. 
The biintlines belonging to the squaresails on 
the mizzen. 

mizzen-chains (miz'n-chanz), n. pi. Plates of 
iron bolted to a ship's sides abreast the mizzen- 
mast for securing the shrouds and backstays 
of that mast. 

mizzen-crosstrees (miz'n-kros'trez), n. pi. 
The iTosstreeson the mizzenmast, situated at 
the meeting of the head of the topmast and 
the foot of the topgallantmast. 

mizzenmast, »• 2. pi. The lower-maat, top- 
mast, and topgallantmast of the mast next 
abaft the mainmast. 

mizzenmast-man (miz'n-ma8t-man),«. Xaut., 
S.— 52 


one of the crew stationed to attend to the gear 
of the mizzenmast. 

mizzen-parrels (miz'n-par'elz), n. pi. Naut., 
the iron collars which confine the hoisting 
mizzen-yards to the masts. See main *parrels. 

mizzen-sail, «. 2. pi. The squaresails on the 
mizzenmast, namely, the crosi»-jaek (not 
always carried) or mizzen-oourse, the lower 
and upper topsails, topgallantsail, royal, and 
sometimes a skysail. See *mai>wail, '2, 

mizzen-sheets (miz'n-shets), n. pi. Xaut., 
the sheets of the squaresails on the mizzen- 

mizzen-stays (miz'n-staz), n. pi. Naut., all 
the stays wliich give support to the mizzeu 
lower mast, topmast, and topgallantmast. 

mizzen-staysails (miz'n-sta"salz , «. pi. 
Xaut. .the fore-and-aft sails which set between 
the mizzenmast and mainmasts. 

mizzen-trusses (miz'n-trus"ez), Xatit., 
the iron shapes which confine the mizzen lower 

yard and the mizzen lower topsail-yard to the 

mast, and upon which the yards revolve or 


mizzen-yards (miz'n-yardz), n. pi. Naut., all 
the yards belonging to the mizzenmast. 

M. J. I. An abbreviation of Member of the In- 
stitute of Journalists. 

M. J. S. An abbreviation of Member of the Ja- 
pan Society. 

M. K. Q. d. P. An abbreviation of Member of 
King and Queen's College of Physicians. 

ml. An abbreviation of milliliter. 

M. L. An abbreviation (b) of Master of Laws ; 
(c) of Master of Literature; (rf) \l. c] of 
m u::le-loading. 

M. L. A. An abbreviation (<i) of Master or 
Mistress of Liberal Arts ; (fc) of Member of the 
Legislative Assembly. 

M. L. 0. An abbreviation of Member of the 
Legislative Council. 

M. L. D. An abbreviation of minimal lethal 
dose. Nature, July 14, 1904, p. 260. 

M. L, £. An ablireviation of Master or Mis- 
trrss of English Literature. 

M. L. Q. An abbreviation of Middle Low Ger- 

M. Lit. An abbreviation of Master of Litera- 

Mile. A contraction of Mademoiselle. 

W , L. S. An abbreviation of Master of Library 
Science, a degree conferred by the University 
of the State of New York. 

M. L. S. B. An abbreviation of Member of the 
London .School Board. 

M. L. W. An abbreviation of Mean Low 
IVdltr. Amer. Jour. Set.. May, 1904, p. 335. 

MM. An abbreviation (6) of their Majesties ; 
(c) of Martyrs. 

Tnm l, An abbreviation (6) of the plural of 
Latin words commonly abbreviated m., as 
magistri; (c) of the Latin »«a<rimo«iM»i; (d) 
of the Latin meritissimus. 

mm^. An abbreviation of square millimeter. 

mm*. An abbreviation of cubic Millimeter, 
/ifi. A symbol used to denote a thousandth of 
a micron or a millionth of a millimeter. 

MM. A. An abbreviation of the Latin Ma- 
gistri .Irtium, Masters of Arts. 

M. M. E. An abbreviation of Master of Me- 
chanical Engineering. 

m. m. f. An abbreviation of magnetomotive 

M. Mus. An abbreviation of Master of Music. 

M. N. A. S. An abbreviation of Member of 
the National Academy of Sciences. 

Mnemia (ne'mi-a), n. [NL. (Eschscholtz, 
1829), appar. < Gr. Mf^/iTi, Memory, one of 
the Muses.] The typical genus of the family 

Mnemiidse (ne-mi'i-de), [NL., < Mnemia 
+ -idic.'i A family of lobate etenophorans in 
which the lobes are very large, the auricles 
are long and ribbon-shaped, and the origin of 
the auricles and lobes is placed almost at the 
same height as the funnel. It contains the 
genera Mnemia, Alcinoe, anA Mnemiopsis. 

mnemism (ne'mizm), «. [Gr. /ivf/ft7!,TDeraoTy, 
-{■ -ism.'\ The ' memory ' which has been at- 
tributed to cells and organic molecules, and 
has been held to be an explanation of inheri- 
tance. Byatt, Biol. Lectures, 1899, p. 153. 

mnemogenesis (ne-mo-jen'e-sis), n. [Gr. 
livijfiTj, memory, •¥ ytvcci^, generation.] The 
generation of new organisms by means of the 


organic 'memory' or mnemism of parents. 
Those who hold the opinion that inheritance is memory 
attribute the building of an embryo to mnemogenesis, 
or the unfolding of a record of a memory which, having 
been stored up in the central nervous system of the 
parent, is impressed upon the developing germ in the 
order in which it was stored. [Rare.] 

The premature development of characteristics and 
some other rare phenomena . . . can only be explained 
by assuming an irregularity in the action of mnemo' 
genesis. Hyatt, Biol. Lectures, 1899, p. 166. 

mnemogenic (ne-mo-jen'ik), a. Of or pertain- 
ing to mnemogenesis. [Rare.] 

When special tendencies or structures have arisen, 
their reappearance in descendants at the same time, or 
earlier, . . . becomes one of the strongest conftnnations 
of the mnemogenic hypothesis. 

Hyatt, Biol. Lectures, 1899, p. 155. 

mnemonicon (ne-mon'i-kon), «. ; pi. mnemon- 
ica (-kii). \?>ee mnemonics.^ Aji aid to the 
memory: a mnemonic device. 

mnemohize (ne'mo-niz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
mnemonized, ppr. mncmoni:ing. Imnemonlic) 
+ -ize.'] To associate (in memory) with a 
system of mnemonics ; remember by means of 

■ mnemonics. 

Each lecture is . . . separately dedicated to two per- 
sons, twelve fortunate individuals being thus mnfmonized 
into immortality. N. A. Rev., July, 1845, p. 263. 

mnemotechnist (ne-mo-tek'nist), n. \mnemo- 
techti{y) + -ist.} One who is skilled in 
Mnestra (nes'tra), n. [NL., < Gr. Mvfiarpa, 
a daughter of lianaus.] A genus of hydro- 
medusaus. M. parasitica, found on a pelagic 
snail, PhylUrrhoe bucephala, is one of the very 
small number of parasitic medusse. 
Mniaceae (ni-a'se-e), n. pi. [NL. (Brotherus, 
1901), < Mnium 4- -accee.~i A family of acro- 
carpous mosses of the order Bryales, typified 
by the genus Mnium, and distinguished from 
the Bryaceee, to which it was formerly re- 
ferred, by the club-shaped (instead of filiform) 
paraphyses of the male organs, and by the 
hexagonal (not rhombic) parenchymatous 
cells of the upper surface of the leaves. There 
are 4 genera and 79 species, of which latter 72 
belong to the genus Mnium. They grow in 
moist, shady places, on the ground, on the 
bark of trees, or on rocks, and are found in 
nearly all parts of the world, but chiefly in 
temperate regions. 
mniotiltine (ni-o-til'tin), a. Belating to or 
having the characteristics of the Mniotiltidse, 
a family containing the small North American 

Mnium (ni'um), n. [NL. (Linneeus, 1753, 
adopted from Dillenius, 1741), < Gr. fiviov, 
also fiviov, a moss.] A large genus of 

mosses, now 
made the type 
of the family 
Mniaceee. it is 
characterized by 
synflBciouB flowers, 
erect stems, cov- 
ered below with 
scale-like leaves 
becoming broader 
and toothed above 
. and on the 
branches, and 
bearing at the 
summit one to 
several nodding or 
'declined capsules 
on more or less 
elongated set». 
There are 72 spe- 
cies of wide dis- 
tribution, 30 oc- 
curring in Amer- 
ica, growing in 
swampy or moist 
ground, on rocks, 
or on trees. 
M. N. S. An 
(a) of Master 
of Natural 
Science; (6) of 
Member of the 

a. plant with sporogonium. still bean'n^ 
a cafyptra; *. plant with ripe spornyo- 
nium : c, mature capsule with operculum 
removed ; rf. two peristome teeth of the 
outer row; e, part of inner peristome, tt 
and i, two thirds natural size; c, twice 
natural size; d and e. greatly enlarged. 
(I-roin Strasburger's " Text-book of Bot- 

Mo. An abbreviation (6) of Missouri ; (c) of 

M. 0. An abbreviation of Master of Oratory. 

Moab (mo'ab), »i. [See Moabite.'i See the 

Moab, a name applied to the tnrban-shaped hat which 
was some few years l)ack fashionable among ladies, and 
ladylike swells of the otherjsex. From the Scripture 
phrase, " Moab is my washpot ' (Ps. II. 8), which latter 
article the hat in question was supposed to resemble. 

Slang Vict, 


Moabitish (mo'a-bi-tish), a. IMoahite + 
-»*/|l.] Of or pertaining to the Moabites ; Mo- 

moafza (mo-iif zS), n. [Ar. muhdfia, governor- 
ship, guariiianship, < hafaz, keep, learn.] An 
administrative division of modern Egypt. 

moa-hunter (m6'a-hun't6r), H. A hunter of 
the nioa : a poetical name applied, in the 
plural, to an extinct people, probably of Papuan 
relationship, supposed to have inhabited New 
Zealand before the advent of the Maoris. 

moat^, r. 1. 2. In mining, to puddle; cover 
with earth so as to exclude air, as amine shaft 
in ease of an underground Are. [Scotch.] 

moating (mo'ting), «. The puddling beaten 
in behind the stonework of a mining-shaft 
built up through a bed of quicksand. N. E. D. 

mobiles "• 3. A name proposed as a substi- 
tute for motor-vehicJe, or automobile. 

Mobilian, ». 2. The trade language formerly 
spoken in the Gulf States, a jargon originat- 
ing in the intercourse between whites and In- 
dians. It contained many Choctaw words. 

mobiliary (mo-bil'i-a-ri), a. [P. mobiliairc, 
< L. mobilis, movable. See mobile^.'] X. In 
the Channel Islands, relating to movable prop- 
erty; also the distinctive epithet of a court 
that deals with ' mobiliary' questions. N. E. D. 
— 2. Of or pertaining to household furniture. 
— 3. In mil., of or pertaining to mobilization. 

mobility, «. 4. In phytogeog., the inherent 
capacity of a plant for migration. F, E. 

mobilizable (mo'bi-li-za-bl), a. [mobilize + 
-able.] Capable of beiiig made or of becom- 
ing mobile or movable ; that may be mobil- 

The hwmal and other mobile or mobUizabte cells of the 
body. Buck, Med. Handbook, I. 44. 

mobilization, «. 2. The act or process of 
rendering mobile or movable : as, the mobil- 
isation of a stiff joint. 

Mobius's surface. See *surface. 

mob-madness (mob'mad"nes), n. The uncon- 
trolled emotionalism or frenzy of an excited 
crowd: a phenomenon particularly described 
by Le Bon in his study, " The Psychology of 
the Crowd." E. A. Boss, Social Control, p. 

moca (rao'ka), n. [Porto Rican.] In Porto 
Rico, the cabbage-tree, Vouacapoua Ameri- 
cana. See cabbage-tree, 2, and wacapou. 

moccasined^ (mok'a-sind), jj. a. [Lit., ' bitten 
by a moccasin,' that is, ' poisoned.'] Intoxi- 
cated. [Slang, southern IJ. S.] 

In some parts of the Southern States moccasiyied — 
"intoxicated " was common as a slang term. 

Jour. Amer. Folk-lore, Oct -Dec, 1902, p. 248. 

mocha, «. 4. In glove-making: (a) A soft 
leather made from Arabian goatskins, nom- 
inally from Mocha. (6) Generally, a very 
soft sheepskin, tanned principally with oil. 

Mocha ■ware. See *ware^. 

mochila (mo-che'la), n. [Sp., a caparison, 
knapsack, etc., prob. from mocho, cut short, 
lopped, cropped, < L. mutilus, lopped : see 
mutilate.] The leather flap which covers a sad- 

mochylic (mo-kil'ik), a. Noting an alcohol, a 
colorless compound, C2^H460, found, prob- 
ably in combination with palmitic acid, in 
bird-lime, and obtained by boiling the inner 
bark of Ilex Integra with water. It crystallizes 
in small lustrous prisms melting at 234° C. 

Mock bishop's weed, PtHiinniuTn capiuaceum, an um- 
belliferous plant of the United States, ranging from 
Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. 

mock-acacia (mok'a-ka'^shia), n. The locust- 
tree, liobinia Pseud-acacia. 

mock-bird, n. 2. A bird that imitates; a 
parrot. [Bare.] 

The king would dress an ape up in his crown 
And robes, and seat him on his glorious seat, 

And on the right hand of the sunlike throne 
Would jilace a gaudy mock-bird to repeat 

The chatterings of the monkey. 

.•Shelley, Witch of Atlas, Ixxlv. 

mock-chervil (mok'cher'vil), K. 1. Cow- 
parsley. — 2. Shepherd's-needle. 

mocking-bird, n. 2. In Demerara, a name ap- 
plied to orioles of the genus Cassicus, and 
especially to C. icteronotiis, which is often 
kept as a cage-bird on account of its pleasant 
note. — 3. In Australia, the lyre-bird, Menura 
euperba : so called on accoimt of its remark- 
able power of song. 

mocking-thrush (mok'ing-thrush), n. Any 

from the norm, with which it may or may not 
coincide.— Mode color. See *co;(,r.— Normative 
mode. See -kitormative. — Octave mode. See 7/iy(/el, 7 
(n).— Secular mode, the statistical mode which prevails 
for f -' -- - - -- 


one of the Miminse, a group of North American 
birds including the mocking-bird and catbird. 

mock-knee (mok'ne), n. A large tumor-like 
swelling appearing on the knee of horses and . . . - 

cattle, due in most cases to repeated bruising ["t^t.^tfc^'^po^ufation."""" '" * ''^"" "" ^"' "''"'' 
and injury to the soft tissues, and sometimes a -secular mode- is the prevailing state of one or more 
resulting in the formation ot hard epidermal charactere of a homogeneous lot of individuals, of the 
scales. same pleomorphic condition aud stage of development, 

mock-orange, «. Z. & 9.s calabazilU.-A. '"r" P=>rti™lar place and year 
The Victorian laurel, i';«o,s^,or«,« ««dai«««,», . . .^ ^. , ^.om.trO-a, Apnl, 1902 p. 314. 

a small tree yielding a hard, close-grained mode-imitation (mod im-i-ta"shon), n. Imita- 
whitish wood. In the Azores it is used for """ °' *"*' ?''"'' ™ distinction from custom- 
protecting orange-trees from the wind. Called "«'<"<'0» or imitation of the long established: 
also natire laurel. See Pittosporum. ^ '''^™ introduced by Tarde. 

mock-Strawberry (mok'stra''ber-i),«. Same ^0<lel, «. 7. See the extract. 
as Indian *struwberry (a). 

moco (mo'ko), n. [W. Ind., of obscure origin.] 
Cut money. [Windward and Leeward Is- 

mocock (mo-kok'), «• Same as *mocucIc. 
Notes and Queries, Aug. 10, 1907, p. 107. 
[Canada.] j , i. . 

mocomoco (mo-ko-mo'ko), n. [Carib.] A model-basin (mod el-ba'sn), n 

An insect thus resembled by another is spoken of as it8- 
"jnodW," the imitating insect is called a "mimic," and 
the combination of model and mimic or mimics is known 
as a "mimetic pair" or "mimetic assemblage," as the 
case may be. Xature, Oct. 31, 1907, p. 673. 

Half-model {naut.\ a block-model which shows one side 
of a vessel from the midship line.— Waterllne model. 
Same as -kblock-model. 

An estab- 
lishment for the experimental investigation 
of the phenomena of the motion of vessels 
and screw-propellers through the water, the 
determination of suitable forms of hull for a. 
given speed, and the ascertainment of the 
power necessary to drive a given form of hull 
through the water at any given speed. The 
basin or tank used in the experimental work is an excava- 
tion of canal-shaped cross-section, fl-om 300 to 500 feet, 
long, 26 to 50 feet wide, and 8 to 15 feet deep, and filled 
with water. Above the surface of the water is a travel- 
ing carriage moved by power, which can be run over the 
length of the basin at any desired speed. The model of a 
vessel t<) be tested is towed through the water by a lever- 
arm attached t^and hanging below the carriage, and suit- 
able registering instruments record the speed of the model 
and its resistance to motion through the water. From 
the data thus obtained a curve of resistance of the model 
is made and the power required to drive a full-sized 
vessel is detennined by the application of Froude's law. 

modeliar (mo-del'yiir), n. [Tamil mudalimr. 
an honorific plural from mudali, a chief. Yule 
and Burtiell.] A native head-man, in the 

„ „_, ^. Tamil districts of Ceylon; a chief. 

See */rey««c,v-— Modal sensitivity. ^ See irseyuitiv- moderant (mod'e-rant), n. [L. moderani(em), 

"" "' ' " --.-. ...I-. ,o ^g^ sing, of ppr. of moderari, to moderate.J 

That which moderates or mitigates. 
moderantist (mod'e-ran-tist), II. [moderant- 
(ism) + -ist.] One" who professes moderan- 
tism : one who belongs to the party of the 

termined by the sense-department to which it '"/iL!,?*^'! ^V 'f''^'''?'"/*"'- 

belongs or appeals: a term proposed by Hehn- T,l^t*„5i' i ^- } ■ " V- ^?^ ""^ °K^^t 

holtz, to avoid a confusing use of quality. f2"':.P!i°";?^l_ 5°'"*^ ^^ ^ nativity upon which 

It was found, for instance, that the simple reaction- 
time depended not only upon such objective factors as 
the modality of the stimulus, . . . but also quite as much 
upon certain more subjective conditions. 

Amer. Jour. Psychol., XV. 489. 

Hence — (b) the sense-department itself : as, 
sensations of different modalities. 

variety of arum, Montrichardia arborescens, 
growing in Guiana, etc. N. E. D. 

mocuck (mo-kuk'), n. [Also mowkowlc; < 
Ojibwa makak, Menomini makak.] A box of 
birch bark for sugar, rice, etc., used by the 
Indians of Ontario, Minnesota, Michigan, etc. 
Ilartlett, Diet, of Americanisms. 

mod^ (mod), n. [Gael, mod, an assembly, < 
Icel. tnot. See moot^.] The yearly meeting 
of the Highland Association, for literary 
and musical compositions. N. E. D. [Great 

modal, a. 3. Of or pertaining to or having 
the numerical value of a statistical mode. 

Any race as we find it is very largely the product of its 
viodal members. K. Pearson, Orammar of Sci., p. 445. 

4. In petrog., in the quantitative system of 
classification of igneous rocks (see *rock'^), re- 
lating to the mode. — 5. Of or pertaining to the 
mode of a curve. See *worfe, 11.— 6. In math., 
most frequently occurring.- Modal frequency. 

ifi/.— Modal value. Same as -kiiwdei, 12. 

A numerical value for which such a frequency is great- 
est is termed a modal value or mode. 

K. Pearson, Grammar of Sci., p. 382. 

modality,". 6. Inpsychol.-. (a) The nature 
or character of sensation or stimulus as de 

the native's fortunes are supposed to depend ; 
the sun, moon, ascendant, or mid-heaven. — 8. 
In mech., a device for moderating or reducing 
the speed of an internal-combustion engine by 
the operation of a throttle-valve. Its action 
is the reverse of that of the accelerator. — 
Moderator band. See *band2. 
modalize (mo'dal-iz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. mo- modernism, n. 3. Specifically, a tendency 
.;„;,-,„,; „,.„7„;,-..„„ r,.,„,;,.; J. ;,„ i rr„ among Roman Catholics to modern and pro- 
gressive views condemned by Pius X. in an 
encyclical issued in 1907. 

modernist, «. 3. One who holds modern 
views; specifically, a Roman Catholic who 
holds the views (modernism) condemned by 
Pius X. in his encyclical issued in 1907. 

modesty, n. 4. (a) The hare's-ear or thor- 
ough-wax, Bupleurum rotundifolium. (b) The 
bladder-ketmia or flower-of-an-hour, Hibiscus 

dalized, ppr. modalizing. [tnodal -(- -ize.] To 
render modal ; impart modality to. 
mode', «. 11. In math.: (o) The most fre- 
quent measure ; the class with greatest fre- 
quency. (6) The point at which a curve, 
indicating frequencies of occurrence of a 
variable event, reaches its maximum. In the 
normal frequency curve (see Quetelet's *eurve), 
the average is at the same time the mode, 
while in skew curves the average and mode do 
not coincide, (c) In a table of frequencies 

which gives a list of the diiferent quantities modificand (mod'i-fi-kand"), n. [L. modificand- 
! _„ __-.Li. _ _i._i. .. .^ii ,-._. _« ^^^^^^ ^pj,^ ^j modificare, modify.] That which 

is to be, or ought to be, modified. [Rare.] 
modification, ». 7. In biol., a change which 
is brought about in a living being by its own 
activity and is not transmitted to descendants, 
as contrasted with a variation regarded as a 
congenital change which is not the effect of 
the activity of the organism and is transmitted 
to descendants; an acquired character. Sat- 
ural Sci., Nov., 1896, p. 288. 

appearing, with a statement of the number of 
times that each appeared, the one which oc- 
curs most often. — 12. In biom., that statisti- 
cal value of a character which is most 
prevalent in a group of organisms. 

ilr. Tower indicates a similar seasonal change in the 
case of the mode of Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. He 
proposes a new definition for the term ' mode,' but the 
word 'mode' -WAS introduced into statistics with a per- 
fectly definite sense, and it seems undesirable now to 
alter it. "The average prevailing state of one or more 

characters of a homogeneous lot of individuals" is not a modify,)'. *.—Modifiedmllk. See •ni«i.— Modified. 
biometric definition. It might refer to any constant what- smallpox ^iinm as varioloid. 
ever of the frequency, — to the mean, the mode, the vari- * ,_,._,,', -., , 

ability, or indeed to the whole frequency distribution modinature (mo-di-na tUr), n. [Also moaena- 
itself. The now established use of the word 'jiioi/e' is for ture ; < L. modus, mo&e, + valura, nature.] 
that value of an organ or character, at which the fre- ^he dispositou of the moldings in a classical 

quency of the population per unit of the character or . ^ i „ * •„ ■ „ „ „. j. „p *u„ 

organ is a maiimum,-the frequency 'per unit of the eornice, or, by extension, in any part ot the 
character' being used, if the chai-acter be not discrete, in entablature, 
the sense of the infinitesimal calculus. The definition is modinha (mo-den'va), W. 
clear : it belongs to the theory of statistics t<3 show us how . _ _ . - . 

to determine whether there is one or more true modes, 
and if there be, to settle the degree of their significance. 
Biomelrika, April, 1902, p. 305. 

13. In petrog., in the quantitative classifica- 
tion of igneous rocks (see *roclA), the actual 
mineral composition of a rock in distinction 

[Pg., dim. of moda, 
mode.] in music, a form of song ver)- popular 
in Portugal, combining features of the French 
romance and the Italian aria. 
Modiolopsis (mo'di-o-lop'sis), n. [NL., < 
Modiola + Gr. 6V«f, a form, appearance.] 
A genus of extinct pelecypod mollusks, hav- 


ing tlio form of the Modiola, with narrow 
hiuge-plate ami edeutulous hinge. It is of 
Silurian agp. 
Modiomorphafmo'di-o-mor'fii), n. [NL., < 
Modiiild + (Ir. //opp'}, ' form.] " A gemis of 


is one pair of tusk-like lower incisors ; and the 
second ineisoi-sof the upper jaw are developed 
as tusks. The arrangement of the hones of the 
cranium shows some points peculiar to the 
. . . „ Proboscided. 

prionodesmaeeous pelecypods, having the Moesa-blight (me'sij-blit), n. An undeter- 
form of the ModioUi, with a single oblique mined East Indian' plant-lmg of the family 
elongate ridge-like tooth. It is found in De- Capsidse, allied to Helopeltis, which blights 
vonian rocks. the plants of the genus Mcesa. 

mod. prescript. An abbreviation of the Latin moff (mof), h. A Caucasian silk fabric. 

morfo2))VPScn>?y, in the manner prescribed. mofussilite (mo-fus 'il-it), n. [mofussil + 

Mods. A a abbreviation of iWoffera^iOHS. See -ite'-^.] In India,' one who lives in the mofussil, 

moderation, 5, pi. or country, as distinguished from the residen- 

I should have thought that four years of Oxford with a eies. 
little flnishiuK at Wren's . . . would malie a lad quite ino£ri£rratlllia Cmoi-i-irraf'i ^il n r'NTT, ( dr 
safe who had been in the Sixth at a public school and got ^OSlgrapma (,moj l-gral 1-a;, n. l!SL,.. <. hT. 
a scholarship and first in Modn, 

Xalure, June 16, 1904, p. 145. 

modulation, ".— Abrupt modtUatlon, in munir, a 

nvilulation or transition of key accomplished suddenly, 

without ordinary harmonic process. .See inodiUativn, 

3 (b). 

modulative (mod'u-la-tiv), a. [modulate + 
-ivc] Having the function of modulating; 
serving to modulate. 

Oar punctuation-marks seem to have been originally 
modulative, . . . though punctuation is now mainly 
logical. H. Sweet, Eng. Sounds, § 236. 

module, «. 6. Equivalent to the phrase with 
cotiyruence-modutus. See modulus of a congru- 
ence, under modulus. 

modulus, « . —Bulk modnlns, the modulus of elasticity 
of volume. It is the quantity c in the formula : 


— Mojarra de las pledras, a chsetodontoid flsh, Poma. 
canthus zonipectus, found on the west coast of Mexico 

//o;(-, hardly (fidyoc, toil, /lojeiv, toil, suffer), + 
--}paj>ta < -jpcKfieiv, write.] Writers' cramp. 

moglgraphic (moj-i-graf 'ik), a. lmogi(jraph{ia) 
+ -/o.] Pertainingto or of the nature of mogi- 

mogiphonia (moj-i-fo'ui-a), n. [Gr. jidyi^, 
with difficulty, + (puvij, so'iind.] InpatlwL, a 
difficulty in producing loud vocal sounds with 
the larynx, ordinary speech remaining unaf- 
fected. Sijd. Sac. Lex. 

mogo (mo'go), n. [Aboriginal Australian.] 
A stone ax of the natives of New South Wales. 

mogra (mo'gril), «. [Hindi.] The Arabian 
.iasmine, Jasniinnm Samhac. 

M. 0. H. An abbreviation of Medical Officer 
of Health. 

Mojana de las piedras ^Pomacantlius xoniftcttts'), 
(From Bulletin 47, U. S. Nat. Museum.) 

and Central America from Mazatlan t« Panama.— Mo- 
Jarra dorada, a carangoid fish, Qnatkanodon gpeciogits, 
widely distributed through the tropical part« of the Pa- 
cific and Indian oceans.— Mojarra garabata, a sparoid 
flsh, Calamus brachysomus, found in the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia and in neighboring waters.— Mojarra prleta, a 
fish, Haemtdon ecudderi, of the family Uamulida, found 
on the Pacific coast of tropical America. — Mojarra 
verde, a cichloid flsh, Heros beani, inhabiting the Rio 
Presidio near Mazatlan, Mexico. 
mojarrita (mo-ha-re'ta), n. [Sp., dim. of mo- 
jarra.'] Any fish of the genus Eucinostomus 
and family Gerrides. These fishes are numer- 
ous in warm seas. 

[Sp., aug. of mo- 

throughuut a substan 


a velocity 

: of it« initial value. 

-Modulus of periodicity, the 

constant by which the values of :ui iiiti-K'ral on opp.«ite circumcision. 

banks of a cross-cut difier- Modulus^ Of ^resistance. Moho, ... 3. [?. c] A short-winged, short- 

tailed rail, Pennula ecaudata, peculiar to Ha- 

„„„„ Moham. An abbreviation of Mohammedan. 

jjf^^, where the stress is a hydrostatic pressure moliar. n. See mohur. 
and the resulting strain is the diminution suffered bv a mohawlritfi Cmo'hak-Ttl m TMnhntrV feaa Aot \ " "•" '" " ""/*" -\"°' . ,. 
unit volume of the substance-Modulus of a complex '^''awKire ^mo naK-it;,». L^o/!aM!fc(se6def.) mojarron (mo-ha-ron'), 

number,«-hMis-Ha2-)-M|<..-Modulusofacom- Z;,:'',r']p'^v- P^w ^^ ''''?P*'',T^®i' '!,°'^ J'"'''«- ^ee mojarra.] A ^si, Anisoii-emus in- 
plex quantity, i + iy, the absolute value |j: + ,>|, the cobalt, (Cu,Mi,Co)3As, closely related to do- terruptus, of the family Biemulidx. ioxmCL on 
positivesquareroot|i2-i;!,2|y-Moduln80f acnrve. meykite, found at the Mohawk mine m the the west coast of tropical America, 
a function of the coefflcienta of the equation of a curve Copper region of Keweenaw Point, Michigan, mokil ('mo'kil « PManri T Tl,a notixro „o„« 
whichisabs-iliitelyinvariaiit for every- birational trans- ■M-„V,_i, „.- J r,„:^'\.'i -a\ rrn, ™9?*^^" „^' "• LJMaon.J i be native name 

formation. -Modulus of a real number, it«ab8<jlute -M-OJiawK-weea (mo hak-wed), n. The per- of two New Zealand fishes, the blue cod, Per- 
value.— Modulus of compression, the plastic pressure loUate bellwort, I i-ularia perfoliate. cis colias, and the bastard trumpeter Latris 

:L''nf1,™'w;iH',TiJr;;fHl'i.'i^,*^^-^^^^ [Heb. »«<?, to cut otr.] A ciliaris. N. E. D. 

.um of It. — Modulus of decav. the time m which • . xi. «? . ^. , , . , . -• t .« , -,, -^ .-,, . .. „ 

.■itv, tk-creasing in geometrical iIrop.jrtion, becomes Pireumciser ; the officiating rabbi who IS spe- mokl-i (mo ke), «. [Maori.] Same as *mokihi. 

., i.. ;..:.;..i ..-t... „-...., , .-^._.._ ., cially qualified to perform the operation of mokihi (mo'ke-he), n. [Maori mokihi, also 

_.- •_■-„ 7iwlci.] A raft made of bundles of bulrushes, 

tied firmly together at one end and expanded 
by being tied to a stick at the other. Also 
written moki and moguey. 
moko (mo'ko), V. [Maori.] Tattooing as 
practised by the natives of New Zealand, 
the designs consisting of elaborate figures 
with predominating spirals and covering a 
great part of the body. 

The "moko " or tattooing of a New Zealander is really a 
mark of rank, and only slaves are forbidden the more or 
less complete tattooing of the face. A completely tat- 
tooed face is literally covered with spiral scrolls, circles, 
and curved lines; but though the principal marks are 
generally similar, they are not exactly alike on any two 
persons, owing to the almost infinite variety of combina- 
tions at the operat^>r's command. 

Sci. Amer. Sup., Sept 12, 1903, p. 23160. 
It is not a fact — as popularly supposed — that the 
" moko " was distinctive in different families ; serving, as is 
sometimes said, the puipose of a coat-of-amis. The "moko " 
was in fact all made on the same pattern — that of all Maori 
carvings. Some were more elaborate than others. The 
sole difference was that some were in outline only, sonis 
were half filled in, and others were finished in elaborate 
detail. E. E. Morris, Austral English. 

moko (mo'ko), r. t. To tattoo in the manner 
practised by the natives of New Zealand. 

.Same as ^modulus of rupture. Also sometimes used as 
the eouivalent of the modulus of elastic resistance.- 
ModalUB of rupture, a number which represents the 
weight necessary per square inch of cross-section to 
break a beam of any given material of definite length, 
breadth, and tiepth, usually one square inch in section 
and one foot long.— Principal modulus, a motlulus of 
elasticity where the stress provokes oidy a strain of its 
own type.— Stretch modulus, in phys..sL numerical 
constant used to express the elongation of a substance 
when subjected to longitudinal stress ; Young's modulus. 
See -kcompressional strength. 

Mcebia (me'bi-il), n. [NX,., named after Pro- 

Mohrodendron (mo-ro-den'dron), n. [NL. 
(Britton, 1893), < Moh'r (Charles Mohr (1824- 
1901), a German botanist and pharmacist in 
America) + Gr. dhdpov, tree.] A name im- 
properly given to Hnlesia. a genus of dicotyle- 
donous trees or shrubs belonging to the family 
Stijracaeeee. See Halesia. 
Moine schist. See *schist. 
fessor Karl Miibius of Berlin.] A genus of Moiragetes (moi-ra-ie'tez), n. [Gr. iioipaylr^c, 

brotuloid fishes containing two species found ' ■' " • ■ - ' i^. '^ '. .. ' 

in the deep sea. 
moel fmo'el), n. [W. moel, a hill bare on top, 
a sugar-loaf hill (common in local names), 
also a heap, a pile, prop, an adj., bald (com- 
pare E. bald as applied to mountains, or to the moir6, v. t. 2. In finishing cotton goods, to 
bare top of a mountain), = Ir. mwji, a heap, a stamp a fabric so as to produce a watered 
pile.] An isolated hill or small mountain, of ormoird effect, for which various methods are 
convex or dome-like form above, and with con- employed. 

cave slopes around the base. moirette (mwo-ref), n. [moire + -ette.] A 

Mr. J. E. Man- read a short but important paper on textile fabric made to imitate moire. A'. E. D. 

< /iaipa, fate, + ijyuaBat, lead.] header of the 
Fates : an epithet of Apollo and Zeus. 

There were also statues of two of the Fates, of Zeus 
Moiragetes, and of Apollo Moiraiietes. 

J. H. Middleton, in Jour. liellenic Studies, IX. 292. 

the peculiar form of is<,lated hill known from Its popular moissanite (mwo'san-it), «. [Moissan (see moko-moko' (mo-ko-mo'ko), n. [Maori.] 1 
«el8hnameasa.V«.(. Geo-/. Jour. (R. G. 8.X XVl. 448. A^t.) + -ite'^.] Carbon silicide, iden'" ■' ' "^ " 

Moel Fema slates. See *sltite^. 

moellon, «. 2. In tanning, partly oxidized oil 
recovered by expression from skins in the 
process of oil-tanning. It Is used in currying 
leather which has already been tanned by other methiwls, 
and for this yiuriKjse is sometimes prepared specially 
from skins that have been repeatedly used. Also called 

Moerae, Moirai (me're, moi'ri), n. pi. [NL. 
.Moeree, Gr. Moi/ra/, pi. ofiwipa. part, lot, destiny, 
fate; connected with /iiim^, part, share, < 
fuipinOai, part, divide.] In class, antiq., the 

, identified by A New Zealand lizard, Lygosoma moko. — 2. 
Dr. Henri Moissan of Paris in the meteoric The bell-bird, 
iron of Canon Diablo^ Arizona. The same mokum (mo'kum), n. [Jap. mokur-me.] A 
substance made artificially in the electric fur- Japanese alloy used chiefly for decorations 
naoe is extensively used in the arts under the upon articles of gold or silver. 
name of carborundum. mol^ (mol), a. [ F. mol, inou, = G. moll, < L. 
Moist thermometer, iiea* thermometer. mollis, eott: see moll^.] In music, miaoi: as, 
moisture-proof (raois'tiir -prof), a. Proof ^ J""'' ""I^ "?'"?,"■• ,..,„ 
against moisture or its'ill effects; not liable mol", mole^ (mol), n. [NL. mol(ecula), mole- 
to be affected by moisture; damp-proof: as, "'^•';J ^'"> grara-molecule, or the gram-mo- 
tran.sformers mounted in moisture-proof iron [ecular weight of an element or compound : a 
cases. Elect. Rev., Sept. 10, 1904, p. 420. ^rief form introduced by Ostwald. 

fates: Homer in the Iliad, speaks of Mo^ra moisture-SCales (mois'tiir-skalz), «.»?. Scales "^"W^l'^'V'. '!•, [Heb., < piarf, bear, briii^ 
m general, and of several Mcerai ; and, in the for ascertaining the percentage of weight lost „„„:!„„„'"' -^u'^'V!!!"! °I. ?_®ff "l"'?.^ „ °* A*"? 

by the evaporation of the moisture held in any 

Ody.sspy, of the Clothes ('spinners')- In later 
mythology three Fates appear, Clotho ('the 
spinner'), Lachesis ('the disposer of lots'), 
and Atropos ('the inevitable'), who cuts the 

Moeritherium (me-ri-the'ri-nm), n. [NL., 
< Gr. Moipir Moeris, a lake in Egypt, + mjpiov, „ . - , . , „ , , . 

A wild hpuftt 1 A wniw of eitinnt iincnilntA MOJarra almejera, a fish, Ilxmulon serfascintvm, 
a wild oeasi.j A genus oi extinct ungulate „ p j,, j , tropical America.- Mojarra c 

new moon. The Jewish month is lunar and 

flample of >re or otlier loose niaterial in bulk', f.^^^^f^''^ ^^^^""^ "^^^ ^^^ '"**^^^- ^^^ *^''*^ 

_._.._. ,, - [otoZ3 + -flZi.] Of, or per- 

taining to, that amount of an element or com- 
pound which is equal to its molecular weight 

mammals* described from remains found in 
the Eocene of the Fayum, Egy7>t, and believed 

The material is first weighed, then dried, and again 

weighed. The beam has two sets of marks, one for mol&l (mo'Ial), a, 

weight and one for percentage gradations, tlie sliding ■ ■ ■ ?■. . 

weight showing at the second weighing both the loss in 

actual weight and tlie percentage of loss resulting from 

the evaporation of the moisture. 


leila, a flsh, fCttciiwutfnmift cftli/orniengig, of the Taciflc 
coast of Mexico arul Central America. — MOJarra car- 

to represent the ancestors of the probosci- denal, a fiRh //o/oc^«?n« ^^/yorft/fa/w found in abun- 
j^„-»« rvu.r. --,:_>,„i -1 *. iu„ i: „* - dance from Mazatlan to Panama, mhahitmg tlie pcMils in 

deans. The animal was about the size of a 
large tapir; the molars are cross-ridged ; there 

the rocky shores left by the tide.— MOjarra china, a 
fish, Gerres lineatus, found on the west coast of Mexico. 

taken in grams. This amount is sometimes called & 
viol, and from the term in the (Jernian language an adjec- 
tive molar is derived. The use of tliis German form of 
the adjective in English is infelicitous, since the Englislk 
word 'molar' has already a very different meaning. Ac- 
cordingly, some have lately used tlie adjective molal. 

From the mnlal fluidity of tlie cnmponenta of the 
mixture the molal fiuidity was confputed I'v the mixture 
formula. PhyH. Jiev., Jaa.,, luOb. p. f>6. 


molari, «.— Molar helgiit. See*A«>A«. 

molar-', a.— Molar deatli. See *death. 

molarity (mo-lar'i-ti), n. Imolar'-i + 4ty.'] The 
action of forces upon bodies as a whole, as 
distinguished from the molecular forces. 

The stellar bodies are interrelated through gravity 
and various forma of molar force which may be combined 
under the tenn molaritft ; and astronomy in its earlier 
form was the science of these relations. 

W J McOee, in Science, May 19, 1905, p. 771. 

molasCLUit (mo-las'kit), n. [An arbitrary for- 
mation, < molas{ses) + -</«!« (uncertain).] A 
food for horses and cattle, prepared from mo- 
lasses and fine bagasse from the sugar-mills. 
Sutticieut cane-cellulose is mixed with molasses to pennit 
its transportation as a dry material. The flue bagasse 
readily absorbs a large quantity of molasses and is itself 
digestible to a considerable extent The resulting mix- 
ture is a valuable fodder which contains about 45 per 
cent, of sacchai'ine matter. 

MolaSSe, « — St Oall Molasse, a division of the Mio- 
cene Tertiai-y series in Switzerland, being a marine stage 
lying between the fresh- water or gray Molasse below and 
the fresh-water Oeningen Molasse above. 

molasses, «. 2. The repellent fluid ejected 
from the mouths of grasshoppers and certain 
other insects when captured. 

molasses-grasB (mo-las'ez-gras), n. See 

molavee, «. Same as *maiilvi. 

mold'-, « — Fruit-mold, a serious fungous disease 
which attacks the fruit of the apple, cherry, peach, pear, 
and plum. It is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia /riicti- 
gena, the conidial condition of which has long been 
known as Monilia /ructigena. Also called /ruit-rot and 
brown *ro( (which see). — 011-mold. Same as -kgrease- 
mold.— Sooty mold, a fungous disease of citrous trees 
and the olive, which produces a dark sooty growth on 
leaves, branches, and sometimes the fruit, caused by 
species of Meliota and Apiofporiu7n. See -kMeliola and 
*Apio>porium.—wiMQ mold Of sweet potato. Same 
as ivhite -krust. 

mold*, n. 12. In |)afcc>n., the external impres- 
sion of an organic body, test, or skeleton in 
the rocks: contrasted with cast, which is an 

internal impression. See cast^, 14 Dry-sand 

mold, a mold which has been baked to a hard mass to 
prepare it to receive molten metal : distinguished from a 

■ greeii-sand mold, which is not dried or baked before the 
molten iron or other metal is poured into it. 

moldave t (mol-dav'), n. \^Moldavia.'\ A long 
outer garment worn by ladies during the first 
half of the nineteenth century. N. E. D. 

moldavite (mol-da'vit), ». [Moldavia, Hun- 
gary, -f-->te2.] In2>efro(/.,agreenglas8foundin 
oval grains an inch long. Its origin is in doubt : 
considered by Suess to be of meteoric character, possibly 
a variety of obsidian. It is found in sandy deposits in 
Moldavia, Hmigary. Sometimes used as a gem. See 

mold-block (mold'blok), «. A cast-iron block 
forming a part of the casting-bed in an iron- 

Molders' crane. See *crane'^. 

molding^, n.— Belt-moldlng. (b) A small and deli- 
cately molded belt-course, especially in interior fittings, 
joinery, etc. — Cat'S-head molding. See *cars-Aead. — 
Double-cone molding, a molding composed of a series of 
double cones, that is, of truncated conesjoinedbas^ to base 
and top to top, so that it continually varies from thicker 
to thinner. It is a rare ornament, identified with Roman- 
esque architecture. — Open-sand molding, a process of 
casting without the use of a cope or toj>nask : used for 
casting pig-iron and heavy castings that do not need to be 
of an exact size, such as grate-bars. — Plain molding, a 
molding having a continuous surface, or one unbroken 
by corners. — Rope molding, a round, convex molding 
carved with a twist or spiial resembling a rope. 

Moldo-Wallachian ( mol"do - wo - la'ki - an), n. 
See Kumayiiaii. 

mole^, «.— Marsupial-mole. Same as -kmole-marmi- 

mole-cricket, « — southern sUort- winged mole- 


See ♦re/rMtton.— Mol»cular refractive power or re- 
fractivlty. See -kre/ractive. — Molecular resistance, 
rigidity, shadow, silver, stability, streams, vol- 
ume. See *reifistmice, etc. — Moleciilar theory of 
vital currents. See -kcurrenti. 

molecule, n — Active molecules, in electrochem., 
those molecules of a dissolved electrolyte which are disso- 
ciated into theirions and are therefore active in carrying 
the electric cuiTent.— Double molecule, the simplest 
form of molecular complex in which two molecules com- 
bine to form one.— Inactive molecules, in electrochem., 
those molecules of a dissolved electrolyte which are not 
dissociated into ions and are therefore not active in car- 
rjing an electiic current.— Proteld molecule, a mole- 
cule of an albuminous substance in the wider sense of the 
term, or of a proteid in the naiTower sense. 

mole-diver (mOl'di'vfer), «. The little grebe. 

mole-marsupial (mol ' mar - su " pi - al), «. A 
small marsupial which has the habits and 
very much the appearance of a small mole and 
which inhabits the desert regions of central 
South Australia. It is of a pale yellow color, 
with a homy shield on the nose, and a bare, 
leathery tail. Only about a dozen specimens 

Southern Short-winged Mole-cricket (.Scapteriscus abbretnatus'). 

a, winged adult, dorsal riew; *, sane, lateral view. Natural size. 

(Chittenden, U. S. D. A.) 

cricket, an American gryllid, Scapteriscus abbreviatus, 
occurring in the southern United .States. 
Molecular conductivity, death, encounter. See 
*cond'uctivity, etc.— Molecular heat of vaporiza- 
tion. See *Afae.— Molecular magnetic friction. 
See magnetic */iy«(ereiis.— Molecular refraction. 

Mole-marsupial i.Notoryctcs typhlops). 

of the animal, which has been named Noto- 
ryctes tijphlops, have been found. It is the 
type of the family Notoryctidse. 

molette, n. 2. A small steel roller upon the 
surface of which is out a pattern, in relief, 
which is pressed into the surface of a copper 
printing-eylinderof a calico-printing machine. 

molewort (mol'wfert), n. Water-cress. 

molinary (mo'li-na-ri), a. [LL. moUnarius, < 
niolina, a mill.] Of or pertaining to milling 
or the grinding of cereals. 

The 'Lead,' a stream, 'led' from the Tay past Rose 
Terrace, into the town for molinary purposes ; and long 
ago, I suppose, bricked over, or choked with rubbish. 

Ruiskin, Fors Clavigera, i. 161. 

Molka berry. See *berry^. 

mollesceuce (mo-les'ens), n. [L. mollis, soft, 
+ -cscence.J Softening; in pathol., same as 

mollescent(mo-les'ent), a. IJj. mollescent(em), 
ppr. of moUescere, become soft.] Becoming 
soft ; softening. 

moUichthyolin (mol-ik'thi-6-lin), n. A mix- 
ture of molline and iehthyol. It is used ex- 
ternally iu diseases of the skin. 

Mollienisia (mol"i-e-nis'i-a), m. [NL. (Le 
Sueur, 1821), named after M. Mollien, a French 
minister of finance.] A genus of fishes of the 
family Pwciliidss, small mud-loving fishes 
founti from North Carolina to Mexico in the 
coastwise swamps. 

Molllsia (mo-lis'i-jj,), 11. [NL. (Karsten, 1871), 
irreg. < L. mollis, soft.] A large genus of dis- 
comyeetous fungi having separate or crowded 
bright-colored sessile waxy asoomata. The 
spores are elongate, unicellular, and hyaline. 
About 150 species have been described. They 
occur on dead stems and decaying branches 
and are widely distributed. 

Mollisiaceae (mo-lis-i-a'se-e), n. pi. [NL., < 
MolKsia + -aceai.l A family of discomycetous 
fungi, named from the genus Mollisia, contain- 
ing 19 genera. The ascocarps are mostly 
small and sessile. See *Mollisia. 

Mollltles unguium, a trophic disease of the nails in 
which they become abnormally soft and yielding. 

moll-rowing (mol'rou"ing), n. Domestic 
squabbling ; the quaiTeling of man and wife. 

One scene was the work of my brother and myself. It 
was the outside of a lodging-house by moonlight. . . . 
The scene wound up with a great concert of "practical " 
cats on the roof, whose diabolical moll-rowings still ring 
in my ears. 
G. A. Sala, Things I have Seen and People I have 

[Known, II. 121. 

molly* (mol'i), n. [A senseless application 
of the familiar name Molly : see Molly'^.'] In 
the printers' game of jefling, a throw of quad- 
rats which exposes only the unnicked sides ; 
hence, any useless work with types in a com- 

molly-gut (mol'i-gut), n. Same as goose-fish. 

moUyhawk (mol'i-hak), n. An emendation 


of mollymawk, a name given by sailors to the 
smaller albatrosses. 'The change has been 
made on the mistaken supposition that molly- 
mawk was a corruption of mollyhawk. 

On Adam's Island Mr. Cockayne had an opportunity of 
studying the nests of the albatross placed in exposed 
situations, where the solitary chicken remains on the 
nest for a year, and on the desolate Hounty Islands were 
found the nests of the moUyhawk, and numbers of ani- 
mals, crustaceans, spiders and beetles which make their 
home in the guano or on the bare I'ocks. 

Aature, Nov. 5, 1903, p. 14. 

moloker (mo'lok-er;, n. A renovated silk hat. 
jV. E, D. [Slang.] 

molombwa (mo-lom'bwa), n. [Native name 
in West Africa.] Same as molompi. The 
pulverized heartwood of the tree is used by 
the natives as an ornament by sprinkling it 
upon their hair and clothing. 

molote (mo-lo'ta), n. A long-handled heart- 
sliaped hoe used by the Latookas and other 
natives of the Upper Nile Valley and the lake 

The handles of the molot^s are extremely long, from 
seven to ten feet, and the instrument being shatied like a 
miner's spade (heart-shaped), is used like a Dutch hoe, 
and is an effective tool in ground that has been cleared, 
but is wifltted for preparing fresh soil. 

Sir S. W. Baker, The Albert Nyanza, p. 164. 

Molpadia (mol - pa ' di - a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
MoXtqiSio, a feminine name.] The typical 
genus of the family Molpadiidx. Cuvier, 1817. 

Molpadiidse (mol-pa-di'i-de), n. pi. [NL., 
< Molpadia + -idse.'i A family of holothur- 
ians, of the order Actinopoda, having neither 
tube-feet nor papillee, the posterior end grad- 
ually tapering into a tail-like piece, mouth 
and anus terminal, usually fltteen simple or 
digitate tentacles, calcareous ring of five 
radial and five interradial pieces, and a single 
stone-canal with an internal madreporite. 
Eespiratory trees are present but Cuvierian 
organs are rare. It contains the genera Mol- 
padia, Eupyrgris, Candina, Haplodactyla, Tro- 
chostoma, and Ankyroderma. 

molnla (mol'u-la), n. [NL., dim. of L. mola, a 
millstone: see mola, molar^.'] In entom., Vae 
convex and sometimes bent head of the tibia 
of the hind leg of an insect, armed with a 
homy process on each side by which it is at- 
tached to the thigh. Also called knee-ball. 
Kirby and Spence. 

mol. Wt. An abbreviation of molecular weight. 

Molybdate of ammonium, a salt of molybdic acid 
largely used in the detennination of phosphorus rjid 
phosphoric acid in analysis. It is in constant use in the 
laboratories of steel-works and fertilizer-factories. 

Molybdenum blue. See *6(«e.— Molybdenum glance. 
See molybdenite, 

molybdomancy (mo-Ub'do-man-si), n. [Gr. 
fi6?.vfiSo(, lead, -I- /lavreia, divination.] DiW- 
nation by means of the behavior of molten 
lead, conclusions being based on the number, 
form, etc., of the drops. 

molybdophyllite (mo-lib-dof'i-lit), n. [Gr. 
^6?ivlidoc, lead, -I- <liv/.?.ov, leaf, -I- -ite^.] A 
rare lead siUeate occurring in colorless foli- 
ated masses somewhat resembling mica, found 
at L&ngban, Sweden. 

Momable slates. See *slatei. 

moment, n. 9. In statistics, influence in de- 
termining the position of the center or of the 
axis of distribution, as of population or re- 
sources — Center of moments. See *i-cn(eri.— Dic- 
tyotlo moment. See -kdictyotic. —Lorlcatiou moment. 
Same i\a -kdictyotic moment. — Moment of friction. 
See -k/riction. — Moment of momentum, a quantity, 
sometimes employed in the mechanics of rotation, equal 
to the angular momentum (m u;), or the product of the 
mass and angular velocity. Since the angular velocity is 
rv, angular momentum may be written mvr — momentum 
(mv) multiplied by distance (r) ; hence the name ino?nf?it 
of momentum. — Moment Of population, a compound 
quantity formed by multiplying the population of a 
given area by the distance of its population-center from 
an assumed parallel or meridian. By means of this idea, 
the United States Census Oflfice, using as element the 
square degree, determines centers of poptilation. — 
Moment of rotation, the rotational inertia or moment 
of inertia — Moment Of torsion, the torque tending to 
twist a body, as a rod ; the constant T iu the equation 

T = ;-j — , where u is the slide modulus, r the tadius 

of the twisted body, Q the angle through which the free 
end is twisted, and 1 is the distance from the free end 
along the axis of torsion to the point of clamping. — 
Moment of two straight lines. See •h'lws.— Psycho- 
logical moment, the nick of time ; the opportune 
moment ; the best or the right time : as, he seized the 
psychological moment ; it happened at the psychological 
moment. — Statical moment. Same as moment of a 
force.— Unit moment of a couple. See kcouple. 
momentum, «.- Angular momentum, the product 
of the angular velocity of a. rotating body into its moment 
of inertia, — Electromagnetic momentum, momentum 
due to velocity of au electromagnetic mass : opposed 


to ordinary mass, the momentiini of which is tenned 
mechanical momentum. — Mectianical momentum, 
momentum of the sort ordinarily dealt with in dynamics, 
in which the moving body has no electrostatic charge 
and consequently no electromagnetic mass. — Moment 
of momentum. See irmoynent. 
momiology (mo-mi-ol'o-ji), n. [F. momie, a 
munimj', + -ology.'] "fhe scientific study of 

Even the history of the Egyptian dynasties is a depart* 
ment of momiology, for the tablets of Abydos and Sale- 
karah belonged to temples which are connected with 
tliat future life and day of judgment for which the 
mummy lies patiently waiting. 

Athenaum, March 3, 1894, p. 28a 

momme (mom'me), n. [Jap.] A Japanese 
unit of weight, equivalent to 3.756 grams, or 
nearly 60 grains. C. Bering, Conversion 
Tables, p. 61. 

mon' (mon), n. [Jap.] A Japanese money 
of account, the ten thousandth part of a sil- 
ver yen, equal to 50 cents. 

mon° (mon), n. [Coreant] A Corean coin, the 
hundredth of a .Tapanese tempo, equivalent to 
one tenth of a cent. 

mon. An abbreviation (a) of monastery ; (6) of 
monetary; (c) of Monday. 

Monacanthidae (mon-a-kan'thi-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < ilonacanthus + -idx.'] A family of 
fishes closely allied to the Balistidse, herbi- 
vorous shore-forms found in warm seas. 

monachate (mon'a-kat), n. [L. monachatus. 
See monk] The period of life passed as a 
monk. X E. D. 

monachist (mon'a-ldst), a. lmonach(Um) + 
-int.] Pertaining or relating to monachism or 

I do not find in Oiorgione's work any of the early Vene- 
tian monachigt element. He seems to me to have be- 
longed more to an abstract contemplative school. 

ituskin. Modem Painters, V. ix. ^ 11. 

monachize (mon'a-kiz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. 
monachized, ppr. "monachizhig. [^monach{ism) 
+ -ire.] To live a monastic life ; become a 

monaco (mon'a-ko), n. [It. Monaco, a petty 
principality now under French protection, < 
L. Arx (or Saxa) Monceci, ' the fort (or rock) 
of Monoecns,' Gr. tidvoiKo^, 'he who dwells 
alone,' an epithet of Hercules.] A silver coin 
of the value of 58 sols, bearing the arms of the 
Prince of Monaco. 

monactin (mon-ak'tin), n. [Gr. /i6voc, single, 
+ axT/f, {oKTii'-), ray.] A sponge-spicule of 
one axis. 

monactinellid (mo-nak-ti-nel'id), n. and a. I. 
n. One of the Monactinellida, an order of 

H. a. Having the characters of or pertain- 
ing to the Monactinellida. 

monad, " — collared monad, in xoSl., a monad which 
possesses a delicate meiiiiiranuiis collar at one jwle ; one 
of the ChtttiiojUtijeUata. — Hooked or springing mo- 
nad. .See *Bod<K 

monadary, ». Same as monadiary. 

Monadelphic surface. See ^surface. 

monadistic (mon-a-dis'tik), a. Pertaining to 
or of the nature o? monadism. 

monadnock (mo-nad'nok), n. [A generic use 
of the name of Mount Monadnock in south- 
western New Hampshire. The name Monad- 
nock (formerly also Monadnnck, Monadnic, 
Menadnock) is of Algonkiu origin, prob. from 
manit, 'that which is exceeding, surpassing, 
extraordinary, siipernatural ' (hence manit, 
manitto, a spirit, God: see manito), + -adene 
(-ahdin, -adn), a hill or mountain, -f -auke 
{-olike, etc., in colonial spellings often -ock, 
-«c),land, country, place. The meaning woula 
be 'the place where there is a verv high moun- 
tain.'] In ]>hys. gcog., an isolated hill or 
mountain rising over a peneplain, and surviv- 
ing because of the superior resistance of its 
rocks or of its distance from the larger rivers; 
a residual hill. 

The rivers I.esae, Ourthe, Siire, and Vlerre, which radi- 
ate fnjm the .Scri>ont monadnock, all suddenly turn, at 
intervals, at right angles to their normal course, and 
these bends lie in concentric circles as if the region has 
been denuded in concentric waves. 

Geo'j. Jour. (R. G. S.), XVIII. 010. 

monadologlcal (mon'a-do-loj'i-kal), a. [mo- 
nadii/oii(ij) + -ic- + -flA.] Of or pertaining to 
monadology, or the doctrine of monads. 

In this case matter is thought of as made up of similar 
[mentiil] at^>nis uf a lower order (monistic or monadoloiji- 
cat spiritualism), or the mind-atom Is regarded as 
specifically different from matter proper (duallstic spirit- 
ualism). W. Wundt (trans.). Outlines of Psychol., p. 313. 

monxne (mon'en), n. [Gr. //(ivof, single, -I- 
-aiva, as in rpiaiva, trident.] In sponge- 


spicules, a trisene in the cladome of which two 
of the three rays have atrophied or been ar- 
rested in development. 

monamide (mon-am'id), n, [Gr. /j6vo(, one, -t- 
E. amide.] A class name applied, in organic 
chemistry, to compounds, derived from acids 
and ammonia, containing the univalent radical 
-CONH2: occasionally used, incorrectly, for 

monamido (mon-am'i-do), a. [mon(o)- + 
amido-.] Containing a single amido (NH2) 
group: as, monamido acid. 

monandric (mo-nan'drik), a. Practising or 
characterized ijy monandry ; monandrous. 

monapsal (mon-ap'sal), a. Imon(o)- + apse 
+ -a/1.] In arch., having only one apse. 

Monarch butterfly. See *bntterfly. 

monarchot (mon'ar-ko), n. [For It. monarcha, 
monarch.] A title assumed by a fantastical in- 
dividual of Shakspere's time; hence, humor- 
ously, a monarch. 

This Armado Is a Spaniard, that keeps here in court ; 
A phantasime, a Monarcho, and one that makes sport 
To the prince and his bookmates. Shak. L. L. L. iv, i. 

monarda, n. 2. \l. c] A plant of the genus 
Monarda Momurda.oll. .See *oa. 

Monardella (mo-nar-dera), n. [NL. (Ben- 
tham, 1834), a diminutive of Monarda, on ac- 
count of the resemblance of the two genera.] 
A genus of plants of the family Menthaceee. 
They are annual or perennial sweet-smelling 
herbs, with rose-purple, lavender, or white 
flowers in terminal heads subtended by broad, 
often colored bracts. There are about 15 
species, natives of western North America, 
chiefly of California, some of which are occa- 
sionally cultivated. 

monartiiritis (mon-ar-thri'tis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fionof, single, -I- apdpov, joint, -I- -itis.] Inflam- 
mation of one joint.- Monarthrltls deformans, 
arthritis deformans affecting one joint only. 

Monastic arcbltectnre, the architecture of the convents 
and monasteries of the Christian middle ages, and the 
resulting styles down to the eighteenth century. Roman- 
esque art in western Europe is largely monastic in origin. 

monasticize (mo-nas'ti-sizj, r. t.; pret. and 
pp. monasticized, ppr. tnonasticizing. [mona.i- 
tic + -ize.] To make monastic ; convert to 

monatomism (mon-at'ora-izm), n. [monatom- 
(ic) + -ism.] The character of being mona^ 

monaulic (mo-na'lik), a. [Gr. /i6vo(, single, 
+ ai'/dc, pipe, -I- -ic] Having an undivided 
tube, as the hermaphrodite duct leaving the 
ovotestis in certain moUusks. Compare *di- 
aulie, 2. 

monazile (mon-ak'sil), a. and n. [Gr. fidvo^, 
single, + L. axis, axis, + -He.] I. a. Same 
as monaxial. 
H. n. A monaxial sponge-spicule. 

monazon, «. 2. In neurol., a nerve-cell with 
a sin3;le 7ieuraxon, or axis-cylinder process. 

monaxonal (mon-ak'so-nal), a. [m^naxon + 
-f/M.] In sponge-spicules, monactinal. 

monazonidan (mon-ak-son'i-<lan), a. and n. 
[Monaxida + -an.] I. a. Relating or per- 
taining to the Monaxonida ; having only mon- 
axon spicules. 
II. H. Any member of the Monaxonida. 

monclliquite (mon'chi-kit), «. [Serra de 
Monchiquc, Portugal, + -ite^.] In pelrog., 
a porphyritic rock with aphanitic ground- 
mass, composed of hornblende, augite, biotite, 
olivin, and magnetite in a ground-mass of the 
same minerals, with an isotropic base having 
the composition of analcite. Sunter and Bo- 
senbmeh, 1890. 

monchiauoid (mon'chi-koid), n. lMonchiqu(ite) 
+ -oidT] In pe?ro,<7., resembling moncliiquite 
in mineral composition and texture. 

mond (mond), n. [D. mond = G. mund = E. 
mouth.] A mouth; particularly, the mouth of 
a river : an element in many South African 
Dutch place-names. 

Mond. An abbreviation of Monday. 

mondaine (mou-dan'), a. and n. [F., fem. 
of mondain, < L. mi(ndanu.s, of the world: see 
mundane.] I. a. Worldly; absorbed in the 
fashionable world. 

II, n. A woman who loves the pomps and 
var|ities of this world; one who is devoted to 
the world of fashion; a worldling. 

monembryonic fmon-em-bri-on'ik), a. [Gr. 
fiuvoc, single, -t- l/ii'ipmv, embryo, + -ic] Of 
or pertaining to a single embryo ; bearing a 
single embryo. 


monembryony (mon-em'bri-o-ni), n. Imon- 
emhryon(ie) + -yS.] The state or condition of 
bearing only one embryo. 

monergic (mo-nfer'jik), a. [< Gr. jidvoc, single, 
+ E. {e%)er'gic: properly monenergic] In 
plant physiol., having a single nucleus, or 
center of vital energy : opposed to *poJyergic. 

monergist (mon'fer-jist), n. [rnonerg{ism) + 
-ist.] One who holds the doctrine of moner- 
gism, namely, that the Holj' Spirit is the only 
efficient agent in regeneration. 

monergistic (mon-er-jis'tik), a. [monergist ■¥ 
-ic] Of or pertaining to monergism ; of the 
nature of monergism. 

Monesia bark. (6) See *hark2. 

monetary, a.— Latin Monetary union. See*Latin 

monetite (mon'e-tit), n. [moneta (see def.) -f- 
-ite^.] Acid calcium phosphate (HCaP04) 
occurring in minute yellowish-white triolinio 
crystals, found in a bed of guano on the is- 
lands Moneta and Mona, West Indies. 

money, n — Anglo-Oalllo money, coins struck in 
France by English rulers of a portion of that country, 
from the time of Uenry II. — Bar money, an archaic 
money struck in the Low Countries for .lava, in deference 
to native predilection.— Black money, (a) Copper 
coins strucli at Tours and made cuiTent in England dur- 
ing the reigns of Edward II. and Edward III. (6) See 
the extract 

When any class of work involves special unpleasantness 
or injury to clothing, "black ?ho7wi/" or "diity money" 
is sometimes stipulated for. Thus, the boilennakers and 
engineers receive extra rates for jobs connected with oil- 
carrjing vessels. Webb, Industrial Democracy, I. 313. 

Cloth money, an early Chinese copper coinage. — Con- 
demnation money, in law: 
(a) The damages which the 
losing party to an action is 
adjudged to pay. (b) In an 
appeal bond, the amount that 
should be awarded against the 
appellant by the judgment of 
the court upon aftlnning the 
judgment or order appealed 
from.— Cut money, sections 
of silver or gold coins cut for 
circulation as subsidiary money, 
especially in the West Indies 
and Spanish colonies. — D&nes' 
money, a local name for Roman 
coins found in Northampton- 
shire. [Eng.]— Don Patmo's 
money, a local name once 
current in Jamaica for the 
Spanish pistareen : so named 
from a colonial and finance 
minister of Spain at the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century. 
_„__ Hat=£iBi — Exnrgat money, an Eng- 
jB i g M femi l ^'^^ coinage of Charles I., with 

/ B^ P ^j^^li ^'^^ inscription on the reverse, 

/Cr-r^'iw b^i 'M ^v ] Exurqat Deug, digsipentiir 

'^•mia* hi Mi— ^ t?u»nict(P5. lxvii.,Vulg.), "Let 
God arise, let his enemies be 
scattered " (Ps. Ixviii. 1, Rev. 
ver.).— Fraaco-Itallan money, the coins struck by 
temporary French rulers of parts of Italy, from Charles 
VI. to Louis -XVI. w. C. i/a^iiff.— Franco-Spanlsli 
money, the coins struck in Spain by Louis XIII. and 
Louis XIV, of France, during their occupati()n of parts of 
that country. W. C. llazliit.— Hock-Tuesday money, 
in old Kng. taip, money paid to a lord that his tenants 
and bondmen might celebrate the second Tuesday after 
Easter week — the day on which tlie English overcame 
the Danes. Cony;. — India money, an English coinage 
made in the seventeenth century for use by the East India 
Company. Also called Indian money, and Portcullis 
money. See portcnllig, 4.— Lanka money, a bar of sil- 
ver stamped with Arabic inscriiitions. used as money in 
Ceylon.— Merovingian money, a term loosely applied 
to the whole gii>up of coins struck in the Low Countries 
and in France in the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries 
and actually originating in Holland. U'. C. Uazlitt. — 
New plate money, a coinage, as opposed to Mexican 
plate, created by Charles II. of Spain (1886), who ordered 
that the American piece-of-eight (reals) should pass as a 
piece of ten new reals.— Saddle money, a Chinese 
copper coinage in use from the first to the fourth century 
B.f.— Temple money. See *templc^. — Tin-dangle 
money, same as 
money-bound (mun'i-bound), a. Detained on 
board awaiting a remittance to pay for a 
pas.sage that has been made: said of a ship's 
money-grass (mun'i-gris), n. Same &s penny- 
grass, 1. 

money-maker, «. 3. Any commodity which 
sells well and is profitable forthose who make 
or handle it. 
money-plant (mun'i-plant), «. Same as money- 
mongo (raon'go), n. See the extract. 

Mongo (Phaseolus mungo Bl.), smaller than the lentil, 
but of the same flavor, cultivated on a large scale, as it is 
the principal food of many towns. 

Pron. Qaz. Philippine Is., p. 80. 

Mongolian, " — Mongolian idiocy, idiot, see *idt- 
ocy, iirfiVjf.— Mongolian mark or spot, a dark spot in 
the lumbar region, occurring in MoTigolian new-bom 
children and also observed among the new-born of the 
American (Indian) race. 

Cloth Money. 


Mongolization (moug -go-li-za'shpn), n. [Mon- 
(lolize + -II tion ] The process of 'Mongoliziug 
or reiuleriiig Mongolian in character. 

Mongolize (moug'go-liz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
MoiigoU:ed, ppr. ilongolizing. [ Mongol + -he. ] 
To render Mongolian in character ; subject to 
Mongolian influence or control. 

Australia was dotemiined . . . not to Mongolise Ita 

Daily Neiei (London), July 2, 1906. y. E. D. 

Mongolo-Tatar (mong'go-16-ta'tar), a. and n. 
I. a. Of or pertaining to peoples that speak 
languages of the Mongol and Tungus divisions 
of the Ural-Altaic stock (the Mongol, Kal- 
muck, Buriat, Tungus, and Manchu), or to the 
languages themselves. Sometimes also used 
to include the Turkish languages or the whole 
group of Ural-Altaic languages. Keane, Eth- 
nology, p. 299. 

II. «. A ])eople of Mongolo-Tatar affinities. 

Mongrel disease. See ^disease. 

monneimite (mon'him-it), n. [Named (1853) 
after a (iennan, Von Monheim, who described 
it.] A variety of the zinc carbonate, smith- 
sonite, containing over 20 per cent, of iron car- 

Monicono-stereoscopic glasses. See *glass. 

monilethrix (mo-uil'e-thrix), n. [Irreg. < L. 
monile, a liceklaee, + Gr. 0pif, hair.] Irregu- 
lar atrophy of the hairs, giving them a beaded 

Monilia (mo-niri-jl), n. [NL. (Persoon, 1797), 
so called in allusion to the chain of spores, < 
L. monile, a necklace.] A genus of Fungi Im- 
perfecti, type of the family Moniliaceee, having 
erect branched conidiophores bearing chains 
of conidia. M. fructigena and M. cinerea are 
known to be conidial conditions of the dis- 
comycetous genus Sclerotinia. They are the 
destructive fruit-molds which attack the peach, 
plum, cherry, etc. See fruit-Arnold, peach- 
blight, rot, and * Sclerotinia, 

Monlliacese (mo-niH-a'se-e), n. pi. [NL.,< 
Monilia + -accd.~^ A family of hyphomycetous 
fungi named from the genus Monilia (see * Mo- 
nilia and * Moniliales) . It is the same as the 
Mucedinaceee, for which it is to be substituted, 
that name not being based on. the name of a 

Moniliales (mo-nil-i-a'lez), n.^J. [NL., < 
Monilia + -ales.'] The largest order of the 
group Fungi Impcrfecti, frequently called Hy- 
phomycetes, containing the 4 families Monilia- 
cese, Dematiaccse, Stilbaceee, and Tuberculaccie. 

Moniligaster (mo-nil-i-gas't^r), n. [NL., < L. 
monile, necklace, + gaster, belly.] The typi- 
cal genus of the family Moniligastridm, I'er- 
rier, 1873. 

MoniligastridSB (mo-nil-i-gas'tri-de), n. pi. 
[NL., Moniligaster (-giistr-) + -it?*.] A family 
of terricolous Oligochxta, consisting of large 
or small earthworms with 8 paired sette in 
each segment, the inconspicuous elitellum oc- 
cupying segments 10-13, and one or two pairs 
of male pores. It contains the genera Mo- 
niligaster and Desmogaster, found in India, 
Ceylon, Sumatra, Borneo, Burma, and the Ba- 
hamas. M, grandis attains a length of two 

monimiaceous (mo-nim-i-a'shius), a. Belong- 
ing to the plant family Monimiacese. 

monimolite (mo-nim'6-Ut), n. [G. monimolit 
(1865) ; < (3r. uiniftog, "lasting, stable, + X/flof , 
stone.] Au antimoniate of lead, iron, and 
sometimes calcium, occurring in yellow to 
brown isometric crystals and also in massive 
forms : found in Sweden. 

Monimostylica (mon'i-mo-stil'i-ka), 
[Gr. ii6iii/io(, lasting, -t- aTv?j)c, pillar.] ' A divi- 
sion of reptiles including those which have the 
quadrate immovable, as turtles, crocodiles, 
and extinct forms : contrasted with Strepto- 

monism, « — Cosmonomlc monism. See *cosmo- 
nomtc— Psychophysical monism, the metaphysical 
opinion that physical and psychical phenomena are par- 
allel aspects or attributes of one and the same underlying 
thing of which no experiential knowledge is possible. 

The first [parallelist theory] looks upon mind and body 
as of equal reality or rather unreality, and interpi-ets 
them as parallel manifestations or aspects of a sinple real 
being : to this we may give the name of p8ychnpht/»ical 
•moninm. C. A. .Strong, Why the Mind has a Body, p. 21)9. 

monistically (mo-nis'ti-kal-i), adv. In the 
manner of the monists; in accordance with 
monistic philosophy. 

So far as the present work is concerned, it knows 
nothing of the value judgments by which the world 
ground is interpreted in terms of ethical personality ; and 


It ignores all psychological experiences in which the in- 
workings of a tmnscehJent moral person al'e known — 
experiences construed now momnticdUy and now pluralis- 

Jour. Philos., Psychol, and Set. Methods, Aug. 4, 1904, 

[p. 442. 

monistichoilS (mo-nis'ti-kus), a. [Gr. ii6voq, 
single, -f arixo^t row, file.] Covered with a 
single layer of cells, like the ommatidium or 
structure which underlies the lens unit of the 
eye of a scorpion. 
monitor,'!. 9. In fei/drowJ., a device consisting 
of a universal -jointed pipe, to which is attached 
a nozle throwing a powerful stream of water: 
used in hydraulic mining and on fire-boats. 
See hydraulic mining, under hydraulic. — 10. 
A turret or tool-holder in a lathe. See *(«r- 
rc(l, 6. — 11. Same as *catamaran, 4.— Gould's 
moxiltor, Monitor gmildi, a large Australian lizard, 
named after the naturalist John Gould. 
monitor (mon'i-tor), V, t. To be a monitor or 
adviser to; admonish. 

So after my own heart ! I knew, I knew 
There was a place untenanted in it ; 
In that same void white Chastity shall sit, 
And monitor me nightly to lone slumber. 

Keats, Endymion, iv. 135. 

monitor-lathe (mon'i-tor-laTH), n. Same as 

monitorship (mon'i-tor-ship), n. The position 
and duties of a monitor. 

monium (mo'ni-um), n. [NL., < Gr. fi&voq, 
single, alone.] The name given by Sir W. 
Crookes to a supposed new chemical element 
the presence of which in salts of so-called 
'yttrium' seemed to be indicated by a peculiar 
phosphorescent spectrum exhibiting a group 
of lines almost alone near the extreme ultra- 
violet (whence the name) : it was later pro- 
Eosed to change the name to rictorium, in 
onor of Queen Victoria. Monium must be 
looked upon as one of the large number of in- 
ferred but unestablished elements. 

In his presidential address to the British Association 
in 1898 he [Sir William Crookes] announced the discovery 
of yet another member of the rarer earths — monium 
or victorium. The spectroscopic examination of this 
showed the spectrum crossed by au isolated group of 
lines high up in tlie ultra-violet end, and the existence of 
wliich could be detected only upon tlie photographic 
sensitive negative. Sci. Amer., Aug. 8, 1903, p. 99. 

monkey, n. 10. In mining, an appliance for 
automatically gripping or letting go the rope 
in rope haulage. — 11. pi. In the Australian 
bush, a sheep-shearer's name for sheep. 

No one felt better pleased than he did to see the last 
lot of * monkeys,' as the sliearers usually denominated 
sheep, leave the head-station. 

A. C. Grant, Bush Life in Queensland, I. 88, quoted in 
[E. E. Morris, Austral English. 

12. A local name for the cinder-notch of 
the dam in an iron-making blast-furnace, 
through which the slag or cinder can be al- 
lowed to flow out as it accumulates in the 
smelting process. It is placed on the side of 
the furnace, and about 30 or 40 inches below 
the level of the twyers where the blast is in- 
troduced in furnaces cf modem size. 

On the side of the furnace, and 30 to 40 inches below 
the level of the tuyeres, the "cinder notch" or ^^ monkey" 
is situated. Sci. Amer. Sup., Oct 19, 1907, p. 242, 

Green monkey, a name applied to several African mon- 
keys of the genus Cercopithecus, but more particularly to 
C. sab^us, the general color of which is a greenish gray. 
— Howling monkey. Same as howler, 2. — Klng-mon- 
key, Colobua polycomus, one of the culobes, or horse- 
tailed monkeys of Sierra Leone, having a pure white 
forehead that suggests a crown. — Monkey hass. See 
*()as82.— Monkey flush. See*/!ii»Vi».— Patas mon- 
key. Same as ;?wfa*. — Road-mbnkey, in lumberiny, 
one whose duty is to keep a li>ga:ing-roail in proper con- 
dition. Also blue-jay. — Satan-monkey, Pithccia 
satanas, the black saki, a Sontli American monkey, dark 
brown or black in color, with a bushy tail, heavy whis- 
kers, and a thick crest or wig. — Stump-tailed monkey, 
one of the short-tailed macaques, Macacas arctoides, 
of southeastern Asia. — Sykes'S monkey, an East -African 
species, Cercopithrcus albnyularis, black above and 
white beneath.— Weeper or weeping monkey. Same 
as weeper, 4. 

monkey-belt (mung ' ki - belt), n, Xaut., a 
waist-belt worn by a seaman when working 
in a dangerous position over the vessel's side, 
as when 'cutting in' a whale. 

monkey-drift (mung'ki-drift), n. In mining, 
a small drift used by prospectors. 

monkey-forecastle (mung ' ki - for " kas -1), n. 
See *deck, 2. 

monkeyfy (mimg'ki-fi), r. t. ; pret. and pp. 
monkeyfied, ppr. monkeyfying. Inionkey + -fy.] 
To make like a monkey, literally or figur- 

Notwithstanding tlie very monWyfying process to 
which some of the illustrations of inferior human types 


have been subjected in this pictorial chorography, the 
correspondences are not such as to cairy conviction to 
most minds. Sir D. Wilson, Prehistoric Man, 1. 172. 

monkey-gangway (mung'ki-gang"wa), n. A 
small gangway parallel with the main gang- 
way. Coal and Metal Miner's Pocket-hook. 

monkey-jar (mung 'ki- jar), n. A water- 

monkey-jug (mung ' ki - jug), «. A coarse 
earthenware jug with a globular body and 
narrow neck, covered with a grayish brown 
glaze made from wood ashes and sand. The 
body is modeled in the semblance of a gro- 
tesque human head, the eyeballs and teeth be- 
ing made of a white, porous clay, and usually 
movable. These jugs were made at Bath, 
South Carolina, about the year 1863. 

monkey-nut (mung'ki-nut), n. The peanut. 

monkey-orchis (mung'ki-6r"kis), n. A plant. 
Orchis trplirosanthos. 

monkey-rolls (mung'ki-rolz), n. }>l. The 
smaller r.ills in an anthracite breaker. 

monkey-rope (mung'ki-rop), «. Xant., the 
rope secured to a monkey-belt. 

monkey-shaft (mung'ki-shaft), n. In mining, 
a shaft which rises from a lower to a higher 
level. [Australia.] 

They began to think they might he already too deep 
for it, and a small ' monkey '-sha/t was therefore driven 
upwards from the end of the tunnel. 
G. Sutherland, Tales of Goldflelds, p. 69, quot«d in 
[E. E. Mon-is, Austi-al English. 

monkey's-pea (mung'kiz-pe), n. See *pea^. 

monkey-twyer (mung'ki-twi'er), «. One of 
the blank twyer-openings built into a blast- 
furnace above the ordinary twyers to be used 
in case of au emergency. Phillips and Bauer- 
man, Elements of Metallurgy, p. 225. 

monkey-vine (mung'ki-vin), ?<. a species of 
the genus Ipomsea, I. Xil, 

monkey-yard (mung'ki-yard), n. Naut., an 
auxiliary spar ; a light yard used in exercising 
and training cadets and apprentices on board 
ship or at a naval station. 

monk's-head (mungks'hed), «. Thedandelion. 
A\so priest' s-crown (which see). 

mono-articular (mon-'o-iir-tik'u-lar), a. Same 
as monarticular. Lancet, Aug. '22,' 1903, p. 513. 

monoazo (mon-o-az'o), a. [mono- + aj:o-.] 
Pertaining to a chemical compound that con- 
tains one azo group — Monoazo color. See *color. 
— Monoazo type, a type of coal-tar coloring matter 
characterized by tlie presence of one azo group. 

monobacillary (mon-o-bas 'i-la-ri), a, [Gr. 
//(iiof, single, + NL. bacillus + -ary.] Relat- 
ing to one species of bacillus. 

monobactena (mon"o-bak-te'ri-a), [NL., 
< Gr. fi6m(, single, -I- NL. bacteria.] Bacteria 
the cells of which are separate, liillroth. 

monobacterial (mon"o-bak-te'ri-al), n. [Gr. 
/i6vo(, single, -t- NL. bacterium + -dl^.] Relat- 
ing to one form of bacterium. 

Monobar chain. See*chain. 

monobasic, o. 2. Pertaining or relating to 
monobasis — Monobasic phosphate. See *phot- 

monobasicity (mon-'o-ba-sis'i-ti), n. {mono- 
basic + -ity.] in chcm., the character of being 
monobasic; the character of an acid as con- 
taining but one atom of hydrogen replaceable 
by a metal or electropositive radical; or the 
special character of a salt as containing a 
metal or electropositive radical replacing but 
one atom of hydrogen out of a larger number 
of such replaceable atoms in the correspond- 
ing acid. 

monobasis (mo-nob'a-sis), n. [Gr. /Jiivof, single, 
-I- /ia(T(f, step (used in the sense of descent).] 
Descent on simple or narrow lines, as by 
inbreeding, or by vegetative propagation : 
the alternative of symbasis as a method of 
descent. Cook and Sicingle. 

monobium (mo-no'bi-um), n. ; pi. monobia (-a) 
[NL., < Gr. /lovo^, single, + jSioc, life.] A 
unicellular organism which lives a free or in- 
dependent life, as contrasted with a coeno- 
bium, one that is a unit in an aggregation of 
cells. Ilaeckcl. 

monoblepsia (mon-6-blep'si-a), n. [NL.] 
Same as nio)iohlcpsis. 

monobranchiate (mon-o-brang'ki-at), a. 
[mono- + branchiate.] Having but one set of 
branchite or gills. Syd. Soc. Lex. 

monobromacetanilid (mon'o-brdm-a-se-tan'- 
i-lid), n. \inono- -t- brom(inc) + acetanHid.'i 
A colorless, crystalline, svnthetic compound, 
C6H4.Br.NH.C'2H30, obtaiiied by the action of 
bromine on acetanilid and said to combine the 


sedative effect of bromine and the antipyretic 
effect of aoetanilid. AJso antisepsine. 

monobrom-derivative (mon'o-brom-de-riv'a- 
tiv), «. In organic cliem., a class-name applied 
to compounds containing one atom of bromine 
in the place of one of hydrogen. It is synony- 
mous with nwnobrom substitution-product. 

monocarp, «.— perennial monocarp, a plant which 
lives iiiiiny years but dies after once llowenng, as the 
coninuin century-plant, ilobiiu. 

jnoiiocarpal(mon-o-kar'pal), a. Same as »»ono- 

:moilocarpian (mon-o-kar'pi-an), a. Same as 

monocelled (mon'o-seld), a. [Gr. ftdvo;, single, 
+ E. cell + -cd-.'] ' Consisting of but a single 
cell ; unicellular: said of organisms such as the 
Protozoa and I'rotophyta. 

Monocentric eyepiece. See *eyepiece. 

monochasy (mo-nok'a-si), n. Same as mono- 

inonochlor-. Imono- + chlor(in)-.'] In chem., 
in compound words, signifying the presence 
of one atom of chlorin in combination or in- 
troduced by substitution, as iodine mono- 
chlorid, and monoehloracetic acid. 

monochloracetic (raon * 6 - kl6 - ra - set ' ik), a. 
lmo)io- + cldoracetic] looting an acid, a col- 
orless crystalline compound, CH2CI.OOOH, 
prepared by the action of chlorin on acetic 
acid. It crystallizes in needles or rhombic 
plates, melts at 62.5-63.5° C, boils at 185-187° 
C., and attacks the skin: used in the synthesis 
of indigo. 

monochlor-derivative (mon'o -kl6r-de-riv'a- 
tiv), n. Ill ori/auic chcni., tne class-name ap- 
plied to compounds containing one atom of 
chlorin in the place of one of hydrogen. It is 
synonymous with monochlor substitution-pro- 

'jnonochoanitic (mon'd-ko-a-nit'ik), a. [Gr. 
//oi'of, simple, -t- Ao*"-"?. funnel, + -ite^ + -ic] 
Having simple funnels : used of the ammonoid 
cephalopods, and expressing a primitive con- 
dition of shell structure. 

monochordist (mon'6-k6r-dist), n. Imono- 
chord -t- -i.s/.l One who plays upon or writes 
about the monochord. 

monochordize (mon'9-k6r-diz), V. i. ; pret. and 
pp. »iOH'ic/i«rrfi>erf, ppr. monochordizing. ^mono- 
chord + -ijc] To play on, or as on, the 
monochord. [Rare.] 

He became gay, did leap for Joy, would loll and rock 
himself in the cradle, then nod with his head, mojwehord- 
ising with his fingers. Rabelaig (trans.), i. 48. 

monocliromasy (mon-o-kro'ma-si), n. [mono- 
chroma(tic) + ■sy.'] In psychol., that form of 
color-blindness in which all visible objects are 
seen as shades of the same quality. As op- 
posed to dichromasy, by the adherents of the 
Young-Helmholtz theory of color-vision, the 
term leaves it open as to whether the single 
remaining visual quality is a color or a bright- 
ness. There is now, however, no doubt that 
monoehroinasy is identical with total color- 
blindness, and that the vision of the mono- 
ehromate is gray-vision and that only. Stud. 
YaU Psychol. Lab., 1900, p. 15. 

tmonocliromate (mon-o-kro'mat), n. \mono- 
+ chromntf.] 1. In rAew., anormalchromate, 
as of potassium, KoCrOx, in contradistinction 
to a dichromate or pyrochromate, as K2Cr.207 : 
the former may be viewed as KoO.Crt).^, and 
the latter as K20.2Crf)3. — 2. In psychol., a 
totally color-blind person; one who is afflicted 
with monochromasy. Baldwin, Diet. Philos. 
and Psychol., II. 793. 

monochromatic, a. 2. In psychol., pertaining 
to or characterized by monochromasy: as, 
monochromatic vision. — 3. Having an affinity 
for only one dye at a time, in contradistinc- 
tion to polychromatic Monochromatic llln- 

mlnatOr. See iiilluimnator. 

II. ". Same as *monochromate, 2. 
monochromatism (mon-6-kr6'ma-tizm), n. 
[monochromat-ic + -ism.] Monochromatic 
light or its production. 

ilonoehromntiim. — Fabry and Perot . . . recommend 
a« a source of monochromatic light the arc produced 
between mercury electrfMles in a Torricellian vacuum. 

Appleton'l Ann. Cyc, 1S99, p. 707. 

monochromatist (mon-o-kro'ma-tist), n. Same 
as *nionochromist. 

monochrome, «. II. ". Of one color; painted 
in one color, monochromic. 

monochromic (mon-o-kro'mik), a. [mono- 
chrome + -ic. Hee tnonochrome.'i ,Of one color; 


pertaining to or of the nature of monochromy ; 

monochromist (mon'o-kro-mist), n. [mono- 
chrom(e) + -isf] One who paints in mono- 

monocle, «. 3. In photog., an uncorrected 
spectacle-lens, usually periseopic, of about 
li inches diameter, and of a focus of 2 inches 
and upward, it is necessary to make correction in 
focussing since the lens has both a chemical and a visual 
focus. For ordinary landscape work this ooiTection may 
be made by means of the formula f =fO"02, which is prac- 
tically one fiftieth of the focus. This is only applicable 
when the lens is working at its equivalent focus. Wood- 
bury, Encyc. Diet, of Photog., p. 290. 

monocleid (mon'o-klid), o. [Gr. //di'of, single, 
-f- /(/.£(£■ (KAtiS-), key.] Having, or locked by, a 
single key: said of certain writing-desks and 
cabinets in which all the compartments are 
fastened by locking a single lock. 

Monocllnal shifting, the tendency of a stream flow- 
ing parallel t^) the strike of tilted strata to shift to one 
side in eroiling its valley. The shifting is in the direc- 
tion of the dip of the rocks and results in sapping the 
valley blutf on the down-dip side. Chamberlinaiid Satis- 
bury, Geol., I. 120. 

monococcus (mon-o-kok'us), n.\ pi. mono- 
cocci (-si). [NL,, < Gr. ^l6voq, single, + k6kkoc, 
berry (coccus).] A coccus form of bacteria 
in which the cells are separate. Billroth. 

monocqelic (mon-o-se'lik), a. IGr.fidmc, single, 
-(- Koi'/ia, a cavity.] Having only one cavity. 

MonOCOndylia (mon-o-kon-dil'i-ii), [NL.] 
The more commonly used form of Monocon- 

monocondylic (mon'o-kon-dil'ik), a. Same 
as monncdndtjlian. 

monocondylbus (mon-o-kon'di-lus), a. [As 
iloiiocondylia) + -ous.'\ Having a single oc- 
cipital condyle, as is the case with birds and 
reptiles, which are collectively termed mono- 
eondylia: contrasted with *amphicondylous. 

monocormic (mon-o-k6r'mik), «. [Gr. ^6vo^, 
single, + Kopfjdc, a tree-trunk.] In hot., hav- 
ing but one trunk, or main axis of growth. 

monocot (mon'o-kot), n. An abbreviated form, 
among botanists, of monocotyledon. 

monOCOtyl (mon-o-kot'l), n. [Gr. /i6voc, single, 
-1- Kori/r/, a cup, a socket.] Same as mono- 

Monocotyle (mon-o-kot'i-le), n. [NL. (Tasch- 
enberg, 1878), < Gr. fi6vo(, single, + kotv>.7i, 
a cup, a socket.] The typical genus of the 
family Monocotylidx. 

monocotylean (mon-o-kot-i-le'an), a. and n. 
I. a. Same as monocotyledonous. [Rare.] 
II. n. Same as monocotyledon. [Rare.] 

Monocotylida (mon"o-ko-til'i-de), [NL., 
< Monocotyle + -idir.] A family of trema- 
todes, of the order Beterocotylea, having the 
posterior sucker usually small, no anterior 
suckers, and the common genital pore median. 
It includes the genera Monocotyle, Calicotyle, 
and P.feudocotylc, parasites of sharks and rays. 

monocotyloid (mon-o-kot 'i-loid), a. and «. 
[monocotyl + -oid.~\ I. a. Resembling a mono- 

tL. n. A plant which resembles a mono- 

monocotylous (mon-o-kot'i-lus), a. [NL. 
monocotylu.i, < Gr. /jovoi; single, + kotvXt/, cup.] 
1. Having but one vent or mouth. — 2. Same 
as monocotyledonous. y. E. D. 

monocranns (mo-nok'ra-nus), a. ; pi. monocrani 
(-ni). [NL., < Gr. /jdvoc, single, + Kpaviov, the 
skull.] A monster having a single skull but 
more or less duplication of the parts of the face. 

monocratic (mon-o-krat'ik), «. Pertaining 
to, or of the nature of, monocracy; monarchic. 

monocrepid (mon-o-krep'id), n. [Gr. /i6vo;, 
single, 4- uptj-it;, foundation.] In the struc- 
ture of silicions sponge-spicules, such irregu- 
lar forms or desmata as have only a single 
fundamental layer. 

monocrotic (mon-o-krot'ik), a. [Gr. ii6m<:, 
single, + KpoTo^, a stroke, beat.] Striking 
once: said of a pulse the sphygmographic 
tracing of which shows but one notch, the 
down stroke showing an unbroken line. 

monocrotism (mo-nok'ro-tizm), )(. [mono- 
crot(ic) + -ism.l ' A condition in which there 
is but one pulse-beat for each contraction of 
the lieart: the opposite of dicrotism. 

monocrotOUS (mo-nok'ro-tus), a. Same as 

Monocular rivalry. See *rivalry. 

monoculist (mo-nok'iVlist), n. [LL. monoc- 
iil(us), one-eyed, + -ist.'] A one-eyed person. 
X. £. D. 


monocycle, ». 2. In biol., the type of indi- 
vidual or racial development which consists 
of but a single cycle : opposed to *polycycle. 
Hyatt, 1893. 

monocyclic, a. 3. In bot., living only one sea- 
son ; annual : opposed to dicyclic. See *dicyclic, 
3(6). F. E. Clements. — 4. In elect., pertaining 
to a single-phase alternating-current system of 
electric distribution, which utilizes an auxili- 
ary electromotive force (the teaser electro- 
motive force) out of phase with the main 
electromotive force, and wattless, that is, sup- 
plying no power or practically no power, but 
only wattless currents. See *icaitless. — 5. 
Of or pertaining to a monocycle. See *mono- 
cycle, 2.— Monocyclic generator, a polyphase gen- 
erator, the armature of which has two windings, a main 
coil and a lesser coil in quadrature with the former. — 
Monocyclic system, in ptiys.: (a) A mechanical system 
within which only stationary movements in closed curves 
occur and between the portions of which only conserva- 
tive forces are active. (6) See irmonocycHc, 4. 

monocyclon (mon-o-si'klon), n. ; pi. monocycla 
(-kla). [NL.] In biol., same as *monocycle. 

monodactylate (mon-o-dak'ti-Iiit), a. [mono- 
dacti/l -t- -afcl.] Having, like a horse, a single 

It is, however, certain that there is a monodactylate 
representative of the family [Proterotheriidse], 

Encyc. Brit, XXX. 609. 

monodactyly (mon-o-dak'ti-li), n. [monodac- 
tyl + -j/3.] The state of having but one digit 
in the foot. The horse is a typical example of 
monodactyly, but the condition is also found 
in some of the Litopterna and, abnormally, in 
other animals. 

monodermic (mon-o-dfer'mik), n. [Gr. fidvoc, 
single, + dep/ia, skin.] Consisting of or per- 
taining to a single layer of cells; epithelial. 

monodiametral(mon"o-dJ-am'e-tral), a. [Gr. 
fi6vo^, single, -f (hauerpnc, diameter.] Having 
a single diameter : said of quartan curves. 

monodic^ (mo-nod'ik), a. [Gr. u6mc, single, 
-(- oiSdf, way.] In biol., along a single path: 
used by Giglio Tos in the phrase inonodic de- 
relopment to express his peculiar conception 
of biological ontogeny. See *polyodic^. 

monodiplopia (mon-o-di-pl6'pi-a), n. [NL., < 
Gr. fidvor, single, -t- im?.6o(, double^ -I- uip {ut^-), 
eye.] Double vision when an object is looked 
at with one eye. 

monodist, «. 2. One who writes or sings a 
monody. N. E. D. 

monodomons (mo-nod'o-mus), a. [Gr. udvoc, 
single, -I- Mfioc, house.] A term applied to a 
formicary consisting of but a single nest: op- 
posed to *polydomous. Forel. 

monodontal (mon-o-don'tal), a. [monodont 
+ -aU.] 1. Having a single tooth ; monodont; 
also, of the nature of a single tooth. 

They [the narwhals] were near me ; so near that I could 
see their checkered backs. . . . The horn, that mono- 
dontal process which gives them their name of sea-uni- 
com, was perfectly examinable. 
Kane, in U. S. Grinnell Exped. (First Exped., 1866), 

tp. 340. 

2. In elect., having one armature-tooth per 
pole for each phase : said of the windings of 
certain generators and motors. 

Low-voltage machines are usually provided with poly- 
odontal windings, these windings having several separate 
armature teeth per pole per phase, while the high- voltage 
machines are generally viimodontal. 

Encyc. Brit., XXXI. 889. 

monodramatist (mon-o-dram'a-tist), m. [mono- 

dramut(ic) + -ist.] A writer of monodramas. 

monodrome (mon 'o-drom), a. [Gr. fidmc, 

single, -1- Spifin^, a running, course, race.] 

Same as monodromic. 

On monodrowe functions and transcendental numbers. 

Nature, Feb. 11, 1904, p. 3!i9. 

monodromy (mo-nod'ro-mi), n. [monodrome 
+ -y'^.~\ In math. : (o) The characteristic prop- 
erty that, if the argument returns by any path 
to its original value, the function also returns 
to its original value. (6) The property that 
the curves described by a revolution or rota- 
tion through four right angles are closed. 

It is pointed out that in the non-Pythagorean geome- 
tries devised by Hill>ert, Helmholtz's axiom of inimod- 
romy is not verified, inasmuch as it is possible, by rota 
tion'through four right angles, to bring the point* of a 
line into positions which tlicy do not occupy before the 
rotation. It is pointed out further that, in the same 
geometries, it is possible to pass from one point to an- 
other of a straight line without passing through all 
intermediate points and without leaving the line. The 
application of the name "geometry" to systems which 
admit such possibilities is criticised. 

Nature, Feb. 19, 1903, p. 382. 



^°,^2^j;?"?[,^°''-.'''" *.'"-<"'J;i- Monodromy of monogenic (mon-o-jen'ik), a. [See monoqen- 
SDace. the chanicttTistic uroDertv that It I'oini'.idfis with n** ^ .-.^ • ** '^ ^ ™ ^ "^j^ " 

space, the chanictf ristic property that it coincides with 
itself (\rith its trace) after revolution through a perigou 
alK)Ut any axis. 

monody, n. 3. A poem in which grief for the 

death of the subject of the poem is expressed. 

In this Monody, the author bewails a leanied friend, 

unfortunately drowned . . . and by occasion foretells the 

ruin of our corrupted clergy, then in their height 

Milton, Lycidaa, argt 

monodynaioism (mon-o-di'na-mizm), «. [Gr. 
fwvo^, single, + diva/itc, power.] The theory 
that all natural phenomena are the manifesta- 
tions of a single principle, power, or force. 

The monotheistic tendency is visible in Greece, as 

elsewhere. . . . Side by side with this tentative and Monogenica(mon-o-jen'i-ka),n. See*Asporea. 

growing monotheism there is a bold and unhesitating monoffpnv « 3 The 'iintnl ■nrohnhilifv ' 

mono,tynami^n, the efforte of all the early thinkeil ," j;fti7?-'„i' ^„t"„f„ + -„ f tt P'^?°'^'';llt.y, 

being to reduce all the powers of nature to one principle. "^ Statistical expectation of offspring, based 

G. U. Lewes, History of Philosophy, I. 3. On the age of one parent only. 

monodynamous (mon-6-di'na-mus), a. [Gr. monoglyphic (mon-o-glif'ik), a. [Gr. ^i6vo^, 

/joraf, single, + 6vvafui, poWer, + -OMS.] In single, + j-At;?*)?. carving.] Having only one 

fto<.,havingonestamenlargerthanthe others, siphonoglyph, the sulcus, as certain polyps 

Oiw.] 1. Same aa »«o«0(/««0!W. — 2. In cAc/k , 
combining with an element in only one form ; 
forming only one compound with a mono- 
valent element. N. E. D. — 3. Same as )«o«o- 
gcnetic.—^. In petrog., noting a fragmental 
rock, conglomerate or breccia, whose frag- 
ments or parts are all of one kind of rock. — 
5. Having a univoeal derivative : the better 
and now accepted form for monogeneous, 2, and 
monogenous, 3.— Monogenic function, y=/x, one 
having the property that ^ tends, in general, to a unique 
finite limit 

monoeidic (mon-o-i'dik), a. [Gr. /iovoet6>/c, of 
one form.] Of one form or nature. N. E, D. 
What then shall we imagine to be the aspect of the 
supreme beauty itself, simple, pure, uncontaminated 
with the int«nnixture of human flesh and colours, and 
all other idle and unreal shapes attendant on mortality; 
the divine, the original, the supreme, the monoeidic 
beautiful itself? 
Shelley, Essays, Letters from Abroad, Trans, and Frag., 

[I. 124. 
mono-electronic (mon'o - e - lek - tron ' ik), a. 
[Gr. /iiiTOf, single, -1- E. electron + -ic] Con- 
taining a single electron: said of atoms which 
when dissociated break up into one negatively 

contrasted with *dighjpMc. 

A discussion of the variations in Metridium dianthus. 
In reference to the last topic, it may be noted tliat the 
author seeks to show; — (a) that regular hexamerous 
diglyphic polyps arise non-sexually as well as sexually ; 
(b) that monoglyphic forms arise sexually as well as non- 
sexually. Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc, Feb., 1903, p. 45. 

monogonium (mon-o-go'ni-um), n.; pi. monogo- 
nia (-a). [Gr. iidvo^, single, +)'(iTOf, generation.] 
The non-sexual sporulating stage of the 
malarial parasite as it occurs in man. Grassi. 
In the Atti della Fondazione Scientiflca Cagnola (vol. 
xviii.). Prof. Grassi gives an excellent sui-vey of our 
present knowledge of malaria. He describes fully its 

charged particle, and one much larger posi- epidemiology and prophylaxis, and the morphology and 
tively charged portion. development of the malana r,araj,ite. In the !»«.. 

monoestrous (mon-es' tms), a. [Gr. fidvo^, 
single, -t- olarpog, vehement impulse, + -o«s.] 
Having but one oestrum. See the extract. 

F. H. A. Marshall finds that in Scottish black-faced 
sheep the length of the sexual season varies with the 
locality, both in regard to the number of dicestrous cycles 

in a season and to the duration of each cycle. There is ™„„„_.„_, ^-olilnn 
a perfect gradation between the monoestrous condition of ™-0I10gram-inacnine, n. 
some wild sheep and the extreme polyoestrum of certain 
Jour. Boy. Micros, Soc. 

merinos. Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc, Aug., 1903, p. 484. 

Monogamelise (mon " o - ga - me ' li - e), n. pi. 
[NL., < Gr. /lovog, single, -t- ya/ii/'kioq, of mar- 
riage, < ydfio^, marriage.] In Lankester's 
classification, a family of Discomedusse in 
which the four subgenital pits are united into 
one continuous cavity : contrasted with Tetra- 

monogamelian (mou"o-ga-me'li-an), a. IMono- 
gameliie + -an.] Relating or pertaining to the 
Monogamelias ; having the four subgenital pits 
united into one continuous cavity. 

monoganglial (mon-o-gang'gli-al), a. [Gr. 
fiomc, single, + yayyliov, a tumor. See gang- 
lion.'] In pathoL, affecting only one gland; 
said of a bubo. 

monogastric, a. 2. Said of a muscle having 
but one part or belly. 

Digastric [muscle]. This, In spite of its name, is really 
a moiwgastric muscle in the Carnivora. 

development of the malaria parasite. In the^Iatter 
connection he introduces some new terms. The asexual 
parasites producing the febrile attacks are named "mono- 
gonia," the developmental forms in the mosquito "am- 
phigonia," while the recurrent attacks of fever which 
occur at long intervals after infection are regarded as 
being due to parthenogenetic parasites, which develop 
from the non-tlagellating (female) sexual cells, or game- 
tocytes. nature. Sept 24, 1903, p. 617. 

2. A sewing-machine 
having a universal feed-motion and present- 
ing the fabric to the needle in any direction, 
the feed being controlled by a pantograph. 
In practice, ten or more machines are placed in aline 
upon a bench, the power being under the control of the 
operator, who sits at the bencli at the rightof the battery 
of machines. Each machine is supplied with the same 
quality of thread and the fabric clamped in the feed may 
be the same in each machine, in which case the fin- 
ished work will be alike in all the machines. A panto- 
graph is placed on the bench before the operator and by 
means of suitable rods and joints is connected with the 
feed of each machine. The design to be stitched upon 
the fabric is placed on the bench under the pointer of 
the pantograph and the operator, by making the pointer 
trace the design, causes, through the pantograph, the 
feed in each machine to present the fabric to ita needle 
in the same order and all the machines to make an exact 
reproduction of the design in stitching. 

Monograptus (mou-o-grap'tus), n. [Gr. //livof, 
single, -f ypa-riq, written (see graptolite).] 
A genus of monoprionidian graptolites with 
straight or curved hydrosoma and the thecaa 
in contact: abundant in the Silurian. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London. monohydratO (^mon-6-hi'drat), M. [Gr. /«fvof, 
monogatari (mo-no-ga-ta're), ». [Jap., his- single, -(- i(5wp (wrfp-), water, -f--atel.] In chem., 
tory, story, narration.] In Japanese litera- 
ture, a story ; a narrative. 

If we judge Old Japan by its artistic and literary 
production, it is precisely in those works which are leixst 
Chinese that the greater value is to be found — the 
ancient poetry, the mediaival monogatari, some of the 
later romances, and the works of the ukiyo school of art. 
The histories are dreary compilations, of no merit and 
little authority ; the philosophies are platitudinarian 
logomachies founded on partially understood Chinese 
arguments ; and such science as Old Japan possessed is a 
mere echo of that of China. 

a substance containing one molecule of water 
in a combined state : as, the monohydrate of so- 
dium carbonate, Na2C03. H.2O, no w an article of 
commerce under the trade-name 'concentrated 
sal-soda.' Sometimes, though improperly, 'monohy- 
drate ' is applied to a substance which may be viewed as 
derived from and as containing the constituent elements 
of one molecule of water, though no longer united as in 
water ; thus, sulphuric acid, H2SO4, is S(3metimes called 
a 'monohydrate,' since it may be produced by the inter- 
action of one molecule each of sulphur trioxid and water, 
H2O + SO3 = H2SO4. 

Athenxum, May 6, 1905, p. 552. , , -,., , c^ 

monogen (mon'6-jen), n. [See monogenesis.-] monoic (mo-no ik), a. Same as moncecious. 
In chem., an element which combines in one monoiCOUS (mo-noi kus), a. Same as moim- 
proportion only. iV. E. D. cious. 

monogene (mou'o-jen), a. [Gr. /lovoyeyyr, pro- monoidal (mo-noi'dal), a. [monoid + -aU.] 
dueedonce: see'monogenous.'] Noting those In math., connected with a monoid, a hyper- 
voleanio outbreaks which consist of a single surface of nth order with an (« — 1) fold point, 
mass of lava, usually quite infusible and mono-ideistic (mon"o-i-do-is'tik), a. In psy- 
viscous, and which have been formed by one choL, pertaining to or characterized by mono- 
eruptive effort : a term suggested by Striibel. ideism. 
Geikie, Text-book of Geol., p. 322. 

monogeneity (mon-o-je-ne'i-ti), n. The 
character of being monogenous. 

monogenesis, n. (d) Origination or deriva- 
tion from a single species, or, in a restricted 
sense, from a single pair. Contrasted with inono-infection(mon"6-in-fek'shon), n. Infee- 
*polygenesis (which see). tion with but one variety of pathogenic 01- 

monogenetic, a. 4. Having the whole life- ganism. Buck, Med. Handbook, VHI. 500. 
history a single cycle, there being no alter- monolater (mo-nol'a-ter), n. [See monolatry.'] 
nation of generations, or, in parasitic forms, One who worships only one god. See monola- 
of ho.sts — Monogenetlc color. See -kcolor. try. 

The history of philosophy shows that the monoideistic 
thinkers. . . either stiffened in the mold by precociously 
formulating and defining their ideas ... or else were 
the victims of an environment or an age itself over- 
wrought, one-sided and extreme. 

G. S. Hall, Adolescence, II. 60. 


monolatrous (mo-nol'a-trus), a. [monolatriy) 
+ -ous.] Pertaining to or of the nature of 
monolatry; practising monolatry. 

Monolene (mo-nol'e-ne), n. [NL., < Gr. ^fooc, 
single, -f u/.tvri, arm (see ulna).'] A genus of 
flounders found on the Atlantic coast of the 
United States south to the West Indies. 

monolepsis (mon-o-lep'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fiovoc, one, only, '+ lijiptt;, a taking.] The- 
transmission to a cross-bred organism and to 
its descendants of the characteristics of only 
one parent, to the exclusion of those of the 
other: contrasted with *amphilepsis. Bate- 
son and Saunders, Rep. Evol. Com. Roy. Soc. 
1902, I. 155. 

monoleptic (mon-o-lep'tik), a. [monolepsis.] 
Pertaining to, by means of, or exhibiting- 
monolepsis. Bateson and Saunders, Rep. Evol. 
Com. Roy. Soc, 1902, I. 155. 

monoline (mon'o-lin), n. [Gr. /ifoof, single, 
+ E. line^.] A trade-name of a form of type- 
setting machine which produces a solid line 
of type, or type-bar. 

The Scndder monoline, a Canadian machine somewhat 
like the linotype, except that the matrices are located 
upon a disk. Census Bulletin 216, June 28, 1902, p. 6L 

monolithic, a. 4. Made of one mass of artifi- 
cial stone, as a concrete of broken stone, 
cement, and sand, without joints: used in. 
structures such as mills and houses, dams, 
retaining-walls, and bridge abutments and 
piers, floors, columns, and other similar con- 

The writer believes that a masonrj- or monolithic dam - 
would be highly objectionable, either at Panama or Nica- 
ragua, on account of the great damage that might be 
done to it in a few moments by an earthquake, and which 
might require several years to repair, and in the mean- 
time the canal would be closed. 

Sci. Amer. Sup., Jan. 31, 1903, p. 22648. 

monolog, n. A simplified spelling of mono- 

monolqgic (mon-o-loj'ik), a. [monolog{ue) + 
-ic] Pertaining to, or of the nature of, a- 

monological (mon-6-loj'i-kal), a. \movo~ 
log{ue) + -ic + -an.] Pertaining to or of the 
nature of monologue ; fond of monologue. 

There have been three famous talkers in Great Britain, 
either of whom would illustrate what I say about dogma- 
tists. . . . and Thomas, last of the Dynasty. . . . The- 
talking dynasty has always been hard upon us Ameri- 
cans. ... As for King Thomas, the last of the nwno- 
logical succession, he made such a piece of work with his 
prophecies and his sarcasms about our little trouble with 
some of the Southern States, that we came rather to pity 
him for his whims and crotchets than to get angry with- 
him for calling us bores and other unamiable names. 

O. W. Holmts, Poet at the Breakfast-table, x. 

monologize, v. i. Same as monologuiee. 

monologuist (mon'o-log-ist), n. Saine as mon- 

monoloph (mon'6-lof), n. [Gr. /i6voc, single, 
+ Mipoc, tuft.] In the hexaetinellid sponges, 
having one tuft or rope of elongate spicule* 
for the attachment of the sponge; also, in 
sponge-spicules derived from the caltrop, 
having one of the arms tufted. 

monolophous (mo-nol'o-fus), a. [Gr. /jovoc,- 
single, -)- ?.6(l>oc, crest, + -oiis.] In tetractinal 
sponge-spicules, having one ray forked or 
branched like a crest. Compare *dilophsus, 
*trilophous and *tetralophous. 

monomeniscous (mou"o-me-nis'kus), a. [Gr. 
fiovoc, single, -f- /o/viaKo^, a crescent (a lens).] 
Having but a single lens in the eye. 

The central eyes [of Linmlus] are "simple eyes," that, 
is to say, they have a single lens and are hence called 
monomeniscous. Encyc. Brit., XXV. 626. 

monomeric (mon-o-mer'ik), a. [Or. /idvoc, 
single, -I- fiepog, part, + -ic] 1. In zool., re- 
lating to or derived from a single metamere; 
consisting of only, one piece or segment. 
Baldwin, Diet, of Philos. and Psychol., II. 
p. 151. — 2. In petrog., a term applied by 
Stache and John (1879) to segregations in 
igneous rocks that are composed of a single 
kind of mineral. 

monomethyllc (mon"6-me-thirik), a. Imono- 
-h methyl -r- -ic] Containing one univalent 
methyl group, CH3, in the molecule : applied 
to organic compounds. 

monomodal (mon-o-mo'dal), a. [Gr. /j6vo(, 
single, + L. modii,i, mode, + -o?l.] Having- 
only one mode. See *mode, «., 11 (J). 

The author shows that a monomodal curve is not suffi- 
cient evidence that a population is homogeneous, but 
that a process of biological analysis niust^precede the 
general mathematical analysis, to attain satisfact<5ry 
results. Bot. Gazette, April, I'JOJ, p. 314. 


monomolecular (mon'o-mo-lek'u-lar), a. [Gr. 
/iOTOf, single, + NL. molecida, molecule, + 
-ar^.] Consisting of or involving a single 
molecule: in chem., of a substance, having its 
simplest molecular composition in contradis- 
tinction from polymeric derivatives formed 
by the union of two, three, or more of the 
simplest molecules. Thus, formic aldehyde 
(CH2O) may be spoken of as monomolecular, 
and metaformaldehyde (CsHgOs) as its tri- 
molecular derivative, 3CH2O. 

In the sj-nthesis of phenyltolylmethane from toluene 
and benzyl chloride in the presence of aluminium chlo- 
ride, the reaction is monomulecitlar, and is probably one 
between toluene and a compound of aluminium and 
benzyl chlorid ?8, and the same applies to the reaction in 
the presence of ferric chloride. 

Jour. Phys. Chem., Oct, 1904, p. 621. 

monomorphism (mon-o-m6r'fizm), n. [ino)io- 
morph(ic) + -i.btn.'] Tlie state or condition of 
the members of a race or species in which 
they form a single group with respect to the 
distribution among them of a given character- 

Among the aoles this uniformity or in&twnwrphigm no 
longer obtains. Amer. Sat., July, 1903, p. 601. 

mononeural (mon-o-nu'ral), a. [Gr. fj6vo(, 
single, + vcvfxxv, nerve, + -aA.] 1. Relating 
to one nerve, one source of nervous supply, 
or one neuromere. — 2, Mononeurous. 

mononeuritis (mon'o-nu-ri'tis), n. [NL., < 
(jr. //'Jvof, single, + veipov, ner\'e, + -itis.'\ 
Inflammation of a single ner^-e. 

mononeurous (mon-o-nii'rus), a. [Gr. /jdvoc, 
single, + ni'pov, nerve. See Mononeura.} 1. 
Having only a ganglionic nervous system ; 
belonging to the Afononeura. — 2. Mononeural. 

monont (mon'ont), n. [Gr. fiAvoc, single, + 
ui' (oir-), being.] A non-sexual cell which 
gives rise to others by the process of fission. 

mononuclear, o. II. n. A cell with a single 
nucleus; a uninuclear, as distinguished from 
a multinuclear, cell. 

It is important-, then, to not« the percentage of large 
iiu>twnucUar)i met with in the series of typhoid fever 
cases, (M> that they may be compared with that of the 
malarial series to be dealt with presently. 

Lancet, May 30, 1903, p. 1603. 

mononncleated (mon-o-nti'kle-a-ted), a. 
Imniw- + nucleus + -ate^ + -ecP.] Having 
but a single nucleus; uninucleated : said of 
certain cells. 

With predominance of the large mojumueleated cells 
filled with melanotic pigment 

Med. Record; Feb. 28, 1903, p. S36. 

mononychoUS (mo-non'ikus), a. [Gr. /wv6- 
vvx'K, also /iorunf, having a single claw or 
hoof, solidungulate (applied to the horse), < 
/i6voc, single, + im^, claw, nail, hoof.] Hav- 
ing an undivided claw. 

mononymy (mo-non'i-mi), n, l>nononym(ic) 
+ -1/3.] A mononymic system of nomencla- 

monopectinate (mon-o-p«k'ti-nat), a. [Gr. 
//oi'or, single, + L. pecten (pectin-), comb, + 
-<i(e'.] In gastropods, having one row of 
plates in the ctenidium or gill, as in the 
Utreptoneura. Compare bipecti'nate. 

monoped (mon'o-ped), a. and n. [mono- + L. 
pes (pe<l-), foot.] I. a. Having 1)ut one foot 
(orleg), a condition sometimes found in human 

11. n. A person, animal, or thing that has 
only one foot (or leg) ; specifically, a monster 
with only one foot (or leg). 

monopbagOUS (mo-nof'a-gus), a. [Gr. iiovo- 
9(i;or, < iinvnr, single, alone, + -^70f, < (fayclv, 
eat.] 1. Feeding on a single substance, or a 
single kind of food : opposed to heterophagous. 
— 2. Speci6eally, of sporozoans, passing the 
entire life-cycle in one host; permanently in- 
tracellular: eontra.sted with *polypliagous. 

monophagy (mo-nof'a-ji), ». [monophag{otis) 
+ -I/-*.] 1. The character or habit of being 
monophagous; the eating of only one kind of 
food.— 2. The act or habit of eating alone. 

monophase (mon'o-faz), a. [Gr. ii6\'oc, single, 
+ ridair, phase.] Having or exhibiting only a 
single phase; single-pliaso ; monophasic. See 
*«iH</fe-pAn.«c. — Monophase generator, an alttm 
Ingcurrciit generator which produces a single-phi 
^lonophasia (mon-o-fa'zia), n. [NL., < Gr. 
li6i/o(, single, + ijMoir, speaking.] 


A form of 


aphasia in which the patient can articulate but 
one word or, at most, one sentence. 

monophasic (mon'o-fa-zik), a. Imonophas^e) 
+ -ic] Monophase ; single-phase. 

monophone (mon'o-fon), ». [Gr. fiovoc, single, 
4- ouir^, voice.] Same as homophone. [Rare.] 

monophonous, a. 2. Same as homophonoiis. 

monophotal (mon'o-fo-tal), u. Of or pertain- 
ing to the monophote. 

monophrastic (mon-o-fras'tik), a. [Gr. fiSvoc, 
single, + -(jipaoTo^, K (fpd^ew, speak (rjipact^, 
a speaking), 4- -tc] 1. Consisting of a single 
word or phrase. — 2. Speaking or responding 
in a single word or* phrase, or with great 

Boys especially are often dumb-bound, monopbragtic, 
inarticulate, and semi-aphasic save in their own vigorous 
or inelegant way. G. S. Hail, Adolescence, II. 454. 

monophthalmic (mon-of-thal'mik), a. [See 
monnplithalmus.'] Having only one eye. 

Monophyes (mo-nof 'i-ez), »t. [NL., < Gr. 
fiovo6vrj^, of single nature, < /jSvoc, single, + 
fieadai, grow.] The typical genus of the fam- 
ily Monophyidse. Clans, 1874. 

Monophyidae (mon-o-fi'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
ilonophyes + -irfa?.] A family of ealyconectous 
siphonophorans, having a single nectophore at 
the apex of the long tubular stem, the cormidia 
eudoxiform, separated by equal free inter- 
nodes, and each siphon with a bract. It in- 
cludes, among other genera, Monophyes, Cymha, 
and Sphseronectes. 

monophyle8i8(mon''o-fi-le'sis), n. [Gt. /j6mc, 
single, + (pv'n), tribe.] Evolution in a single 
line of descent. See *polyj)hyl€sis. 

monophyllic (mon-o-fil'ik), a. [Gr. /xovoc, 
single, + 0i'/l/.ov, leaf, + -fc, ] Consisting of a 
single leaf or leaf-like division: used of the 
sutural divisions in the shells of the ammonoid 

monoplane (mon'6-plan), n. [Or. ii6vo^, single, 
+ E. plane.] A flying-machine or a gliding- 
machine which depends for sustention upon a 
single aeroplane (surface) or upon a single 
pair of aeroplanes laterally disposed. In a fly- 
ing-machine of this type, M. Louis Bleriot 
crossed the English Channel, July 25, 1909. 
See *aeroplane^, «., 2. 

Another aeroplane ... is the " monoplane " of M. Ro- 
bert Esnault Felterie. This, unlike most recent types, has 
only a single transverse supporting surface, which in one 
machine measured 9*«i metres from tip to tip with a super- 
ficial area of 18 s<{uare metres ; in a more recent machine 
these dimensions have been reduced to 8-6 metres and 10 
square metres respectively. Nature, Dec. 6, 1907, p. 10*i. 

monoplastid (mon-o-plas'tid), n. [monoplast 
+ -id-.] A one-celled animal organism. 

monoplegic (mon-o-ple'jik), a. [monopleg(ia) 
+ -tc] Kelating to or suffering from mono- 

Monopleura (mon-o-plo'ra\ n. [NL., < Gr. 
^uoi'or, single, 4- TrXevpdv, rib.] A genus of very 
inequi valve teleodesmaceous pelecypods, typi- 
cal of the family Monopleuritlsp, with a long, 
twisted, conical, attached right valve, a shal- 
low left valve, and strongly developed denti- 
tion. It is found in the cretaceous rocks. 

monopodium, «. 2. A form of table having 
only a central support, used by the ancient 

monoprostyle (mon-o-pro'stil), a. [mono- + 
prostyle.] In arWi., prostyle, with a single 
row of columns. See prostyle, with cut. 

monops (mon'ops), n. [Gr. /iovurp, one-eyed, < 
fi6vo(, single, + uip, eye.] A being ■witix but 
one eye. 

monopsia (mon-op'si-ji), n. [NL., < Gr. /i6vo^, 
single, + ii/'(f, visionj sight.] Same as cyclo- 

monopsychism (mon-o-sl'kizm), w. [Gr. 
fwmi:, single, + E. ps'ychism.] The theory 
that all souls (or the souls of all mankind) 
are one ; the unity of souls asserted by this 
theory. N. E. D. 

monopsychosis (mo-nop-si-ko'sis), «. [NL., < 
Gr. //uiof, single, + fyxi^iyiC, animation (taken 
as 'mental action')-] Same as monomania. 

monopterous (mo-nop'te-ms), a. [Gr. /jovo;, 
single, + -Tep6i; wing.] Having but one wing, 
as some seeds. 

monopylarlan (mon"9-pi-la'ri-an), a. Same 
as monopylean. 


monorail (mon'o-ral),)i. [mono- + rail'^.] A 
railway in which the cars run on a single rail. 

side elevation, suspended type; 


j1 , side elevation, suspended type; B. front " 
type: C, front view, suspended type. 

a. carrying-posts; i, single or monorail; c, supporting and 
guiding-wheels ; tt. frame from which cars are suspended ; e, car 
bodies; y, driving-wheels. 

This rail may be fixed to an overhead structure and the 
cars suspended from it or it may be laid on ties or chairs 
and the cars run over it In the latter case there are 
usually three rails, one to support the car, and two steady- 
ing or side-rails, but all placed on a single stand or chair 
in the center of the road-bed. 

In the Langen monorail the car is hung from a single 
overhead rail ; a line on this system is worked between 
Bantien and Elberfeld, a distance of about 9 miles, the 
cars for a part of the way being suspended over the river 
Wupper. Encyc. Brit., XXXII. 143. 

monorailroad (mon - 6 - ral ' rod), n. Same as 

monorailway (mon-o-ral'wa), n. [motiorail + 
tcay.] Same as ^monorail. 

A monoraihoay is employed at Clichy for completing 
the piling after the bags have been delivered upon the 
heaps by the inclined conveyors. These inonorailways 
are 1,000 feet or more in length, and are constructed aa. 
desired on the tops of the great piles of coke. 

Amer. Inventor, June 15, 1904, p. 267. 

monorchidlsm (mo-n6r'ki-dizm), n. Same as 

monorefringent (mon ' 6 - re - frin ' jent), a. 
[mono- + refringent.] Refracting light in 
the manner of an isotropic, singly refracting 
medium: opposed to Mrefringent. 

monorhinous (mon-o-ri'nus), a. [monorhine 
+ -ons.] Having a single nasal passage, as in 
the lampreys ; monorhinal ; monorhine. 

monosaccharide (mon-o-sak'a-rid),«. [mono- 
+ saccharide.] A carbohydrate the mole- 
cule of which is not divisible into simpler 
groups without loss of its essential character- 
istics. According to the number of carbon 
atoms, monosaccharides are divided into 
trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, etc. One 
of the best-known examples is the hexose dex- 
trose (glucose). 

monose (mon'os), n. [Gr. fiSvo^, single, + -ose.} 
Same as ^monosaccharide. 

monoseme (mon'o-sem), a. [Gr. ti6vo^, single, 
+ ar/uciov, a sign.] In anc. pros., having a 
single mora or unit of time. See monosemic. 

monoserial(mon-o-se 'ri-fil), a. [Gr. /j6voc, 
single, + L. series, series, 4- -aU.] Being in 
one series : used in zoology and comparative 
anatomy, generally for a series of organs, 
cells, teeth, or the like, that may be in two 
or more series in other forms. 

A transitional stage from the biserial archipterygium 

of the latter [Dipnoi] into tlie monoHerial of recent sharks. 

Encyc. Brit., XXIX. 398. 

monosiphonic (mon"o-si-fon'ik), a. [Gr. fi&m^, 
single, + (i<i/i(ji», siphon.] Monosiphonous ; in 
hydroids, having the tubes of the liydrocaulus 
distinct from one another: opposed to *poly- 

monosodic (moJ-6-s6'dik), rt. [Gt.ii6vo(, single, 
+ NL. sod-ium 4- -ic] In chem., containing 
one atom of sodium: said of a salt : as, mono- 
sodic orthophosphate (NaHgP04), a salt which 
occurs in normal human urine. 

Calcium oxalate, which was ordinarily held in solution 
by the -mnnosodic aciil phosphate. 

Med. Jtecord, Feb. 14, 1903, p. 277. 

monospermlc (mon-o-sp^r'mik), a. [Gr. //<iiof, 
single, + cncpfja, seed, + -ic] 1. Exliibiting 
or pertaining to monospermy. — 2. Same as 

monospermy 826 monte-acide 

monospermy (mon'6-sp6r-mi), n. [6r. fiovoc, "o"' established for horology, glass-work, brick-laying, pearance.1 A genus of dicotyledonous plants 
single, + aTfp/xa, seed, + -y3.] The entrance ->^Pe"try G. SWa«, Adolescence, I. 170. of the tumilj MtjHotnjpacea!. Hee .Schweinitzm. 

of but a single spermatozoon into the egg : the ^'»'.'>'„"f the American schools of engmeenng are monotropy (mo-not'ro-pi) « FGr uovoc only 

„«•.«„!„« i;« »5.«„* :~ i„ *!,« « 1 * - t practically mono(cc/i»HC institutes in contradistinction to ^^"",*^' 1- ..:• Vi"^' L"'/'^ ^' ^' 

normal and, m most animals, the only type Of the polytechnics here, and consequently better equipment + rpoiroc, turning.] Homogeneity upon or 
fertilization : opposed to *dispermy and poly- and stalling is observed in any one department. with reference to a system of parallel lines 

spcrmi/. Jour. Inst. Elect. Engin. (Loudon), Feb. 25, 1903-04, only. [Rare.] 

monos'porangium (mon"o-spo-ran'ji-um), n.; „„„„4.x,„i,„„„„ „ o tt • ^V-*^^- ITheJcompletest homogeneity is found to occur in only 

pi. monosporangia (-a). [NLi., < Gr. //fooc, mpnOinaiamOUS, a. a. ap.ving out one one direction in parallel lines extending through the mass, 
single + NL sporanqium ^ A sporangium chamber, as some i'brawiiHi/cro of the family This condition we may designate as nwjiotrw;^-!/. 
which' contains monospores. Lituolklje. ^. ^. /(ycier, Liol. Lectures, 1894, p. 38. 

monospore (mon'o-spor), n. [ar.jKiii'of, single, M.onotld8e(mo-not'i-de), H. pi. [NL., < Jlfo- Monotus (mo-no'tus;, n. [NL., < Gr. //(ii/urof, 
-t- OTTopd, seed (spore).] An asexual spore of '">'("«) + -"?*■] A family of digonoporous one-eared, < uovoc, single, + olg (wr-), ear.] 
the red algas, which remains undivided and is ™arine turbellarians, of the order lihabdo- The typical genus of the family Monotidse. 
thus distinguished from a tetraspore. cWMa, having a single otolith, pharynx pli- Jf. 7(ir«do is parasitic. Diesing, 1862. 

monosporiferousCmon^o-spo-rif 'e-rus), a. catus directed backward, and paired germaria monotype, «. 3. The trade-name of a machine 
ImoiKi.tiiore + L. /erre bear,"+ -o««.] Bear- and vitellaria. It contains the genera j1/o)io*m« which casts and sets in order single types, 
ing monospores :'said of algffi. nnd J ii to niolos. monotypous (mon-o-ti'pus), a. Same as raono- 

monostele (mon'6-stel), n. [Gr. //draf, single, Monotis (mo-no'tis), «. [NL. , < Gr. /ifouroc, i'/pic.l. 

+ arif/.Ti, pillar.] ' In hot., a single undivided ope-eared (one-handled), < povof, single, + oif monoureid (mon-o-u're-id), n. [mono- + urea 

stele. See *steleS, 2, and compare *pohjstele. ("''-)' *'''■■■] ■*■ genus of prionodesmaceous + -"/■] In organic chem., the class-name ap- 

Arrangement in strands : the central cylinder or Peled/poda, of the family Pteriidie, comprising plied to com,^unds c-ontaining the bivalent 

moiwstele. Encyc. Brit, X.X.V. in. nearly equivalve, radially striate shells from radical -CONHC0NHC0-. They are to be 

monostelic (mon-6-8te'lik), o. [j«o«ostete + t'^« T"assic rocks. , ,,. , regarded as urea (carbamide) in which two 

-ic] In bat., havinga monostele. Also mono- Monotocardia (mon "o-to-kiir'di-a), v. pi. hydrogen atoms are replaced by the bivalent 
stelous [i>IL..< dr. //owjror,one-eared,+ (tapA'a, heart.] radical of a dibasic acid. 

Side by side with monoetelic types which furnish a f^ S[°"P,°/ gasteropodous mollusks m which monovariance (mon-o-va'ri-ans^ n See*Mm-- 
most interesting sequence. Encyc. Brit., XXV. ii5. the heart has only one auricle, the true breath- vannnce. Physical Sev., Dec, 1904, p. 4o8. 

monostelous (mon - 6 - ste ' lus), a. Same as i^g organ is single, and there is a sirigle kid- monovanant (mon-o^^^^^^ [Gr^di-of, 

*mo)\ostelic ' ^- It iidiides the great majority of the single, + E. ranani.] la phys. chevi.,ha\m^ 

monostelv Vmon-o-ste'lil n TmonosteU + ™*"'5« univalves, all of the fresh-water and but one degree of freedom.- Monovarlant sys- 

^^rwrthe^eo^iiLioV^ b^r/to^:. }^rtr::r^?tJhVioLt^..*^^ '''''-'''- ^.^''^t:;^-^^,, „. [g. ,..o, 
^r^S^s^-^T-^^^i;;:!;^;^^?^^ "[asr^-r^is^lj^^^^i^ ^4<^^i'^m^^^^^.z- 

LUr. fiovo^ single, + ih stereoscope.] An j^ Monotocardia ■ having a single auricle I'^le. L. O. Howard, in Science, Dec. 21, 

apparatus for projecting two pictures upon a •„ the heart „Tthe°«r^^^^^^ 1906, p. 817. 

screen so as to appear as one, with stereo- ,7 „ ? V ^S' ^"^ JMonoJocarrtjac condition. '/, >. , ,, ^.. ,- . 

scopic or solid eff^ci The two pictures are ^^P' ^"'- ^-'» ^^— -«* «/ Sc, 1902, p. m^onoxala^ejmon-o^k^sa-lat^^^^ ^„,o„o-^ + 

//6rof, single, -+- OTi^oc, row, + odoi'f (odow-) i- J habit of frequenting a host of but one species : 

eeth'in ea"chirw ' ^^"^ °^^ °"' """ n.'«. Having the characters of or belong- applied by De Bary to certain fungf See 

teetn in eacn jaw. ing to the family il/o,!o<o»«V?a;. *rf»j<ni^ and •/lo/i/^raj/. 

Among the fresh- water leeches (Natantia), which have monotone « 5 A sinele or uniform tint or Monozoa, n. pi. 2. A grade of Cestoidea in 

an eyeless ring between the third and fourth pairs of eyes, '"""""""o, "• ". Ji oingie oj umiurm uni or „.i,- i, ji,' „„;t.,„, „„„ -P , . . '" 

only the vionostichodnnt forms (.-.(■., those with a single color. [Rare.] « '"ch the animal consists of a single segment 

row of teeth In each jaw) are Important monotoned (mon'o-tond), p. a. [^monotone, contaimng a single set of reproductive organs: 

Buck, Med. Handbook, IV. 701. 5] Having a single or uniform tone or tint, contrasted with *Merozoa. Same as *Ccsto- 

Monostomatidffi (mon"o-sto-mat'i-de), n. pi. The mowtoned wastes of the great Gold Desert. darndfe. Lang 

[NL.] Same a.s Monustomidse. ie. BoMrewood, Miner's Right, xxxvl. monOZOlC, a. 2. In Coceidiidea, producing 

monostome (mon'o-stom), ». [NL. i/oBO- monotonia (mon-o-to'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. only one falciform body: as, a mo«o?o!c spore. 

stomtim.'] A trematoid of the genus Mono- /lovoroiia: see monotony.'] Sameas»io«oto«y, 1. Contrasted with *(7i><mc and so on to *po?yroic, 

stomtim, or Monostomulitm. monotonic, «. 3. Homogeneous ; in marine 3-— 3. In cestodes, havingonlyone set of gen- 

The other case was that of an elderly woman from zoology an aggregation of organisms is said to erative organs, as in the unsegmented Arclii- 

whose eye eight so-called monostomet were removed jje monotonic if some one species eenus or ff^'^*- Contrasted with *polyzoic, or segmented 

from the lens substance. The descriptions do not enable i?„„;i,. 4? ™., ^ 4.1 i H- j iu i\ 1 forms like Tff>»?/7 

one to determine the species or to assert the identity of ^^mily forms more than one half of the total t^t"™^ "„£,,*'"''• ^^^ * . „, „ 

the forms. /iwrf, Med. Handbook, VII. 866. volume.— Monotonic plankton. See •jiiaiiMon. JYlonioe snaiBS. see ".s^afe-i. 

Eye monostome, Monostomulum lentis, a small imma- monotonize (mo-not'o-niz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. MonrOBlsm (mon-ro izm), n Same as Monroe 

ture trematoid said to be parasitic in the eye of man. monotonized, ppr. monotonizing. To reduce -J"*'''"'"*. v^""^n see, under docrn/ie). 

monostomous (mo-nos'to-mus), a. Same as to one tone or type ; render monotonous. Monroeist (mon-ro'ist), n. [ilonroe(igm) + 

monostomatous. Monotonous throuKhbnt an Interval, in 7na(A., said -'•'''0 One who supports the Monroe doctrine 

monostratified (mon-o-strat'i-fid), p. a. [Gr. "I " function which never increases or never diminishes (which see, under doctrine), 
udmc sinfflp -I- E ^trati^edl In hinl ar- thiougliout the interval. ,,,„.. Mens pubis. Same as mons Venerin, but designating 

^^d^n^':' stngfe ^^"^rsL^!'^ -"fa^or 'contitaf de^et- % ^hant ^Xl^^^^T^JtZ^^ ^ Vad^S^wS 

Cibook.iT?a ^^•''^'''^"- ^"^'' '""'■ i;;r^--t-'"-^^------^"-<^---MZsr'AnT.r:;^^ 

monostrpmatic (mon'o-stro-mat'ik), a [Gr monotrichic (mon-o-trik'ik), a. [Gr. /.<S.of, ^°.^,S°°'^ current, forest. See *c«rrentl, 

uovoi, single, + crpuMr-),i^yeT, + -IC-] ^j [ + gplf (w-), hair.] In fcacteno?: J;!^'/*'- . .u • ,. , ,^ , 

Having only one layer of cells: said of the i,„,!;. ' „ „;„„i„^„„ifl' ii.,J „„*!.„ „„ii„- Mont. An abbreviation of J/on<nna. 

frond or ti.ssue of an alga which is but one the "e^ius AttL»rf/^ ' Montalban (mon-tal'ban), a. and n. [NL. 

layer of cells in thickness. «,«„^+,.,- „!,„„„ /,,,;;„„(.'„; i„,„\ „ r < ■ Mont(es) alb(i), 'White Mountains,' -f- -an.l 

moLsulphonic (mon"o-sul-fon:ik), a. imono- ^,??,?T^°^V streVs ^JoU^^^^^^^ !• «; ^^ ^f.; noting a division of the Pre^- 

+ «»7;;*o«tc.] In cAm., containing one com- ^^^^jj^ (j^^^ . Cambrian strata : named from the White 

binmgunit of the compound radical HSO3: triglyph + -ic.1 Said of the Doric order when Mountains of New Hampshire. 

«aid of an acid : as, henzeue monosulphomc there is but one triglyph over the iutercolum- ,}}• ,"; T^f Montalban division, 

acid (C^Hs.HSOs), in which HSO3 replaces niatiou o iu..c.»,v7i.iiLi [Obsolete m both uses.] 

one atom of hydrogen in benzene (CgHe). monotrnrha « 3 XI c A In cluptonndoiw ^°°*^°* f°'^™***°°- See i'formatioji. 

Monosyllabic family of languages. See "^"""ts^f.^f j J;,^^^^^^^^ 

*famil!/. circle of cilia '"■e<(«, a lormer genus name of these plants, 

monosyllabize (mon-o-sil'a-biz), v. t- pret. monotropaceOUS(mon"6-tr6-pa'shius),a. Be- f,1«?fiw Fren^h^^^nl*^'' H^t''"'*?' ^i'^'^'a 

and pp.monosyliabized ppr. monosyllalnzmg longing to the v^^nt UmiW Monotropace^. l,lf^J:^^Z'^^^'^}'f''^'^\T^^r-^ ^ 

lmonosynab{le)+ -ize.:\ To render monosyl- monWopllic (mon-6-trof'lk), «. ^r. /.d.of, tTe L^X'^ IX"^"'^ "''''i'^P-fi^*^,"^ 

labic. N.L.D. single, ^^W, nourishment, -f -ic] Capable *^® ^^'S.'ly -f'""'"^^*- now merged with the 

monosymptomatic (mon-9-simp-to-mat'ik), a. of carrying on but one series of fermentations f^L ' f JS""" *T '^''"f' ^'"? ^°°^■" '" 

[;«0H0- -I- *-y„y,<o,Hr,ao.] In merf., having a or decompositions. gardens (where they are treated after the 

single distinct or dominant symptom. The nitrifying, nitrogen-fixing, sulphur- and iron-bac T'^ZL'^!, Si ,^^ "? Tntonia lottm and 

Neurasthenia is a disease in which headache in some teria he [Fischer] regards as ««)7.o(roj)/,fe J- Cloco.smspflorn. the latter a hybrid of T. 

cases may be almost a mono/(j/mp(OTno(ic sign. Encyc. Brit., XXV J. ii. I Ottsil and troCOSmia aiirca. The plants are 

F. S. Pearcc, in Therapeutic Gazette, Jan., 1903, p. 9. mouotropism (mo-not'ro-piztn), n. [mono- South African. They produce a blaze of red 

monotechnic (mon-o-tek'nik), a. [Gr. /xovog, tropiy) -I- -ism.] ' The state or condition of or orange flowers in summer, 

single, 4- Ttxvri, art.] Pertaining to or con- monotropy. monte-acide (mon-ta-sod'), n. [F., < monter, 

cerned with a single form of skilled labor: Tliis deve'lopment of monotroinm cannot take place l''^ ^ ('"'{c, acid.] An arrangement in use 

relating to a single branch of technology ; except through the sorting and grouping of specialized in sulphuric-acid works for raising the acid 

opposed to 7>oZi/tecftN(C. molecules. J. >4. yii/dfr, Biol. Lectures, 1894, p. 39. from a lower to a higher level by means of 

Thousands of our youth of late have been diverted Mouotropsis (mon - o - trop ' sis), n. [NL. compressed air, thus avoiding contact of acid 

from secondary schools to the )nono(ec/inic or trade classes (Schweinitz, 1817), < Monotropa + Gr. oi/i/f , ap- with the metal-work or valves of pumps. 


Montebello sandstone. See *sandstone. 

month, «.— The R months. See *ri. 

Montia (mon'ti-ii), M. [NL. (Linn.), named 
after Joseph Moiiti, a professor of botany.] A 
genus which comprises several species (about 
20) of small herbs of the family Portulacacese, 
some of which are often referred to Claytonia. 
The species are American. The winter purslane (.1/. per- 
foliata) is sometimes grown as a pot-hert), and it also runs 
wild in waste places. It is a tufted herb with edible, 
radical leaves, and a scape bearing a cluster of small 
white flowtrs, and beneath the flowers a leaf-like cup : 
native t^) the western side of the continent. 

Montian (mon'ti-an), a. and n. In geol., 
noting a substage of the Cretaceous system 
in France and Germany which lies at the top 
of the series above the Maestrichtian and con- 
stitutes the upper division of the Danian stage. 

monticolous (mon-tik' o-lus), a. Same as 

monticule, "• 2. In the tabulate corals of the 
family Chietetidie, a group of autopores which 
form a slightly elevated cluster on the surface 
of the corallura. — 3. Same as vioiiticulus. 

monticnlose (mon-tik'u-16s), a. [See montic- 
ulniis and -o,««.] Covered with small emi- 
nences ; montieulate. Dana. 

monton, «. 2. In mining, a heap or pile of ore. 

Montrose shales. See *shah^. 

montroydite (mon-troid'it), n. [Named from 
ilontroyd Sharpe, one of the owners of the 
Terlingua mercury mines.] Merctiric oxid, 
HgO, occurring in orange-red orthorhombic 
crystals: found at Terlingua, Texas. 

monument, ». 9. A conspicuous crag of a 
somewhat pillar-like and symmetrical form. 
[Western U. S.] 

monumentalism (mon-fl-men'tal-izm), »!. 
[monumental + -ism.'] THe state or character 
of being monumental. 

The plain lessons of the Crimean War were unheeded 
and monuin^ntaligm became the ideal of the coast de- 
fences, although the performance of the little Telegraph 
Battery at .Sebastopol, confirming much previous experi- 
ence, should have amply sufBced to moderate the ambi- 
tions of military engineers, Eneyc. Jtrii., XXVIII. 451. 

monumentalize (mon-u-men'tal-iz), r. (. ; pret. 
and pp. monumeutaUzed^yT. monumentalizing, 
[monumental + -ize.'\ To record or commem- 
orate by a monument; record permanently; 
render monutnental in character. 

monzonite (mon'zo-nit), n. [F. momonite 
(De Lapparent, 1864), < Monzoni, near Pre- 
dazzo in Tyrol, + -ite^.] In petrog., a 
phaneric igneous rock intermediate in com- 
position between syenite and diorite, that is, 
composed of alkali feldspar, usually ortho- 
clase. and lime-soda feldspar, andesin or lab- 
radorite, in equal or nearly equal proportions, 
with subordinate amounts of hornblende, py- 
roxene, or mica, rarely olivin, and minor 
constituents. There may be a variable amount 
of quartz: when it is present in consider- 
able amount the rock is quartz-monzonite 
or granodiorite. 

monzonitic (mon-zo-nit'ik), a. [monzonite + 
-ic] In petrog., having the composition of 

monzonose (mon'zo-nos), n. [momonite + 
-ose.] In petrog., in the quantitative system 
of classification of igneous rocks (see *rock^), 
the name of sodipotassio rocks belonging to 
the domalka lie rang of the perfelio order of the 

mooch (moch), V. i. See motith. 

moocher (mo'chtr), n. [See mouchcr.'i A 
moucher. See the extracts. 

" Why, I remember jes lots o' things. I 's been a crook, 
I 's been a mm>fher, an" now I 's shatln* on me uppers. 
Why, what I 's seen would keep them blokes up there In 
Cooper Union readin' all winter, I guess." 

J. Fiynt, in Cent Mag., March, 18M, p. 706. 

In police parlance as a * moocher,' or a man who hung 

around salfxms and drank and ate only when some one 

treated. Kaunas City Daily Timet, Feb, 16, 1904. 

moodirieh, n. See *mudirieh. 

moogadee (mS' ga-de), n. [Western Amer. 
Indian.] A name applied by the Fort Hall 
Indians of Idaho to Catostomua pocatello, a 
sucker of the Snake Kiver basin. Jordan and 
Evermann, Amer. Food and Game Fishes, p. 53. 

moolvi (mol've), n. Same as *mauln. 

mOOn^,)', 1. fpon the moon's surface the force of 
gravity is only one sixth of gravity upon the earth, a fact of 
great importance in relation Ut the moon's surface-phe- 
nomena, and probably connected with the almost com- 
plete, if not absolute, absence of a lunar atmosphere. 
Some recent observers report appearances which they 
attribute to gases and water vapor rising at various [Kiints 
on the moon's surface through f umaroles and fissures, and 
condensing daring the lunar night into white patches of 


snow or frost, which disappear after the sun rises. If this 
is correct it would indicate a possible feeble survival of the 
moon's former volcanic activity. The recent investiga- 
tions of Very apparently prove that the temperature of 
the moon's surface at points where the sun is nearly over- 
head rises above that of boiling water, as was long ago 
maintained by Lord Rosse. When the sun's rays are 
withdrawn it probably falls nearly to the absolute zero 
(—273°C.,— 460°*".), so low that most gases would beliquefled 
or frozen. Photography has of late done much to im- 
prove our maps of the moon's surface. In the study of 
delicate details, however, the best photographs cannot 
rival visual observations made with powerful telescopes. 
4. {d) A kind of knife used in shaving skins ; a moon- 
knife. See itmooning. 
7. Moonlight. 
In the moon athwart the place of tombs. 

Tennymn, Passing of Arthur, I, 214, 

Horizontal moon, the moon as viewed when rising or 
setting. Its diameter at such times appears much greater 
than at considerable altitudes, whence the expression, 
once f<amiliar, now obsolete, *' the illusion of the horizontal 
moon." — Himters' moon, in astrmi., the full moon next 
after the harvest-7itoon (which see). — Local transit Of 
the moon. See *( ra n«i(. — Lower transit of the moon. 

See *trnnitit.— Station Of the moon. See ■kelnlion.— 

Tidal theory of the moon's origin. See *tidal evolu- 
tion. — To shoot the moon, to remove secretly with one's 
belongings in the night in order to escape payment of 
rent, or distraint. [Slang.] — Wet moon, a new moon, 
one horn of whose crescent is much lower tlian the other, 
like a bowl tipped up on edge and unable to hold water. 
The wet moon is a popular (liut fallacious) sign of coming 
wet weather. 

moon', V. t. 3. In opposum-hunting, to locate 
(the hiding-place of the animal) by bringing 
the tree in which it is supposed to lurk into 
clear "view between one's self and the moon. 
[Australia.] — 4. To shave (skins) with a moon 
or raoon-knife. See *viooning, 1. 

moonack, n. 2. A mythical animal much 
feared by the negroes of the Southern States. 

moon-blindness (mon'blind'nes), n. 1. Same 
as moon-blink. 

Hemeralopia is called moon-blindness by sailors, and is 
attributed by them to a morbific influence emanating from 
that planet, especially atfecting such persons as commit 
the imprudence of sleeping on deck. 

Buck, Med. Handbook, IV, 627. 

2. An eye-disease of the horse, scientifically 
known as periodic ophthalmia, the cause of 
which is unknown. One attack is followed at 
regular intervals by others which finally pro- 
duce total blindness in one or both eyes. 

moon-dog (mon'dog), n. A luminous spot in 
the sky due to the refraction and reflection of 
the moon's rays by minute ice-crystals float- 
ing in the air. See paraselene and sun-dog. 

mooneyed, a. 4. Having feathers marked 
towards the ends with rounded or oval spots, 
as in the spangled Hamburg breeds of fowls. 

The feather markings of the penciled varieties differ 
greatly from those of the spangled ; the latter being com- 
monly called " moon-eyed " from the round or oval 
appearance of the spangles, while the markings of the 
penciled varieties are in parallel bars of reddish-bay or 
black, or clear silvery- white and black, as the case may^be. 
Yearbook U. S. Dept. Ayr., 1896, p. 467. 

moonfish, w. (/) The opah, Lampris guttatxis. (y) 

Same a.s ittnnriposa, 2. 

moon-guitar (mon'gi-tar'), n. Same as *yu- 

mooning (mo'ning), n. [moonl, t'., + -tnjl.] 

1. In leathcr-manuf., the shaving of skins 
with a 'moon' or moon-knife. 

The kid skins are shaved either by " mooniny." . , , 
"Mooning" is performed with a round steel, shaped like 
a plate, and having the center cut out, and a handle 
placed across the opening. 

Sci. Amer. Sup., Jan. 24, 1903, p. 22629. 

2. The act of going about as if moonstruck. 
moonlet(raon'let),?i. [moon^ + -let.^ A little 

moon: applied to the small bodies of which 
the rings of Saturn are composed. 

The rings of Saturn appear to be continuous masses 
separated by circular rifts. This Is the phenomenon 
which is observed through a telescope. By no known 
means can we ever approach or handle the rings : yet 
everybtxly who understands tne evidence now believes 
that they are not what they appear to be, but consist of 
minute jnoonlels, closely packed, indeed, but separate the 
one from the other. 

A. W. Itucker, in Smithsonian Rep., 1901, p. 175. 

moonsif, n. Same as *munsi/. 

moor'," — Hoor rock. See*rocJrl. 

moor'"', i". ' To moor across (navt.), to drop the 

anchors on either side of a stream.^ To moor along 
(naiil.). to come to anchor in a river with a hawser lead- 
ing to the shore for the purpose of steadying the vessel. 

moored (mord), a. In mining, obstructed with 
rubbish or mud ; silted up. Barrowman, Glos- 
sary. [Scotch.] 

mooring-buoy (mor'ing-boi), «. A can-buoy 
which has a largo swivel on its top, to which 
vessels make fast their cables instead of riding 
at anchor. 

moor-burn (mor'bfem), n. The burning of 
the heather on a moor, which is unlawful 


between April 11 and Nov. 1. N. E. D. 

moor-burner (moi"'b&r''ner), «. One who sets 
fire to heather on a moor. See *moor-burn. 

moorlng-kit (mor'ing-kit), h. In marine hard- 
ware, a wooden keg with an air-tight cover,) 
used to support a mooring-chain. it has gal- 
vanized iron rings at top and bottom, joined together by 
an iron rod. The lower ring supports the chain and the 
upper ring is used as a holdfast for a boat's mooring- rope or 
-chain. It is usually painted in some distinctive color or 

mooring-mat (mor'ing-mat), n. Naut., a flat 
mat made of thrums like a door-mat. It is 
bound around a mooring hawser to prevent 
chafing at a certain part or point. 

mooring-staple (mor'ing-sta'pl), n. A large 
staple-shaped forging fastened on the side of 
a war-ship, to which chain-cable may be 
shackled to hold the vessel when moored along- 
side a wharf. 

moor-myrtle (mor'm&r'tl), n. See *mijrtle. 

mooruk (mor'uk), n. [Native name : from the 
sound of its cry f ] A species of cassowary, 
Casuarius bennetti, peculiar to the island of 
New Britain. 

moose, w. The Alaskan moose has been described as a 
new species, Alces giyas, distinguished by its larger teeth 
and antlers, and by other characteristics. 

moose-berry (m6s'ber''''i), n. Same as *moose- 

moose-bush (mos'bush), n. The hobble-bush 
or American wayfaring-tree, Viburnum alni- 

moose-hoim (m6s'h6m), n. Same as moose- 
call. Jour. Amer. Folk-lore, Oct.-Dec, 1902, 
p. 249. 

moosemise (mos'mis), n. [From an eastern 
Algonkian form answering to the (western) 
Ojibwa monzomish (applied to the hobble-bush. 
Viburnum alnifolium); (.monz, moose, + -mish, 
bush.] The false wintergreen, I'yrola rotim- 
di folia. See Indian *mozemize. [Vermont.] 
Jour. Amer. Folk-lore, Oct.-Dec, 1902, p. 249. 

moose-tnimpet (mos'trum*pet), n. Same as 
moose-call. Jour. Amer. Folk-lore, Oct.-Dec, 
1902, p. 249. 

moot* (mot), «. In ship-building: (a) A ring 
used to gage the diameter of treenails, (b) A 
piece of hard wood bound with iron at both 
ends, used in making blocks. 

mooted (mo'ted), p. a. [moot^, v., + -ed'^.'] 
Unsettled ; disputed ; argued ; subject to dif- 
ferent opinions ; moot. 

mope-hawk (mop'hak), «. Same as more-pork, 
a large Australian night-jar of the genus Po- 
dargus. The name is probably given under 
the mistaken impression that it was the origi- 
nal and proper form. 

moph (mof), «. [A perverted abbreviation of 
hermaphrodite, the instrument being properly 
named hermaphrodite calipers.'] An instru- 
ment consisting of a pair of compasses, one leg 
of which is fashioned like the leg of a pair of 
calipers. 2f. E. D. 

mopoke (mo'pok), n. Same as more-pork. 

Mor. An abbreviation of Morocco. 

mora^, «.— Oluoco della mora, a game played in Italy 
by two players matching the fingers of the I'ight hands, 
the left being held behind the back. A similar game was 
common in ancient Greece in which the left hands were 
confined by holding a stick. 

mora* (mo'ra), n.; pi. morse (-re). [NL., < 
Gr. iiipa, a part; connected with finipa, a part : 
see *M<erse.] In Gr.atitiq., one of the sixmain 
divisions of the army of Sparta, commanded 
by a polemarch. 

Moraceae (mo-ra'se-e), n. pi. [NL. (Lindley, 
1847), < Moriis + -aceie.'] A family of dicoty- 
ledonous archichlamydeous (apetalous) plants 
of the order Vrticales, the mulberry family, 
typified by the genus Morus, and characterized 
by unisexual flowers, the starainate usually in 
panicles or spikes, and the pistillate in heads, 
a superior ovary, solitary, pendulous, anatro- 
pous ovules, one or two styles, and as many 
seeds. There are 67 genera and about 925 
species, mostly trees and shrubs of temperate 
and tropical regions. Besides the mulberries 
the family includes the breadfruits, the figs, 
the Osage orange, the hop, and the hemp. 

moraceous (mo-ra'shius), a. Belonging to the 
Moracae or mulberry family. 

moradin (mo-ra'din), n. [NL. morada (see 
def.) + -«n2.] A colorless crystalline com- 
pound, C]gHi40(5, contained in the bark of 
false cinchona, cascarilla, or china morada, 


Pogonopus fehrifugus. It has a blue fluor- 
escence and melts at 201-202° C. 
moral (mo-ra'f), n. [Also marae, morae, in 
many Polynesian dialects.] A sort of ele- 
vated stone platfonn or terrace, often of 
considerable size, found on elevated sites in 
certain of the PoljTiesian Islands. 

The principal object of ambition anion^ these people 
[' Otaheite '] is to Imve a magnificent Morai, and this was 
a striking memorial of the rank and power of Oberea. 

Hawkesworthf Voyages into Southern Hemisphere, 1786, 

[II. 443. 
mOraillB, 'I — Bottom moraine, a ground moraine; 
subglacial drift and boulder-ehiy. — Frontal moraine, 
a moraine found at the fl\>nt of a glacier. — Intorlobate 
moraine, a eonipoun<l nu>nune formed between adjacent 
glacial lobes. — Intermediate moraine, a special name, 
suggested by T. 0. t'hanilierlin, for those portions of the 
terminal mortiine of the continental ice-sheet which 
were deposited where two lobes coalesced. Also inter- 
lobate moraine. liep. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1881-82, p. 301. 
— Kame moraine, a moraine f oi-med of roughly strati- 
fled glacial debris and having a knob and basin topog- 

In its relations to other phases of drift, therefore, as 
well as in the particulai-s already specified, the kame belt 
stands in the position of a moraine. For it, and f